Skip to main content

Full text of "The Apocalypse revealed, wherein are disclosed the Arcana there foretold, which have heretofore remained concealed"

See other formats


THE 

Gf, 

APOCALYPSE KEYEALED, 



WHEREIN ARE DISCLOSED 



THB 



ARCANA THERE FORETOLD, 



W1IICU HAVK 



HERETOFORE REMAINED CONCEALED. 



, Translated from tJie Latin of^ 

BMANUEL SWEDENBORG, 

Servant of the Lord Jesus Christ 



IH TWO VOLUMES. 

VOL. I. 

A NEW EDITION REVISED AND CORRECTED, 



W YOEK: 
AMERICAN SWEDEXBORG PRINTING AND PUBLISHING SOCIETT, 

1833- g* 










Published by THE AMERICAN SWEDENBOKG PRINTING AND PUBLISHINS 

SOCIETY, organized for the purpose of Stereotyping, Printing, and 
Publishing Uniform Editions of the Theological Writings O/EMANUEL 
SwEDEXBOH</ and incorporated in the State of New York A. i>. 1850. 



THE 



APOCALYPSE REVEALED, 



WHEREIN ARE DISCLOSED 



ARCANA THERE FORETOLD, 



WHICH HAVE 



HITHERTO REMAINED CONCEALED. 



THE AUTHOR S PREFACE. 

NOT a few have laboured at the explication of the Apoca- 
typse, but as they were unacquainted with the spiritual sense 
Df the Word, they could not discern the arcana which it con 
tains, seeing that these can only be unfolded by the spiritual 
sense : expositors have therefore formed various conjectures 
respecting it, in many instances applying its contents to the 
affairs of empires, and blending them, at the same time, with 
ecclesiastical matters. The Apocalypse, however, like the rest 
of the Word, treats not, in its spiritual sense, of mundane 
things, but of such as are heavenly, thus not of empires and 
kingdoms, but of heaven and the church. 

It is to be observed that, after the last judgment, which 
was accomplished in the spiritual world, in the year 175T, 
and which forms the subject of a small treatise published in 
London in 1758, a new heaven was formed from among Chris 
tians, from those only, however, who admitted the Lord to be 
the God of heaven and earth, according to his own words in 
Matthew xxviii. 18 ; and likewise repented in the world of 
their evil works : from this heaven the New Church on earth, 
which is the New Jerusalem, descends, and will continue tc 
5 



PREFACE. 

descend. That this Church will acknowledge the Lord 
is evident from these words in the Apocalypse : " There came 
nnto me one of the seven angels, and talked with me, saying, 
Come hither, I will show thee the bride, the Lamb s wife ; 
and he showed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, de 
scending out of heaven from God." And in another place : 
Let us be glad and rejoice, for the time of the marriage 
of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready ; 
blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper 
of the Lamb," chap. xix. 7, 9. That there will be a new 
heaven, and that the New Church will descend thence upon 
earth, is evident from the following words, in the same book: 
" 1 saw a new heaven and a new earth : and I saw the holy 
city, New Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, 
prepared as a bride adorned for her husband ; and he that sat 
upon the throne said, Behold, I make all things new ; and he 
said unto me, Write, for these words are true and faithful," 
chap. xxi. 1, 2, 5 ; the new heaven means a new heaven from 
among Christians ; the New Jerusalem means a new church 
upon earth, which will make one with that new heaven ; the 
Lamb means the Lord as to the Divine Humanity. 

To this something shall be added by way of illustration. 
The Christian heaven is below the ancient heavens ; into this 
heaven, from the time of the Lord s abode in the world, were 
admitted those who worshipped one God under three persons, 
and who did not at the same time entertain an idea of three 
Gods ; and this, by reason of a trinity of persons being received 
throughout the whole Christian world : but they, who enter 
tained no other idea of the Lord s Humanity, than as of the 
6 



FKKFACE. 

hnmanity of another man, could not receive the faith ot the. 
]S y ew Jerusalem, which is, that the Lord is the only God in 
whom there is a trinity ; these latter, therefore, were separated 
and removed ; it was given me to see their separation and 
removal after the last judgment. For upon a just idea of God, 
the universal heaven, and the church universal on earth, are 
founded, and in general the whole of religion; for by that idea 
there is conjunction, and by conjunction, light, wisdom, and 
eternal happiness. 

Any one may see that the Apocalypse could no how be 
explained but by the Lord alone, since every word of it con 
tains arcana, which never could be known without some special 
illumination, and consequent revelation ; wherefore it has 
pleased the Lord to open the sight of my spirit and to teach 
me. It must not therefore be supposed that I have given any 
explication of my own, nor that even of any angel, but only 
\vhat I have had communicated to me from the Lord alone. 
The Lord said, moreover, by an angel unto John: "Seal not 
the words of the prophecy of this book," chap. xxii. 10; by 
which is signified, that they are to be manifested and laid 
open. 
1 



A COMPENDIUM 

OF THK 

DOCTRINES OF THE ROMAN CATHOLIC 
CHURCH AND RELIGION. 



BABYLON, or the Roman Catholic Religion, being treated of 
in the Apocalypse, in chapter xvii., xviii., and xix., it is expe 
dient, at; the commencement of these explications, to say some 
thing concerning its doctrines, and that in the following order: 
On Baptism ; on the Eucharist or Holy Supper ; on Masses ; 
on Repentance ; on Justification ; on Purgatory ; on the Seven 
Sacraments ; on the Saints ; and on Power. 

" I. On BAPTISM, they teach : that Adam, after the sin of 
disobedience, was wholly changed for the worse, both as to 
soul and body ; that this sin was transfused into the whole 
human race ; that this original sin is only taken away by the 
merit of Christ ; and that me merit of Christ is applied by the 
sacrament of baptism ; and that thus the whole guilt of original 
sin is taken away by baptism ; that concupiscence nevertheless 
remains in the baptized as an incentive to sins, but not sin 
itself ; that thus they put on Christ, become new creatures, and 
obtain a full and complete remission of sins. Baptism is called 
the laver of regeneration and of faith. That the baptized, when 
they grow up, are to be questioned concerning the promises 
made by their sponsors ; which is the SACRAMENT OF CONFIRMA 
TION. That by reason of lapses after baptism, the sacrament of 
repentance is necessary. 

"II. ON THE EUCHARIST OR HOLY SUPPER. That imme 
diately after consecration, the real body and blood of Jesus 
Christ are truly and substantially comprehended under the 
form of bread and wine, together with his soul and divinity ; 
the body under the form of bread, and the blood under the 
form of wine, by virtue of the words : but the body itself under 
the form of wine, and the blood under the form of bread, and 
the soul in both, by virtue of a natural connexion and con 
comitance, whereby the parts of the Lord Christ are united 
together, and the divinity by reason of its admirable hypostatic 
union with the body and soul ; thus that they are as fully com 
prehended under one form as under both ; in a word, that the 




DOCTKINZS OF THE 



whole and entire Christ exists under the form of the "bread and 
under every part of that form ; and the whole of him also under 
the form of the wine and all its parts ; that therefore the two 
forms are separated, and the bread is given to the laity, and the 
wine to the clergy. That water is to be mixed with wine in the 
cup. That the laity are to receive the communion from the 
clergy, ajid the clergy from themselves. That the real body and 
the real blood of Christ, after consecration, is in the host in the 
consecrated particles ; and that therefore the host is to be wor 
shipped when it is shown and carried about. That this wonder 
ful and singular conversion of the whole substance of the bread 
into body, and of the whole substance of the wine into blood, is 
called transubstantiation. That the communication of both 
forms, under certain conditions, may be granted by the pope. 
It is called supersubstantial bread, and the bread of angels, 
which these eat without any veils; it is called moreover spir 
itual food ; also the antidote by which they are released from 
their sins. 

" III. ON MASSES. It is called the sacrifice of the mass, 
because the sacrifice by which Christ offered up himself to God 
the Father, is represented thereby under the form of bread and 
wine ; that thence it is a sacrifice truly propitiatory, pure, and 
altogether holy. That if the people do not communicate sacra- 
men tally, but only the minister, in such case the people com 
municate spiritually, because the ministers do it, not for them 
selves only, but for all the faithful who appertain to the body of 
Christ. The mass ought not to be performed in the vulgar 
tongue, because it contains the great learning of the faithful 
people ; but that the ministers may declare something con 
cerning it on the Lord s day. That it is ordained, that some 
things which are mystical should be pronounced with a lower, 
and other things with a louder, voice ; and, for the purpose of 
giving a majesty to so great a sacrifice which is offered to God, 
there should be lights, incense, garments, and other things of a 
like nature for the occasion. That it is to be offered up for the 
sins, penalties, satisfactions, and all the necessities of the living, 
and also for the dead. That masses in honour of the saints are 
thanksgivings for their intercession when they are implored. 

" IV. ON REPENTANCE. That besides baptism there is a 
sacrament of repentance, whereby the benefit of the death and 
merit of Christ is applied to those who lapse after baptism ; 
therefore it is called a kind of laborious baptism. That the 
parts of repentance are contrition, confession, and satisfaction. 
That CONTRITION is the gift of God, and the impulse of the 
Holy Ghost, not yet inhabiting, but only moving the contrite 
person, therefore it is a disposing. That CONFESSION ought to 
be made of all mortal sins, even the most secret, and of the 
intentions ; that sins which are withhold from confession aru 
10 



BOXAN CATHOLIC RELIGION. 

not forgiven, but that those which after search do not occur, 
are included in confession ; that confession ought to be made 
at least once a year: that absolution of sins is to be given by 
the ministers of the keys, and that they are remitted on their 
paying, I ABSOLVE; that absolution is like the act of a judge 
when sentence is pronounced ; that the more grievous sins are 
to be absolved by bishops, and the still more grievous by 
the pope. That SATISFACTION is made by satisfactory punish 
ments imposed by the minister at discretion, according to the 
measure of the offence ; that when eternal punishment is re 
mitted, then temporal punishment is remitted also. That the 
power of INDULGENCES is left by Christ to the church, and that 
the use of them is highly salutary. 

"V. ON JUSTIFICATION. That a translation cannot be ef 
fected from that state in which man is born a son of Adam, to 
a state of grace through the. second Adam the Saviour, without 
the washing of regeneration and faith, or without baptism. 
That the second beginning of justification is from preventing 
grace, which is a calling, with which man co-operates by con 
verting himself. That disposition is produced by faith, when 
man believes those things to be true which are revealed, to 
which he is freely moved ; also by hope, when he believes that 
God is propitious for the sake of Christ ; and by charity, in 
consequence whereof he begins to love his neighbour, and to 
hate sin. That justification, which follows, is not only re 
mission of sins, but sanctification, and renovation of the inner 
man; that at this time the justified are not reputed just, but 
that they are just, receiving righteousness in themselves; and 
because they accept the merit of Christ s passion, justification 
is inserted by faith, hope, and charity. That faith is the be 
ginning of human salvation, the foundation and root of justifi 
cation, and that this is to be justified by faith: and because 
none of those things which precede justification, whether they 
be of faith or works, merit the grace of justification, that this 
is to be justified gratis, for there is a preventing grace ; and 
that still man is justified by works, and not by faith alone. 
That the just may fall into light and venial sins, and that still 
they are just; and that therefore the just ought continually to 
labour by prayers, oblations, alms, fastings, lest they should 
fall, because they are born again to the hope of glory, and not 
to glory. That the just, if they fall from the grace of justifi 
cation, may be justified again by the sacrament of repentance: 
that by any mortal sin grace is lost, but not faith, butthat faith 
also is lost by infidelity, which is recession from religion. That 
the works of a justified man are merits; and that the justified, 
by such, which are done by them through the grace of God 
and the merit of Christ, merit everlasting life. That FKEE-WILL 
was not lost and extinguished after the sin of Adam ; and that 
11 



DOCTRINES OF THE 



man may co-operate, by assenting to the calling of God ; and 
that otherwise he would be an inanimate body. They establish 
PREDESTINATION, by saying, that no one knows whether he is in 
the number of the predestinate, and among those whom God 
Las chosen to himself, except by special revelation. 

" YI. ON PURGATORY. That all the guilt from which men 
are to be purified by temporal punishment is not blotted out by 
justification, that therefore all go to purgatory to be purified, 
before they can be admitted into heaven. That the souls thero 
detained are assisted by the suffrage of the faithful, and par 
ticularly by the sacrifice of the mass ; and that this is diligently 
to be taught and preached." The torments there endured are 
variously described, but they are mere inventions and fictions. 
" VII. ON THE SEVEN SACRAMENTS. That there are seven 
sacraments baptism, confirmation, the eucharist, repentance, 
extreme unction, order, and matrimony ; that there are neither 
more nor less ; that one is of greater dignity than another ; that 
they contain grace ; and that from the work operated by them 
grace is conferred : that there were the same number of sacra 
ments of the ancient law. Baptism, confirmation, the eucharist, 
and repentance have been treated of above. ON THE SA.CRA- 
MENT OF EXTREME UNCTION : That it is founded on the epistle 
of James, chap, v., 14, 15 ; that it is to be administered to the 
sick at their lives end, whence it is called the sacrament of the 
departing ; that if they recover, it may be applied again ; that 
It is to be performed with oil consecrated by the bishop, and 
with these words : * May God grant thee his indulgence far 
whatsoever offence thou hast committed through the fault of 
the eyes, of the nostrils, or of the feeling. ON THE SACRAMENT 
OF ORDER : That there are seven orders in the ministry of the 
priesthood, which differ in dignity, and all together are called 
the ecclesiastical hierarchy, which is like the order of an en 
campment ; that inaugurations into the ministry are to be 
effected by unctions, and by transferring of the Holy Spirit 
upon them. That the secular power or consent, calling or au 
thority of the magistrate is not requisite for the ordination of 
bishops and priests ; that they who ascend to the ministry only 
by the appointment of their calling, are not ministers, but 
thieves and robbers, who do not enter in by the door. ON THE 
SACRAMENT OF MATRIMONY : That a dispensation of degrees and 
divorces belongs to the church. That the clergy are not tc 
contract matrimony. That all of them may have the gift of 
chastity, and if any one saitli he cannot, when nevertheless he 
had made a vow, let him be anathema, because God doth not 
refuse it to those who ask it properly, and doth not suffer any 
one to be tempted beyond what he is able to bear. That a 
state of virginity and celibacy is to be preferred to the conjugal 
state ; besides other things of the same nature. 
12 



ROMAN CAifloLIC RELIGION. 

" VIII. ON THE SAINTS. That the saints reigning together 
with Christ offer up their prayers to God for men ; that Christ 
is to be adored, and the saints to be invoked ; that the invo 
cation of saints is not idolatrous, nor derogatory to the honour 
of the one Mediator between God and men ; it is called Latria* 
That images of Christ, of Mary the mother of God, and of the 
saints, are to be revered and honoured, not that it is to be 
supposed they possess any divinity or virtue, but because the 
honour which is paid to them is referred to the prototypes 
which they represent; and that by the images which they kiss 
and before which they kneel and uncover their heads, they 
adore Christ and venerate the saints. That the miracles of 
God are performed by the saints. 

" IX. ON POWER. That the Roman Pontiff is the successor 
of the apostle Peter, and vicar of Jesus Christ, the head of the 
church, and the universal bishop ; that he is superior to coun 
cils ; that he hath the keys for opening and shutting heaven, 
consequently the power of remitting and retaining sins ; that 
therefore he, as keeper of the keys of everlasting life, hath a 
right at once to earthly and heavenly empire ; that moreover 
bishops and priests have such a power from him, because it was 
given also to the rest of the apostles, and that therefore they 
are called ministers of the keys. That it belongs to the church 
to judge of the true sense and interpretation of the Sacred 
Scriptures, and that they who oppose them are to suffer pun 
ishments established by law. That it is not proper for the laity 
to read the Sacred Scriptures, because the sense of them is only 
known to the church : thence its ministers boast that it is known 
to them." 

X. The above doctrinals are selected from their councils 
and bulls, particularly from the council of Trent, and the papal 
bull confirming it, wherein all who think, believe, and act con 
trary to w T hat was there decreed, which in general is as above 
adduced, are condemned to be excommunicated. 

13 



A COMPENDIUM 

OP THE 

DOCTRINES OF THE REFORMED CHURCH AND 

RELIGION. 

THE members of the Reformed Church being much treated 
of in the Apocalypse, in its spiritual sense, it is expedient, be 
fore entering upon its explication, to unfold their doctrines in 
the following order : On God ; on Christ the Lord ; on Justifi 
cation by Faith, and on Good Works ; on the Law and the 
Gospel ; on Repentance and Confession ; on Original Sin ; on 
Baptism ; on the Holy Supper ; on Free-will ; and on the 
Church. 

^" I. ON GOD. Of God they believe according to the Atha- 
nasian Creed, which, as it is in the hands of every one, is not 
here inserted. That they believe in God the Father as the cre 
ator and preserver ; in God the Son as the saviour and redeemer ; 
and in the Holy Spirit as the illuminator and sanctifier, is also 
well known. 

U II. ON CHKIST THE LORD. Concerning the person of 
Christ, the same doctrine is not taught by all the Reformed. 
The Lutherans teach that the Yirgin Mary not only conceived 
and brought forth a real man, but also the real Son of God, 
whence she is justly called, and truly is, the mother of God. 
That in Christ there are two natures, a divine and a human, 
the divine from eternity, and the human in time ; that these two 
natures are personally united, altogether in such a manner, that 
there are not two Christs, one the Son of God, and the other 
the Son of man ; but that one and the same is the Son of God 
and the Son of man, not that these two natures are mixed 
together into one substance, nor that one is changed into the 
other, but that both natures retain their essential properties, 
which are also described as to their qualities : that their union 
is hypostatic, and that this is the most perfect communion, like 
that of the soul and body ; that therefore it is justly said, that 
in Christ God is man and man God ; that he did not suffer for 
us as mere man only, but as such a man, whose human nature 
hath so strict and ineffable a union and communion with the 
Son of God, as to become one person with him ; that in truth 

U 



DOCTRINES OF THE REFORMED CIIUIJCII, ETC. 

the Son of God suffered for us, but yet according to the 
properties of human nature ; that the Son of man, by whom is 
understood Christ as to his human nature, was really exalted to 
the right hand of God when he was taken into God, which was 
the case as soon as he \vas conceived of the Holy Spirit in the 
womb of his mother; that Christ always had that majesty by 
reason of his personal union, but that, in his state of exinanition, 
he only exercised it so far as he thought proper ; but that after 
his resurrection he fully and entirely put oft* the form of a 
servant, and put his human nature or essence into a plenary 
assumption of the divine majesty; and that in this manner lie 
entered into glory ; in a word, that Christ is, and remains to 
all eternity, perfect God and man in one indivisible person ; 
and the true, omnipotent, and eternal God : being also, with 
respect to his humanity, present at the right hand of God, he 
governs all things in heaven and upon earth, and also fills all 
things, is with us, and dwells and operates in us. That there 
is no difference of adoration, because by the nature which is 
seen, the divinity which is not seen, is adored. That the divine 
essence communicates and imparts its own excellences to the 
human nature, and performs its divine operations by the body 
as by its organ ; that thus all the fulness of the Godhead dwells 
in Christ bodily, according to Paul. That the incarnation was 
accomplished that he might reconcile the Father to us, and be 
come a sacrifice for the sins of the whole world, as well original 
as actual ; that he was incarnate of the substance of the Holy 
Spirit, but that his human nature was produced from the Virgin 
Mary, which, as the Word, he assumed and united to himself; 
that he sanctifies those who believe in him, by sending the Holy 
Spirit into their hearts, to guide, comfort, and vivify them, and 
defend them against the devil and the power of sin. That 
Christ descended into hell, and destroyed hell for all believers ; 
but in what manner these things were effected, he doth not wish 
them to scrutinize too curiously, but that the knowledge of this 
matter may be reserved for another age, when not only this 
mystery, bat many other things also shall be revealed." These 
particulars are from Luther ; the Augustan Confession ; the 
Council of Nice ; and the Smalcalden Articles. See the For 
mula Concordiae. 

" Some of the Reformed, who are also treated of in the 
Formula Concordise, believe that Christ, according to his human 
nature, by exaltation, received only created gifts and finite 
power, therefore that he is a man like any other, retaining the 
properties of the flesh ; that therefore as to his human nature 
he is not omnipotent and omniscient ; that although absent he 
governs, as a king, things remote from himself; that as God 
from eternity he is with the Father, and as a man born in time, 
he is with the angels in heaven ; and that when it is said, in 
15 



DOCTRINES OF THE 

Christ God is man and man God, it is only a figurative mode 
of speech : besides other things of a like nature. 

" But this disagreement is adjusted by the Athanasian Creed, 
which is received by all the Christian world, where these words 
occur : i The true faith is, that we believe and confess that our 
Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is God and man ; God, of 
the substance of the Father, begotten before the world, and 
man, of the substance of the mother, born in the world ; per 
fect God and perfect man : who, although he be God and man, 
yet these are not two but one Christ ; one, not by conversion 
of the divine Essence into body, but by the taking of his man 
hood into God ; one altogether, not by confusion of substance, 
but by unity of person ; for as the reasonable soul and body is 
one man, so God and man is one Christ. 

"III. ON JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH, AND ON GOOD WORKS. 
The justifying and saving faith of the clergy is this ; That God 
the Father turned himself away from the human race by reason 
of their iniquities, and so, from justice, condemned them to 
eternal death, and that he therefore sent his Son into the world 
to expiate and redeem them, and make satisfaction and recon 
ciliation ; and that his Son did this by taking upon himself the 
damnation of the law, and suffering himself to be crucified, and 
that thus by obedience he entirely satisfied God s justice, even 
to becoming justice himself; and that God the Father imputes 
and applies this, as his merit, to believers, and sends the Holy 
Spirit to them, who operates charity, good works, and repent 
ance, as a good tree produces good fruits ; and justifies, renews, 
regenerates, and sanctifies ; and that this faith is the only me 
dium of salvation, and that by it alone a man s sins are forgiven. 
They make a distinction between the act and the state of justi 
fication : by the act of justification they understand the begin 
ning of justification, which takes place in a moment, when man 
by that faith alone apprehends with confidence the merit of 
Christ; by the state of justification they understand the pro 
gress of that faith, which takes place by the interior operation 
of the Holy Spirit, which does not manifest itself except by 
certain signs, concerning which they teach various things ; they 
speak also of good works manifested, which are done fro/m the 
man and his will, and follow that faith ; but they exclude them 
from justification, because the selfhood, and therefore the merit, 
of man is in them. This is a summary of modern faith, but its 
confirmations, and the traditions concerning it, are numerous 
and manifold ; some of which also shall be adduced ; which are, 
that men cannot be justified before God by their own strength, 
merits, and works, but gratuitously for Christ s sake, by faith ; 
that by this faith they believe that they are received into grace, 
and their sins are remitted for his sake, who by his death made 
satisfaction for us, and that God the Father imputes this to 
16 



REFORMED CHURCH. 

believers for rigliteousness before him ; that this faith, that 
Christ suffered and died for us, is not only an historical know 
ledge, but also a cordial assent, confidence, and trust, that sins 
are gratuitously remitted for Christ s sake, and that they are 
justified; and that at this time these three things concur, gra 
tuitous promise, the merit of Christ as a price, and propitiation. 
That faith is the rigliteousness by which we are reputed just 
before God by reason of the promise ; and that to be justified 
is to be absolved from sins, and that it may also be called a 
kind of quickening and regeneration ; that faith is imputed to 
us for righteousness, not because it is so good a work, but be 
cause it apprehends the merit of Christ. That the merit of 
Christ is his obedience, passion, death, and resurrection ; that 
it is necessary there should be something by which God can be 
approached, and that this is nothing else but faith, by which 
reception is effected. That faith, in the act of justification, 
enters by the word and by the hearing, and that it is not the 
act of man, but that it is the operation of the Holy Spirit, and 
that man does not co-operate any more than a statue of salt, a 
stock, or a stone, doing nothing from himself, and knowing 
nothing of it ; but that after the act he co-operates, yet not 
with any will of his own in spiritual things ; in things natural, 
civil, and moral, it is otherwise : but that they can so far pro 
ceed in things spiritual as to will what is good, and to feel de 
light in consequence, yet this is not from their own will t but 
from the Holy Spirit, and that thus they co-operate, not from 
their own powers, but from new powers and gifts begun in them 
by the Holy Spirit in their conversion ; and that in real con 
version a change, renovation, and motion are produced in the 
understanding and heart of man. That charity, good works, 
and repentance, do not enter into the act of justification, but 
that they are necessary in a state of justification, especially 
by reason of God s command, and that by them are merited 
the corporeal rewards of this life, but not the remission of sins, 
and the glory of everlasting life, because faith alone, without 
the works of the law, justifies and saves. That faith in act 
justifies man, but faith in state renovates him ; that in renova 
tion by reason of God s command, the works reputed good, as 
pointed out by the decalogue, are necessary to be performed, be 
cause it is the will Of God that carnal lusts should be restrained 
by civil discipline, for which reason he has provided doctrine, 
laws, magistrates, and punishments ; that, therefore, it is con 
sequently false, that by works we merit remission of sins and 
salvation, and that works have any effect in preserving faith ; 
and that it is also false, that man is reputed just on account of 
the rational justice or righteousness he may possess ; and that 
reason can, from its own power, love God above all things and 
perform his law ; in a word, that faith and salvation are net 
IT B 



DOCTRINES OF THE 

preserved and retained in men by good works, but only by the 
Spirit of God and by faith ; but still that good works are testi 
monies that the Holy Spirit is present and dwells in them. 
They condemn as pernicious, this mode of speech that good 
works are hurtful to salvation ; because the interior works of 
the Holy Spirit are to be understood, which are good, not ex 
terior works proceeding from man s own will, which are not 
good but evil, because they are meritorious. They teach, more 
over, that Christ at the last judgment will pronounce sentence 
upon good and evil works as effects proper and not proper to 
the faith of man. This faith rules at this day in the whole re 
formed Christian "world with the clergy, but not with the laity, 
except in a very few instances ; for the laity by faith understand 
nothing else but believing in God the Father, the Son, and the 
Holy Spirit, and that he who lives well and believes well, 
will be saved ; and of the Lord that he is the Saviour ; for they 
are ignorant of the mysteries of justification of their preachers, 
who, although they preach such things, yet, with the laity who 
hear them, they enter in at one ear and go out at the other ; 
their teachers, indeed, think themselves learned, from knowing 
them, and labour much in their schools and universities to make 
themselves masters of them ; therefore it is said above, that that 
faith is the faith of the clergy. But yet the teachers teach this 
same faith differently in the different kingdoms in which the 
Reformed Church is established; in Germany, Sweden, and 
Denmark, they say, that the Holy Spirit operates by that faith, 
and justifies and sanctifies men, and afterwards successively 
renovates and regenerates them, but without the works of the 
law ; and they who are in that faith from trust and confidence, 
are in grace with God the Father ; and that then the evils which 
they do, appear indeed, but are constantly remitted. In Eng 
land, they teach that that faith produces charity without mairs 
knowledge, and that when man feels the Holy Spirit operate 
interiorly in himself, this operation also is the good of charity; 
and if he does not feel it, and yet does good for the sake of sal 
vation, that it may be called good, but still that it derives some 
what from man, in that there is merit in it. Moreover, that 
siich faith can operate this at the hour of death, yet they do not 
know how. In Holland, they teach, that God the Father, for 
the sake of the Son, justifies and purifies man interiorly by the 
Holy Spirit through that faith, but even to his own proper will, 
from which it turns back without touching it ; some teach that 
it does indeed lightly touch it, and that the evils of man s will 
do not appear in the sight of God. But a few only of the laity 
know any thing of these mysteries of the clergy ; the latter in 
deed are unwilling to publish them as they are in themselves, 
because they know that the laity have no relish for them. 

"IV. ON THE LAW AND THE GOSPEL. That the law was 
18 



REFORMED CHURCH. 



given by God, that it might be known what sin is, and that 
thus it might be restrained by threats and by fear, and after 
wards by promise and the annunciation of grace ; therefore the 
principal office of the law is, to reveal original sin and all the 
fruits of it, and to make known to how horrible a degree the 
nature of man is fallen and totally depraved ; by this means it 
terrifies, humbles, and reduces man to despair of himself, and 
anxiously to desire aid : this effect of the law is called contri 
tion, which is not active or factitious, but passive, and the 
torment of conscience ; but the gospel is the whole doctrine 
concerning Christ and faith ; and, therefore, concerning the re 
mission of sins ; consequently, a most joyful messenger, not 
reproving and terrifying, but comforting : by the law the wrath 
of God against all impiety is revealed, and man is condemned, 
therefore it causes man to look up to Christ, and to the gospel ; 
they must both be preached, because they are connected. The 
gospel teaches that Christ took upon himself the curse of the 
law and expiated all sins, and that we consequently obtain 
remission by faith. That the Holy Spirit is given and received, 
and the heart of man renewed, not by the preaching of the law, 
but of the gospel ; and that the Spirit afterwards makes use of 
the ministry of the law, to teach and show in the decalogue, 
what the good will and pleasure of God is ; thus the Spirit 
mortifies find quickens. That a distinction is to be made be 
tween the works of the law, and the works of the Spirit, there 
fore the faithful are not under the law, but under grace, for 
that very reason. That the righteousness of the law does not 
justify, that is, does not reconcile nor regenerate, nor, by itself, 
make men accepted of God ; but when the Holy Spirit is given, 
the fulfilling of the law follows. That the works of the second 
table of the decalogue do not justify, because by it we act with 
men, and not properly with God, and yet in justification we 
must act with God. That Christ without sin suffered the pun 
ishment of sin, and was made a sacrifice for us, whereby he 
took away that right of the law, that it might not condemn be 
lievers, because he is a propitiation for them, for the sake of 
which they are reputed just. 

" Y. ON REPENTANCE AND CONFESSION. That repentance 
consists of two parts ; one is contrition, or terror struck into the 
conscience by reason of sin ; the other faith, which is conceived 
from the gospel, and by the remission of sins, comforts the con 
science and delivers from terrors. He who confesses himself 
to be nothing but sin, comprehends all sins, excludes none, and 
forgets none ; thus sins are purged away, man is purified, recti 
fied, and sanctified ; because the Holy Spirit does not suffer sin 
to have dominion, but represses and restrains it. That the enu 
meration of sins ought to be free, as the person may choose pr 
not choose ; and that great stress is to be laid upon private 



DOCTRINES OF THE 

confession and absolution ; therefore if any one chooses, he may 
confess his sins, and receive absolution from the confessor, and 
that in such case his sins are remitted. The words which the 
minister is to make use of on this occasion are, May God be 
propitious to thee, and confirm thy faith ; be it unto thee as 
thou believest, and I, by the commandment of the Lord, remit 
to^thee thy sins : but others say, < I announce to thee the re 
mission of thy sins : that still, however, sins are not forgiven 
by repentance any more than by works ; but by faith. There 
fore, the repentance of the clergy is only a confession before 
God that they are sinners, and a prayer that they may perse 
vere in faith. That expiations and satisfactions are not neces 
sary, because Christ is expiation and satisfaction. 

" VI. ON ORIGINAL SIN, they teach: That after the fall of 
Adam all men propagated according to nature born in sin, that 
is, without the fear of God, and with concupiscences ; and that 
this condemns and brings eternal death upon those who are not 
born again by baptism and the Holy Spirit : that it is a priva 
tion of original righteousness, and at the same time an inordi 
nate disposition of the parts of the soul, and a corrupt habit. 
That there is a difference between the nature itself into which 
man was created, which exists even after the fall, and remains 
a creature of God, and original sin ; therefore, that there is a 
difference between corrupt nature, and the corruption which is 
inherent in nature, and by which nature is corrupt : that no one 
but God alone can separate the corruption of nature from 
nature itself; that this will manifestly be done in the blessed 
resurrection, because then nature itself, which. encloses man in 
this world, will rise again without original sin, and enjoy eter 
nal felicity ; that the difference is as great as between the work 
of God and the work of the devil ; that this sin did not invade 
nature in such a manner, as if Satan had created any evil sub 
stantially and commixed it with nature, but that concreate and 
original righteousness was lost : that original sin is an accident ; 
and that by reason of it, man is, as it were, spiritually dead 
before God : that this evil is covered and pardoned by Christ 
alone : that the seed itself from which man is formed, is con 
taminated with that sin : that hence also it is, that man receives 
from his parents depraved inclinations and internal uncleanness 
of heart. 

" VII. ON BAPTISM. That baptism Is not simply water, 
but that it is water taken by the divine command, and sealed 
with the Word of God, and thus sanctified : that the virtue, 
work, fruit, and end of baptism is, that men may be saved, and 
admitted into the Christian communion. That by baptism vic 
tory is offered over death and the devil ; remission of sins ; the 
grace of God ; Christ with all his works ; and the Holy Spirit 
with all his gifts ; and eternal blessedness to all and every be- 
20 



REFORMED CHURCH. 



liever. Whether faith be given to infants, also, by baptism, is 
a question too deep to be solicitously inquired into. That im 
mersion in water signifies the mortification of the old man, and 
the resurrection of the new ; that therefore it may be called 
the laver of regeneration ; and the true laver in the Word ; also 
in the death and burial of Christ. That the life of a Christian 
is a daily baptism once begun in this manner : that the water 
does not effect this, but the Word of God, which is in and with 
the water, and the faith of God s Word added to the water ; 
that hence it follows, that baptism in the name of God, is per 
formed by men indeed, but is not from them, but from God 
himself. That baptism does not take away original sin, by ex 
tinguishing evil concupiscence, but only the guilt of it. 

" But others of the Reformed believe, that "baptism is an ex 
ternal laver of water, whereby an internal ablution from sin is 
signified ; that it does not confer regeneration, faith, the grace 
of God, and salvation, but only signifies and seals them ; and 
that they are not conferred in and with baptism, but afterwards 
as the person grows up ; and that the elect alone obtain the 
grace of Christ and the gift of faith : and because salvation does 
not depend upon baptism, that therefore it is permitted to be 
performed by another for want of a regular minister. 

u VIII. ON THE LORD S SUPPER. They of the Reformed 
Church, who are called Lutherans, teach that in the holy sup 
per or sacrament of the altar, the body and blood of Christ are 
really and substantially present, and are actually distributed and 
received with the bread and wine ; that therefore the real body 
and the real blood of Christ are in, with, and under the bi-ead 
raid wine, and are given to Christians to eat and drink ; and 
that therefore they are not simply bread and wine, but are in 
cluded and bound in the Word of God, and that this causes 
them to be the body and blood of Christ ; for when the Word 
accedes to the element, it becomes a sacrament ; but yet that 
there is no transubstantiation, such as is that of the papists : 
that it is the food of the soul, nourishing and strengthening the 
new man : that it was instituted, to the end that faith might 
repair and receive its strength, to give remission of sins, and u 
new life, which Christ merited for us : that thus the body and 
blood of Christ are not only taken spiritually by faith, but also 
by the mouth, in a supernatural way, by reason of their sacra 
mental union with the bread and wine : that the worthiness of 
this supper consists in obedience alone, and in the merit of 
Christ, which is applied by true faith. In a word, that the 
sacraments of the Lord s supper and of baptism, are testimonies 
of the will and grace of God towards men ; and that the sacra 
ment of the supper is a promise of remission of sins through 
faith ; that it may move the heart to believe ; and that the Holy 
Spirit may operate through the Word and the sacraments : thai 
21 



DOCTRINES OF THE 

the consecration of the minister does riot produce these effects, 
but that they are to be attributed to the sole omnipotent virtue 
of the Lord. That the unworthy, as well as the worthy, receive 
the real body and blood of Christ, as it hung upon the cross ; 
but the worthy to salvation, the unworthy to condemnation ; 
that they are worthy who have faith : that no one k to be forced 
to ^ that supper, but every one may approach when urged by 
spiritual hunger. 

" Others, however, of the Keformed Church teach, that in 
the holy supper the body and blood of Christ are only taken 
spiritually, and that the bread and wine are only signs, types, 
symbols, marks, figures, and similitudes; that Christ is not 
bodily present, but only in virtue and operation from his Di 
vine Essence ; but that in heaven there is a conjunction accord 
ing to the communication of idioms : that the worthiness of this 
supper depends not only upon faith, but also upon preparation : 
that the worthy alone receive its virtue, but the unworthy 
bread and wine only. Although there are these disagreements 
in sentiment, yet all the Eeformed agree in this: that it is 
altogether necessary that they should do the work of repent 
ance, who desire to receive that holy supper worthily; the 
Lutherans insist that if they do not do repentance from evil 
works, and yet approach, they are eternally condemned ; and 
the English, that otherwise the devil will enter into them as he 
did into Judas ; this is evident from the prayers read before 
the communion. 

" IX. ON FREE WILL. They make a distinction between 
the state before the fall, after the fall, after the reception of 
faith and renovation, and after the resurrection. That man 
since the fall is entirely incapable of beginning, thinking, 
understanding, believing, willing, operating or co-operating an y 
thing from his own pow r er in matters of a spiritual and divine 
nature ; or of applying or accommodating himself to grace ; 
but that his natural will is only for those things which are con 
trary to God, and displease him ; therefore that man in spiritual 
things is like a stock, but that still he has a capacity, not active, 
but passive, w r hereby he can be turned to good by the grace of 
God ; that nevertheless there remains in man since the fall, the 
free-will and power either to hear or not to hear the Word of 
God, and that thus a spark of faith may be kindled in his heart, 
which embraces the remission of sins for Christ s sake, and im 
parts consolation. That nevertheless the human will enjoys 
the liberty of performing civil righteousness, and of making 
choice of such things as are within the province of reason. 

" X. ON THE CHURCH. That the church is the congregation 

and communion of saints, and that it is dispersed over the wh^le 

world among those who have the same Christ, and the same 

Holy Spirit, and the same sacraments, whether they have sim 

22 



REFORMED CHURCH. 

ilar or dissimilar traditions : and that it is principally a society 
of faith; and that this church alone is the body of Christ, and 
that the good are both really and nominally a church, but the 
wicked only nominally : that the wicked and hypocrites, be 
cause they are intermixed, are members of the church accord 
ing to its external signs, provided they are not excommunicated, 
but that they are not members of the body of Christ. That eccle 
siastical rites, which are called ceremonies, are matters of in 
difference (adia/phori), and that they are not the worship of 
God, nor a part of the worship of God; that therefore the 
church is at liberty to institute, change, and abrogate them, as, 
for instance, the distinctions of vestments, times, days, meats, 
and the like ; and that therefore one church ought not to con 
demn another on account of things of this nature." 

Tlrese are the doctrines of the Reformed Church and Religion 
in the abstract ; but those which are taught by the Schwengfel- 
dkins, Pelagians, Manicheeans, Donatists, Anabaptists, Armin- 
ians, Cinglians, Antitrinitarians, Socinians, Arians, and, at this 
day, by the Quakers and Moravians, are passed over, because 
they are reprobated and rejected by the Reformed Church as 
heretical. 
23 



THE APOCALYPSE. 



CHAPTER I. 

1 . THE Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave unto 
him, to show unto his servants things which must shortly come 
to pass ; and he signified [it] sending, by his angel, to his ser 
vant John, 

2. Who bore witness of the Word of God, and of the testi 
mony of Jesus Christ, whatsoever things he saw. 

3. Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear, the words 
of the prophecy, and keep those things which are written there 
in : for the time is at hand. 

4. John to the seven churches which are in Asia : Grace be 
unto you, and peace, from Him who is, and who was, and who 
is to come ; and from the seven spirits which are before his 
throne ; 

5. And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, the 
first-begotten from the dead, and the prince of the kings of the 
earth. To him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in 
hie blood, 

6. And hath made us kings and priests unto God and his 
Father : to him be glory and might for ever and ever. Amen. 

7. Behold he cometh with clouds, and every eye shall see 
him, and they [also] who pierced him : and all the tribes of 
the earth shall wail because of him. Even so ; Amen. 

8. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the 
end, saith the Lord, who is, and who was, and who is to come, 
the Almighty. 

9. I John, who also am your brother, and companion in trib 
ulation, and in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, was 
in the island called Patmos, for the Word of God, and for the 
testimony of Jesus Christ. 

10. I was in the spirit on the Lord s day ; and I heard be- 
nind me a great voice, as of a trumpet, 

11. Saying, I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and 
the Last: and, what thou seest, write in a book, and send [it] 

24 



Chap. 1.] THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. 

to the churches which are in Asia ; unto Ephesus, and unto 
Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto 
Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea. 

12. And I turned to see the voice that spoke with me : And ; 
being turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks ; 

13. And in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like 
unto the Son of Man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, 
and girt about the paps with a golden girdle. 

14. And his head and his hairs were white as wool is white, 
like unto snow ; and his eyes were as a flame of fire ; 

15. And his feet were like unto fine brass, as if they burned 
in a furnace ; and his voice as the voice of many waters. 

16. And he had in his right hand seven stars ; and out of 
Iris mouth went a sharp two-edged sword ; and his face was as 
the sun shineth in his power. 

17. And when I saw him, I fell at his feet as dead. And 
lie laid his right hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not ; I 
am the First and the Last ; 

18. And am he that liveth, and was dead ; and behold I am 
ulive for ever and ever. Amen : and I have the keys of hell 
and of death. 

19. Write the things which thou hast seen, and the things 
which are, and the things which shall be hereafter. 

20. The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my 
right hand, and the seven golden candlesticks. The seven stars 
are the angels of the seven churches ; and the seven candle 
sticks, which thou sawest, are the seven churches. 



THE SPIRITUAL SENSE. 

THE CONTENTS OF THE WHOLE CHAPTER. That this revelation 
is from the Lord alone, and that it will be received by those 
who will be in his new church, which is the New Jerusalem, 
and acknowledge the Lord as the God of heaven and earth ; 
the Lord is also described as to the Word. 

THE CONTENTS OF EACH YERSE. Y. 1, " The Revelation of 
Jesus Christ," signifies predictions from the Lord concerning 
himself and his church, what the latter will be in its end, and 
what it will be afterwards: "Which God gave unto him to 
show unto his servants," signifies for the use of those who are 
in faith originating in charity : " Things which must shortly 
come to pass," signifies that they will certainly be, lest the 
church perish : "And he signified [it], sending, by his angel, to 

90 



THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. 1 

his servant John, signifies the things which are revealed from 
the Lord through heaven, to those who are in the good of life 
from charity and its faith: v. 2, "Who bore witness of the 
Word of God, and of the testimony of Jesus Christ," signifies 
who from the heart, and so in the light, receive divine truth 
from the Word, and acknowledge the Lord s Humanity to be 
divine : " Whatsoever things he saw," signifies their illustration 
in all the things which are in this revelation : v. 3, " Blessed is 
he that readeth, and they that hear, the words of the prophecy, 
and keep those things which are written therein," signifies the 
communion of those with the angels of heaven, who live accord 
ing to the doctrines of the New Jerusalem : " For the time is 
at hand," signifies that the state of the church is such that it 
cannot endure any longer, so as to have conjunction w r ith the 
Lord : v. 4, " John to the seven churches," signifies to all who 
are in the Christian world where the Word is, and by it the 
Lord is known, and who accede to the church : "Which are in 
Asia," signifies to those who are in the light of truth from the 
Word : " Grace be unto you, and peace," signifies divine salu 
tation : " From Him who is, and who was, and who is to come," 
signifies from the Lord who is eternal and infinite, and who is 
Jehovah : " And from the seven spirits which are before his 
throne," signifies from the universal heaven, where the Lord is 
in his divine truth : v. 5, "And from Jesus Christ," signifies the 
Divine Humanity : " Who is the faithful witness," signifies that 
he is Divine Truth itself : " The first-begotten from the dead," 
signifies that he is Divine Goodness itself: "And the prince of 
the kings of the earth." signifies from whom proceeds all truth 
originating in good in the church : " To him that loved us, and 
washed us from our sins in his blood," signifies who, out of love 
and mercy, reforms and regenerates men by his divine truths 
from the Word : v. 6, "And hath made us kings and priests," 
signifies who gives those who are born of him, that is regen 
erated, to be in wisdom from divine truths, and in love from 
divine goods : " Unto God and his Father," signifies, and so 
images of his divine wisdom and of his divine love : " To him 
be glory and might for ever and ever," signifies, to whom alone 
belongs divine majesty and divine omnipotence to eternity : 
"Amen," signifies divine confirmation from the truth, thus from 
himself: v. 7, "Behold, he cometh with clouds," signifies that 
the Lord will reveal himself in the literal sense of the Word, 
and will open its spiritual sense at the end of the church : 
"And every eye shall see him," signifies that all who are in the 
understanding of divine truth from affection will acknowledge 
him : " And they [also] who pierced him," signifies that they 
also will see who are in falses in the church: "And all the tribes 
of the earth shall wail because of him," signifies that this will 
be when there are no longer any goods and truths in the church: 
26 



Chap. 1.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 

" Even so, Amen," signifies divine confirmation that so it will 
be : v. 8, " I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and 
the end," signifies who is the self-subsisting and the only-sub 
sisting from first principles to ultimates, from whom all things 
proceed ; thus, who is the self-subsisting -and only-subsisting 
love, the self-subsisting and only-subsisting wisdom, and the 
self-subsisting and only-subsisting life in himself; and conse 
quently the self-subsisting Creator, Saviour, and Illuminator, 
from himself, and thence the All in all of heaven and the 
church : " Saith the Lord, who is, and who was, and who is to 
come," signifies, who is eternal and infinite, and who is Jeho 
vah : " The Almighty," signifies, who is, lives, and has power 
from himself, and who governs all things from first principles 
by ultimates : v. 9, " I, John, who also am your brother, and 
companion," signifies those who are in the good of charity, and 
thence in the truths of faith : " In tribulation, and in the king 
dom and patience of Jesus Christ," signifies, which in the 
church are infested by evils and falses, but which will be re 
moved by the Lord at his coming : " Was in the isle called 
Patmos," signifies a state and place in which he could be illu 
minated : " For the Word of God, and for the testimony of 
Jesus Christ," signifies that divine truth from the Word might 
be received at heart and so in the light, and that the Lord s 
Humanity might be acknowledged to be divine : v. 10, " I was 
in the spirit on the Lord s day," signifies a spiritual state at that 
time from divine influx : "And I heard behind me a great voice 
as of a trumpet," signifies a manifest perception of divine truth 
revealed from heaven: v. 11, "Saying, I am the Alpha and 
the Omega, the First and the Last, " signifies who is the self- 
subsisting and the only-subsisting from first principles, from 
whom all things proceed, &c., as above : "And what thou seest, 
write in a book," signifies that it may be revealed to posterity : 
" And send to the churches which are in Asia," signifies for 
those who are in the Christian world who are in the light of 
truth from the Word : " Unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and 
unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto 
Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea," signifies specifically accord 
ing to the state of reception of each : v. 12, "And I turned to 
see the voice that spoke with me," signifies inversion of the 
state of those who are in good of life, with respect to the per 
ception of truth in the Word, when they turn themselves to the 
Lord : "And being turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks," 
signifies the New Church, which will be in illustration from the 
Lord out of the Word : v. 13, "And in the midst of the seven 
candlesticks one like unto the Son of Man," signifies the Lgrd 
as to the Word, from whom that church is : " Clothed with a 
garment down to the foot," signifies the proceeding divine which 
is divine truth : "And girt about the paps with a golden girdle, * 
27 



THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. [Chap. 1. 

signifies the proceeding, and at the same time, conjoining 
divine, which js divine good : v. 14, "And his head and his 
hairs were white as wool is white, like unto snow," signifies the 
divine love of the divine wisdom in first principles and in ulti- 
mates : " And his eyes were as a flame of fire," signifies the 
divine wisdom of the divine love : v. 15, "And his feet were 
like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace," signifies 
divine good natural : "And his voice as the voice of many 
waters," signifies divine truth natural : v. 16, " And he had in 
his right hand seven stars," signifies all knowledges of goodness 
and truth in the Word from him : "And out of his mouth went 
a sharp two-edged sword," signifies the dispersion of falses fry 
the Word, and by doctrine thence from the Lord : "And Ins 
face was as the sun shineth in his power," signifies the Divine 
Love and the Divine Wisdom, which are himself, and proceed 
from himself: v. 17, "And when I saw him, I fell at his feet as 
dead," signifies a defect of his own life from such presence of 
the Lord : "And he laid his right hand upon me," signifies life 
then inspired from him : " Saying unto me, Fear not, signifies 
resuscitation, and at the same time adoration from the most 
profound humiliation : " I am the First and the Last," signifies 
that he is eternal and infinite, therefore the only God : v. 18, 
"And am he that liveth," signifies who alone is life, and from 
whom alone life is : "And was dead," signifies that he was neg 
lected in the church, and his Divine Humanity not acknow 
ledged : "And behold, I am alive for ever and ever," signifies 
that he is life eternal : "Amen," signifies divine confirmation 
that this is truth : "And I have the keys of hell and death," 
signifies that he alone has power to save : v. 19, " Write the 
things which thou hast seen, and the things which are, and the 
things which shall be hereafter," signifies that all the things 
which are now revealed, are for the use of posterity : v. 20, 
" The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my right 
hand, and the seven golden candlesticks," signifies arcana in 
visions concerning the new heaven and the new church : "The 
seven stars are the angels of the seven churches," signifies the 
new church in the heavens, which is the new heaven : " And 
the seven candlesticks which thou sawest, are the seven 
churches," signifies the New Church upon earth, which is the 
New Jerusalem descending from the Lord out of the new 
heaven. 



V. 1.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 1, 2 



THE EXPLANATION. 

1. WHAT the spiritual sense is, lias hitherto been unknown. 
That there is such a sense in every particular of the Word, is 
shown in the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the 
Sacred Scriptures, -Vi. 5 26, and that without it, the Word in 
many places cannot be understood : this sense does not appear 
in the literal sense, for it is in it as the soul in its body. It is 
well known, that there is what is spiritual, and what is natural, 
and that what is spiritual flows into what is natural, and ren 
ders itself visible and sensible in those forms which are the 
objects of sight and touch, and that what is spiritual, without 
such forms, is perceived no otherwise than as affection and 
thought, or as love and wisdom which are of the mind : that 
affection and thought, or love whose property it is to be affected, 
and wisdom whose property it is to think, are spiritual, is 
acknowledged ; that these two faculties of the mind show 
themselves in the body in forms, which are called organs of 
sense and motion, is well known ; also, that they make a one, 
and such a one as that what the mind thinks, that the mouth in 
an instant speaks, and what the mind wills, that the body in an 
instant does ; hence it is evident, that there is a perfect union 
of things spiritual and natural in man. It is the same with 
every thing in the world, both generally and particularly ; 
there is in them something spiritual, which is the inmost of the 
cause, and something natural, which is its effect, and these two 
make a one ; and \vhat is spiritual does not appear in what is 
natural, because it dwells in it as the soul in its body, and as 
the inmost of the cause in the effect, as was observed before. 
It is the same with the Word ; that this is internally spiritual, 
because it is divine, cannot be denied by any one ; but as what 
is spiritual does not appear in the sense of the letter, which is 
natural, therefore the spiritual sense has hitherto been un 
known ; nor could it have been know r n before genuine truths 
were revealed by the Lord, for in these that sense consists. 
For this reason the Apocalypse has not been understood before. 
But lest any doubt should remain, that such things are con 
tained in it, the particulars must be explained, and demonstrated 
by similar passages in other parts of the Word. The explana 
tion and demonstration now follow. 

2. The revelation of Jesus Christ, signifies predictions from 
the Lord concerning himself and his church, what the latter 
will be in its end, and what it will be afterwards, as well in the 
heavens as upon earth. By the revelation of Jesus Christ are 
signified all predictions, which coming from the Lord, are 
called the revelation of Jesus Christ ; that they relate to the 
Lord and his church, will appear from the explanations. The 

29 



3 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. 1 

Apocalypse does not treat of tlie successive states of the church, 
much less of the successive states of kingdoms, as some have 
hitherto believed, but from beginning to end it treats of the last 
state of the church in heaven and earth ; and then concerning 
the last judgment ; and after this the New Church, which is 
the New Jerusalem. That this New Church is the end and 
object of this work, is very evident, wherefore those things 
which are first mentioned refer to the state of the church, as to 
its quality immediately antecedent to its appearance. But in 
what series these matters are treated of, may be seen from the 
contents of each chapter ; and more distinctly from the expla 
nation of each particular verse. 

3. Which God gave unto him to show unto his servants, sig 
nifies, for those who are in faith derived from charity, or in truths 
of wisdom derived from the good of love. By showing is sig 
nified to manifest, and by servants are here signified those who 
are in faith derived from charity; to them these things are 
manifested, because they understand and receive them : by 
servants, in a spiritual sense, are understood those who are in 
truths ; and because truths originate in good, by servants are 
understood those who are in truths derived from good, there 
fore also, those who are in wisdom derived from love, because 
wisdom is of truth, and love is of good ; also those who are in 
faith derived from charity, because faith also is of truth and 
charity is of good ; and since the genuine spiritual sense is 
abstracted from person, therefore in it by servants are signified 
truths. Now truths being subservient to good by their teach 
ing it, therefore, in general, and properly, by servant, in the 
"Word, is meant what is subservient, or he or that which serves ; 
in this sense not only the prophets are called the servants of 
God, but also the Lord as to his Humanity ; that the prophets 
are called the servants of God, is evident from the following 
passages : " Jehovah hath sent unto you all his servants the 
prophets," Jer. xxv. 4. " He revealeth his secrets unto his ser 
vants the prophets," Amos iii. 7. " His laws which he set before 
us by his servants the prophets," Dan. ix. 10 ; and Moses is 
called " the servant of Jehovah," Malachi iii. 22 ;* the reason is 
because by a prophet in the spiritual sense is understood truth of 
doctrine, as explained below. And because the Lord was di 
vine truth itself, which also is the Word, and is thence called 
the Prophet ; and served in the world, and serves all to eter 
nity by his teaching, therefore, he also, in many places, is 
called the servant of Jehovah ; as in the following : " He shall 
Bee of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied ; by his 

* In the Hebrew Bible there are only three chapters in Malachi, and as our 
author quotes from the Hebrew text, it may be necessary to observe, that thii 
text in our version is chap. iv. 4. In all like instances we shall alter it to tha 
itate of the English text EDITORS. 

30 



V. 1.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 4 

knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many," Isaiah 
liii. 11. " Behold, my servant shall deal prudently, he shall be 
exalted and extolled, and be very high," Isaiah hi. 13. " Be 
hold, my servant, whom I uphold, mine elect, in whom my 
soul delighteth, I have put my spirit upon him," Isaiah xlii. 
1, 19; this is spoken of the Lord: in like manner David is 
called a servant, where, by him, the Lord is understood ; as in 
the following passages : " And I the Lord will be their God, 
and my servant David a prince among them," Ezek. xxxiv. 24. 
" David, my servant, shall be king over them, that they all 
shall have one shepherd," Ezek. xxxvii. 24. " I will defend 
this city to save it, for mine own sake, and for my servant 
David s sake," Isaiah xxxvii. 35. So also in Psalm Ixxviii. 70 
72, Ixxxix. 3, 4, 20. That by David in these places is meant 
the Lord, may be seen in the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem 
concerning the, Lord, n. 43, 44. The tord himself says the 
same of himself: " Whosoever will be great among you, let 
him be your minister, and whosover will be chief among you, 
let him be your servant, even as the Son of man came not to 
be ministered unto, but to minister," Matt. xx. 26, 28, Mark x. 
43 45, Luke xxii. 27, and so in Luke xii. 37. This the Lord 
says, because by servant and minister is understood one who 
serves and ministers by teaching, and, abstracted from person, 
divine truth, which was himself. Since, therefore, by servant 
is understood he who teaches divine truth, it is evident that by 
servants in this place in the Apocalypse are meant those who 
are in truths derived from good, or in faith derived from char 
ity, because these can teach from the Lord, that is, the Lord 
can teach and minister by them. In this sense they are called 
servants in Matthew : " In the consummation of the age, who 
then is a faithful and wise servant, whom his Lord haul made 
ruler over his household, to give them their meat in due season : 
blessed is that servant whom his Lord when he cometh shall 
find so doing," xxiv. 45. And in Luke : " Blessed are those 
servants, whom the Lord when he cometh shall find watching : 
verily, I say unto you, that he shall gird himself, and make 
them to sit down to meat, and will come forth and serve them," 
xii. 37. In heaven all are called servants of the Lord, who are 
in his spiritual kingdom ; but they who are in his celestial 
kingdom are called ministers ; the reason is, because they who 
are in his spiritual kingdom, are in wisdom from divine truth ; 
and they who are in his celestial kingdom* are in love from 
divine good ; and good ministers and truth serves. But in an 
opposite sense, by servants are meant those who serve the devil ; 
these are in a state of real servitude ; but they who serve the 
Lord are in a state of liberty; as the Lord also teaches in John 
viii. 3236. 

4. Things which must shortly come to pass, signifies that 

ol 



5 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. i. 

they will certainly be, lest the church perish. By coming to 
pass shortly, is not meant that the things which are foretold in 
the Apocalypse, will happen immediately and speedily, hut cer 
tainly ; and that unless they do happen the church must perish. 
In the divine idea, and thence in the spiritual sense, there is no 
time, but instead of time, there is state; and because shortly 
relates to time, by it is signified certainly, and that it will come 
to pass before its time ; for the Apocalypse was given in the 
first century, and since that seventeen centuries have now 
elapsed, from which it is evident, that by shortly is signified 
that which corresponds to it, and that is, certainly. The like is 
also involved in these words of the Lord : " Except those days 
should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved ; but for the 
elect s sake, those days shall be shortened, 7 Matt. xxiv. 22 : by 
which also is understood, that except the church should come 
to an end before its time, it would totally perish ; in that chap 
ter the consummation of the age and the Lord s corning are 
treated of; and by the consummation of the age is meant the 
last state of the old church, and by the Lord s coming, the first 
state of the new. It was observed that in the divine idea there 
is no time, but a presence of all things past and future ; where 
fore it is said by David, " A thousand years in thy sight are 
but as yesterday," Psalm xc. 4 : and again, " I will declare the 
decree, Jehovah hath said unto me, Thou art my son, this day 
have I begotten thee," Psalm ii. 7 : this day denotes the pres 
ence of the Lord s advent. Thence also it is, that an entire 
period is called day in the Word, and its first state the dawning 
and the morning, and its last evening and night. 

5. And he signified [it], sending by his angel to his servant 
John, signifies the things which are revealed from the Lord 
through heaven, to those who are in the good of life derived 
from charity and its faith. By signified [it], sending by his 
angel, in the spiritual sense, is meant things revealed from hea 
ven, or through heaven from the Lord : for by angel in the 
Word is everywhere understood the angelic heaven, and in a 
supreme sense the Lord himself; the reason is, because no angel 
ever speaks with man in a state of separation from heaven ; for 
there is such a conjunction of each individual with all in hea 
ven, that every one speaks from the communion, although the 
angel is not conscious of it : for heaven in the sight of the Lord is 
ns one man, whose soul is the Lord himself; wherefore the Lord 
speaks with man through heaven, as man does from his soul 
through his body with another; and this is done in conjunction 
with all and every thing of his mind, in the midst of which are 
the things which he speaks ; but this arcanum cannot be un 
folded in a few words; it is partly unfolded in The Angelic 
Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom : 
hence it is evident, that by angel is signified heaven, and in 



V, *2.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 6 

a supreme sense the Lord. The reason why by angel the Lord 
is understood in a supreme sense, is, because heaven is not hea 
ven from any thing proper to the angels, but from the divine of 
the Lord,* from which is derived their love and wisdom, yea 
their life ; hence it is that the Lord himself is called an angel 
in the Word. From these considerations it appears that tlie 
angel did not speak from himself with John ; but the Lord out 
of the midst of heaven by him. By these words is meant, that 
this is revealed to those who are in the good of life derived 
from charity and its faith, because these are understood by 
John; for by the twelve disciples or apostles of the Lord, are 
understood all who are of the church in truths from good ; and 
in an abstract sense, all things of the church ; and by Peter, all 
who are in faith, and, abstractedly, faith itself; by James, they 
who are in charity, and, abstractedly, charity itself; and by 
John, they who are in the good of life from charity and its 
faith, and, abstractedly, good of life itself derived thence : that 
these things are meant by John, James, and Peter in the Word 
of the evangelists, may be seen in a Treatise concerning the 
New Jerusalem a\id its Heavenly Doctrine, n. 122. Since good 
of life, grounded in charity and its faith, constitutes the church, 
therefore, by the apostle John were revealed the arcana con 
cerning the state of the church which are contained in his 
visions. That by all the names of persons and places in the 
Word are signified things of heaven and the church, is abun 
dantly shown in the Arcana Ocelestia. From these considera 
tions it may appear, that by signified [it], sending by his angel 
to his servant John, is understood, in the spiritual sense, what 
is revealed by the Lord through heaven to those who are in the 
good of life derived from charity and its faith ; for charity through 
faith operates good, and not charity by itself, nor faith by itself. 
6. Who bore witness of the Word of God, and the testimony 
of Jesus Christ, signifies who, from their heart, and so in the 
light, receive divine truth from the "Word, and acknowledge the 
Lord s Humanity to be divine. It is said of John that he bore 
witness of the Word of God ; but as by John are meant all who 
are principled in good of life from charity and its faith, as was 
said above, n. 5, therefore in the spiritual sense all these are 
understood : the angels, who are in the spiritual sense of the 
Word, never know any name of a person mentioned in the 
Word, but only that which the person represents and thence 
signifies, which, instead of John, is good of life, or good in act ; 
consequently all in the aggregate who are in that good : these 
witness, that is. see, acknowledge, receive cordially in light, and 
confess the truths of the Word, especially that truth therein 

* Tfeo words of our author, Divino Domini, may require the terms sphere, or 
influence, or Holy Spirit, to give them their full meaning: which the iidelliirenV 
reader can <5npplv, or not, as he thinks best. 

33 n 



T THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Cliap. 1. 

tkat the Lord s Humanity is divine ; which may appear from 
the passages quoted from the Word in great abundance in the 
Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord. By Jesus 
Christ and by the Lamb in the Apocalypse is understood, the 
Lord as to the Divine Humanity, and by God, the Lord as to 
his Divinity, from which are all things. With regard to the 
spiritual signification of witnessing or testifying, this is predi 
cated of truth, because in the world the truth is to be testified 
or witnessed, and when it is testified, it is acknowledged ; but 
in heaven truth testifies of itself because it is itself the light of 
heaven ; for when the angels hear the truth, they instantly 
know and acknowledge it ; and because the Lord is truth itself, 
as he himself teaches in John xiv. 6, he is in heaven the testi 
mony of himself ; hence it may appear, what is meant by the 
testimony of Jesus Christ ; wherefore the Lord saith, "Ye sent 
unto John, and he bare witness unto the truth ; but I receive 
not testimony from man," John v. 33 ; and in another place : 
" John came for a witness, to bear witness of the light ; he was 
not that light ; the Word which was with God, and was God, 
and was made flesh, was the true light, which lighteth every 
man," John i. 1, 2, 7, 8, 14, 34 ; and^in another place : " Jesus 
said, Though I bare record of myself, yet my record is true, for 
I know whence I came, and whither I go," John viii. 14. 
" When the Comforter is come, even the spirit of truth, he shall 
testify of me," John xv. 26 ; by the Comforter, the spirit of 
truth, is meant the truth itself proceeding from the Lord, where 
fore it is said of him, that he will not speak from himself, but 
from the Lord, John xvi. 13, 14, 15. 

7. Whatsoever things he saw, signifies their illumination in 
all the things which are in this revelation. By whatsoever 
things he saw, in the spiritual sense, are not meant the things 
which John saw, for they were only visions, but the things 
which they see who are understood by John, who are such as 
are principled in good of life, grounded in charity and its faith, 
, as was said above ; these see in the visions of John, arcana con 
cerning the state of the church, not so much when they read 
themselves, but when they see them revealed. To see signifies 
to understand ; on this account in common discourse it is said, 
that any one sees a thing, and that he sees that it is a truth ; 
for sight pertains as much to a man s spirit as to his body ; _but 
man with his spirit sees spiritual things, because from the light 
of heaven, but with his body he sees natural things, ^because 
this sees from the light of the world , and spiritual things are 
real things, but natural things are their forms: it is the spiritual 
Bight of man which is called intellect. It is, therefore, evident 
what is meant, in the spiritual sense, by whatsoever things he 
saw ; in like manner in what follows, where it is said that he 
saw them 
34 



7. 3.J THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 8 

8. Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words 
of the prophecy, and keep those things which are written there 
in, signifies the communion of those with the angels of heaven, 
who live according to the doctrines of the New Jerusalem. By 
blessed, is here meant one who, as to his spirit, is in heaven ; 
thus, one who, while he lives in the world, is in communion 
with the angels of heaven: for such a one, as to his spirit, is in 
heaven ; by the words of this prophecy nothing else is under 
stood than the doctrine of the ]^ew Jerusalem, for by prophet, 
in an abstract sense, is signified the doctrine of the church de 
rived from the Word, thus here the doctrine of the New Church, 
which is the New Jerusalem ; the same is signified by prophecy. 
By reading, hearing, and keeping the things which are written 
therein, is signified, to desire to know that doctrine ; to attend 
to the things which are written in it, and to do them ; in short, 
to live according to it : that they are not blessed who only read, 
hear and keep or retain in the memory the things which were 
seen by John, is clear, see below, n. 944. The reason why pro 
phet signifies the doctrine of the church derived from the Word, 
and prophecy the same, is, because the Word was written by 
prophets, and in heaven a person is regarded according to that 
which belongs to his function and office; according to this, 
also, is every man, spirit, and angel, named in heaven ; where 
fore, when the word prophet is used, his function being to write 
and teach the Word, the Word is understood as to doctrine, or 
doctrine derived from the Word. Hence it is, that the Lord, 
being the Word itself, was called a prophet, Deut. xviii. 15 
2-0, Matt. xiii. 57, chap. xxi. 1, Luke xiii. 33. To show, that by 
prophet is meant doctrine of the church derived from the Word, 
some passages shall be adduced, from which this may be col 
lected. In Matthew : " In the consummation of the age many 
false prophets shall arise, and shall deceive many. There shall 
arise false Christs and false prophets, and, if it were possible, 
they shall deceive the very elect," xxiv. 11, 24 ; the consum 
mation of the age is the last time of the church, which is at 
hand, when there are not false prophets, but false principles of 
doctrine. In the same : " He that receiveth a prophet in the 
name of a prophet, shall receive a prophets reward ; and he 
that receiveth a righteous man in the name of a righteous man, 
Bhall receive a righteous man s reward," x. 41 ; to receive a 
prophet in the name of a prophet, is to receive the doctrine of 
truth because it is true : and to receive a righteous man in the 
name of a righteous man, is to receive good for the sake of 
good ; and to receive a reward, is to be saved according to re 
ception ; it is evident that no one receives a reward, or is saved, 
because he receives a prophet and a righteous man in the name 
of such. Those wcrds cannot be understood by any one, with 
out knowing what a prophet and a righteous man signify 
35 



> THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. 1. 

M either can tlie following: "That whosoever shall give to drink 
unto one of these little ones a cnp of cold water only, in the 
name of a disciple, shall in no wise lose his reward ; y by dis 
ciple is understood charity, and at the same time faith from the 
Lt>rd. In Joel : " I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh, and 
your sons and your daughters shall prophesy" chap. ii. 28 ; 
speaking of the church which was to be established by the 
Lord, in which, they would not prophesy, but receive doctrine, 
which is to prophesy. In Matthew : " Jesus said. Many will 
say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have w r e not prophesied in 
thy name ? but then will I profess unto them, I never knew you ; 
depart from me, ye that work iniquity," chap. vii. 22, 23 ; who 
does not see, that they would not say that they have prophesied, 
but that they knew r the doctrine of the church, and taught it ? 
In the Apocalypse : " The time is come that the dead should be 
judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants 
the prophets" chap. xi. 18 ; and in another place, " Rejoice 
over her, thou heaven, and ye holy apostles and prophets, for 
God hath avenged you on her," chap, xviii. 20 : that a reward 
would not be given to the prophets alone, and that the apostles 
and prophets would not alone rejoice at the last judgment, is 
evident ; but all who have received truths of doctrine, and have 
lived according to them these, therefore, are understood by 
apostles and prophets. So in Moses : " Jehovah said unto 
Moses, See, I have made thee a god of Pharaoh, and Aaron 
thy brother shall be thy prophet" Exod. vii. 1 : by God is 
understood divine truth as to reception from the Lord, in which 
sense the angels are also called gods, and by prophet is under 
stood one who teaches and utters it, therefore Aaron is here 
called a prophet. The same is signified by prophet in other 
places, as in the following : " The law shall not perish from the 
p.iest, nor counsel from the wise, nor the Word from the pro 
phet" Jerem. xviii. 18. "From the prophets of Jerusalem is 
profaneness gone forth into all the land," Jerem. xxiii. 15. 
" The prophets shall become wind, and the Word is not in 
them, Jerem. v. 13. "The priest and the prophet have erred 
through strong drink, they are swallowed up of wine, they 
stumble in judgment," Isaiah xxviii. 7. "The sun shall go 
down over the prophets, and the day shall be dark over them," 
Micah iii. 6. " From the prophet even unto the priest, every 
one dealeth falsely," Jerem. viii. 10 ; in these passages, by pro 
phets and priests, in the spiritual sense, are not meant prophets 
and priests, but the universal church ; by prophets, the church 
as to truth of doctrine, and by priests, the church as to good 
of life, both which were destroyed ; these things are so under 
stood by the angels in heaven ; while, by men in the world, 
they are understood according to the sense of the letter. That 
the prophets represented the state of the church as to doctrine, 
"36 



V. 3, 4.J THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. 9j 10 

and that the Lord represented it as to the Word itself, may be 
seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the 
Lord, n. 15 17. 

9. For the time is at hand, signifies that the state of the 
church is such, that it cannot endure any longer, so as to be in 
conjunction with the Lord. There are two essentials by which 
conjunction with the Lord, and thence salvation is effected, the 
acknowledgment of one God, and repentance of life / but at this 
day, instead of the acknowledgment of one God, there is an 
acknowledgment of three, and instead of repentance of life, 
thei-e is only an oral confession of sin ; and by these two there 
is riot any conjunction : unless, therefore, a new church should 
arise, which acknowledges these two essentials, and lives accord 
ingly, no one can be saved ; on account of this danger the time 
is shortened \)y the Lord, according to his own words in Mat 
thew : " For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not 
since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall 
be ; and except those days should be shortened, there should be 
no flesh saved," xxiv. 21, 22. That nearness of time, or its 
being at hand, is not understood, may be seen below, n. 947. 

10. John to the seven churches, signifies to all who are in 
the Christian world w r here the Word is, and by it the Lord is 
known, and who accede to the church. By the seven churches 
are not to be understood seven churches, but all who are of the 
church in the Christian world ; for numbers, in the Word, sig 
nify things, and seven, all things and all, and thence, also, what 
is rail and perfect, and it occurs in the Word where any thing 
holy is treated of, and, in an opposite sense, where it treats of 
any thing profane ; consequently, this number involves what is 
holy, and, in an opposite sense, what is profane. The reason 
why numbers signify things, or rather resemble certain adjec 
tives to substantives denoting some quality in things, is, because 
number is, in itself, natural ; for natural things are determined 
by numbers, but spiritual things by things and their states : 
therefore, he who is ignorant of the signification of numbers in 
the Word, and especially in the Apocalypse, must be ignorant 
of many arcana which are contained therein. Now, since seven 



signifies all things and all, it may appear that by seven churches 
are meant all who are in the Christian world where the Word 
is, and where consequently the Lord is known : these, if they 
live according to the Lord s precepts in the Word, constitute 
the true church. For this reason the sabbath was instituted 
on the seventh day, and the seventh year w T as called the Sabba 
tarian year ; and the seven times seventh year the jubilee, by 
which was signified every thing holy in the church : for this 
cause, also, a week, in Daniel, and elsewhere, signifies an entire 
period, from beginning to end, and is predicated of the church. 
The same is signified by seven in the following passages : as, 
37 



10 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [CLap. 1. 

By the seven golden candlesticks, in the midst of which was one 
like unto the Son of Man, Apoc. i. 13. By the seven stars in 
his right hand, Apoc. i. 1 6, 20. By the seven spirits of God, 
Apoc. i. 4 ; iv. 5. By the seven lamps of fire, Apoc. iv. 5. By 
the seven angels, to whom were given seven trumpets, Apoc. 
viii. 2. By the seven angels having the seven last plagues, Apoc. 
xv. 6. By the seven vials full of the seven last plagues, Apoc. 
xvi. 1 ; xxi. 9. By the seven seals with which the book was 
sealed, Apoc. v. 1. In like manner in the following places: 
That their hands should be filled seven days, Exod. xxix. 35. 
That they should be sanctified seven days, Exod. xxix, 37. That 
when they were consecrated they should go clothed in the holy 
garments seven days, Exod. xxix. 30. Tliat they were not to 
go out of the door of the tabernacle seven days, when they were 
initiated into the priesthood, Levit. viii. 33, 35. That an atone 
ment was to be made seven times upon the horns of the altar, 
Levit. xvi. 18, 19. That the altar was to be sanctified with oil 
seven times, Levit. viii. 11. That the blood was to be sprinkled 
seven times before the vail, Levit. iv. 16, 17. And also seven 
times towards the east, Levit. xvi. 12 15. That the water 
of separation w r as to be sprinkled seven times towards the 
tabernacle, Numbers xix. 4. That the passover was celebrated 
seven days ; and unleavened bread was eaten seven days, Exod. 
xii. 15 ; Deut. xvi. 4 7. In like manner, that the Jews were 
to be punished seven times more for their sins, Levit. xxvi. IS, 
21, 24, 28. Wherefore David saith, Render unto our neigh 
bour seven-fold into their bosom, Psalm Ixxix. 12. Seven-fold 
is fully. Likewise in these places : " The words of Jehovah are 
pure words, as silver tried in a furnace of earth, purified seven 
times," Psalm xii. 6. "The hungry ceased, so that the barren 
hath borne seven, and she that hath many children is waxed 
feeble," 1 Sain. ii. 5. The barren is the church of the Gentiles, 
who had not the Word ; she that had many children is the 
church of the Jews, who had the Word. " She who hath borne 
seven languisheth, she hath given up the ghost," Jerem. xv. 9. 
In like manner: "They that dwell in the cities of Israel shall 

fo forth and set on fire and burn the weapons, and they shall 
urn them with fire seven years : they shall bury Gog, and 
seven months shall they be cleansing the land," Ezek. xxxix. 9, 
12. " The unclean spirit will take with him seven spirits more 
wicked than himself," Matt. xii. 45. Profanation is here de- 
Bcribed, and by the seven spirits with which he would return, 
are signified all falses of evil ; thus a plenary or total extinc 
tion of goodness and truth. By the seven heads of the dragon, 
and the seven crowns upon his head, Apoc. xii. 3, is signified 
the profanation of all goodness and truth. It is evident from 
what has been said, that seven involves what is hoty or profane, 
and signifies all things and fulness. 

35 
O 



V. 4.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 11, 12 

11. Which are in Asia, signifies, to those who are in the 
light of truth from the Word. Since, by all the names of per 
sons and places in the Word, things of heaven and the church 
are understood, as was before observed ; so, therefore, Asia and 
the names of the seven churches therein, signify the same, as 
will appear from what follows. The reason why they who are 
in the light of truth from the Word, are understood by Asia, is, 
because the most ancient church, and, after it, the ancient, 
and then the Israelitish church, were established in Asia ; also, 
because the ancient Word, and, after it, the Israelitish Word, 
was among them ; and all the light of truth comes from the 
Word. That the ancient churches were in Asia, and that a 
Word which was afterwards lost, and lastly, the Word which 
is extant at this day, w r as among them, may be seen in The 
Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scrip 
ture, n. 101, 102, 103. On this account it is, that by Asia are 
here signified all who are in the light of truth from the Word. 

" Concerning this ancient Word, which was extant in Asia 
before the Israelitish Word, it is worth while to mention, that 
it is still preserved among the people who inhabit Great Tartary ; 
I have conversed with spirits and angels in the spiritual world 
who came thence, who said that they possess a Word, and have 
possessed it from ancient times ; and that in conformity to this 
Word, their divine worship is established ; and that it consists 
of mere correspondences : they said that it contains the book 
of Jasher, which is mentioned in Joshua x. 12, 13, and 2 Sam. 
i. 17, 18, and also, that they possess the books mentioned by 
Moses, as The Wars of Jehovah and the Propheticals, Num. 
xxi. 14, 15, and 27 30 ; and when I read to them the words 
quoted thence by Moses, they examined whether they were 
extant there, and found them: from which circumstance it is 
very clear to me that the old Word is still preserved among 
them. In the course of the conversation, they said that they 
worship Jehovah, some as an invisible, and some as a visible 
God. Moreover they related that they do not suffer foreigners 
to come among them, except the Chinese, with whom they cul 
tivate peace, because the emperor of China is from their coun 
try ; and further, that they are so populous, that they do not 
believe any country in the world to be more so ; which is very 
credible from the wall so many miles long, which the Chinese 
formerly built as a defence against any invasion from them. 
Seek for it in China, and peradventure you may find it there 
among the Tartars." 

12. Grace be unto you and peace, signifies divine salutation. 
What is understood specifically by grace and peace, will be ex 
plained in w r hat follows ; that " peace be unto you" was the 
Lord s salutation to his disciples, thus the divine salutation,, 
may be seen in Luke xxiv. 36, 37; John xx. 19, 20, 21; and 

39 



13, 14 THE APOCALYPSE EEVKALED. [Chap, i. 

by command of the Lord, it was the salutation of the disciples 
to all to whom they should enter in, Matt. x. 11 13. 

13. From him who is, who was, and is to come, signifies, 
from the Lord who is eternal and infinite, and who is Jehovah. 
That it is the Lord, appears clearly from what follows in this 
chapter, where it is said that he heard a voice from the Son of 
Man, saying, " I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First arid 
the Last," verse 11, 13 ; and afterwards, " I am the First and 
the Last," verse 17 ; and in the following chapter, verse 8 ; and 
afterwards, chap. xxi. 6; xxii. 12; and in Isaiah: " Thus saith 
Jehovah, the Kiii^ of Israel, and his Redeemer Jehovah of 
Hosts : I am the First, and I am the Last, and beside me there 
is no God," xliv. 6 ; also xlviii. 12 ; and he who is the First 
and the Last, is he who is, and who was, and who is to come. 
This also is to be understood by Jehovah; for the name of Je 
hovah signifies is, and he who is, or who is esse itself, the same 
is also he who was, and is to come, for in him the past and the 
future are present ; hence he is without time eternal, and with 
out place infinite : this also is acknowledged by the church in 
the Doctrine of the Trinity, called Athanasian, in which are 
these words: "The Father is eternal and infinite, the Son is 
eternal and infinite, and the Holy Spirit is eternal and infinite ; 
but yet there are not three eternals and infinites, but one ;" 
that this one is the Lord, is demonstrated in The Doctrine of 
the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord. 

14. And from the seven spirits which are before his throne, 
signifies, from the universal heaven where the Lord is in his 
divine truth, and where his divine truth is received. By seven 
spirits are meant all who are in divine truth, and, in an abstract 
sense, the divine true or divine truth itself; that seven in the 
Word means all and every thing, may be seen above, n. 10; and 
that by throne is understood the universal heaven, will be seen 
presently ; therefore by being before his throne, is meant where 
his divine truth is ; for heaven is not heaven from any thing 
proper to the angels, but from the divine of the Lord, as is 
fully shown in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Pro 
vidence and the Divine Love. That the Lord s throne signifies 
heaven, is evident from the following passages : " Thus saith 
Jehovah, Heaven is my throne" Isaiali Ixvi. 1. "Jehovah 
hath prepared his throne in. the heavens," Psalm ciii. 19. "He 
that sweareth by heaven, sweareth by the throne of God, and 
by him that sitteth thereon," Matt, xxiii. 22. " Above the fir 
mament that was over the heads of the cherubim, was the like 
ness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone, and 
upon it the likeness as the appearance of a man," Ezek. i. 26 ; 
x. 1 ; by the firmament over the heads of the cherubim, ia 
meant heaven ; and in the Apocalypse : " To him that over- 
Cometh, will I grant to sit with me in my throne" iii. 21 ; in 

40 



V. 4, 5.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 1517 

my throne, is in heaven ; specifically, where his divine truth 
reigns ; thus also, where judgment is treated of, it is said, that 
the Lord will sit upon a throne, for judgment is performed by 
truths. 

15. And from Jesus Christ, signifies the Divine Humanity. 
That by Jesus Christ and by the Lamb in the Word, is meant 
the Lord as to his Divine Humanity, may be seen above, n. 6. 

16. Who is the faithful witness, signifies that he is Divine 
Truth itself. That witness is predicated of truth, and that the 
truth testifies of itself, thus the Lord, who is Divine Truth itself, 
and the Word, may be seen above, n. 6. 

17. The first-begotten from the dead, signifies that he is 
Divine Goodness itself. What the first-begotten from the dead 
means, no one as yet knows ; even the ancients disputed about 
the signification of it : they knew that by first-begotten is sig 
nified what is first and primary, from which is the all of the 
church ; and it was believed by many, that it was truth in doc 
trine and in faith ; but by few, that it was truth in act and oper 
ation, which is good of life. That this is the first and primary 
of the church, and thence in a strict sense is meant by first- 
begotten, will be seen presently ; but first something shall be said 
on the opinion of those who believed, that truth in doctrine and 
in faith is the first and primary of the church, thus the first- 
begotten. They believed this, because it is first learnt, and be 
cause a church is a church by virtue of truth, though not before 
it forms a part of the life ; until this happens, it is only in the 
thought of the understanding, and in the memory, and not in 
the act of the will ; and truth, w r hich is not truth in act or 
operation, has no life ; it is only like a luxuriant tree having 
branches and leaves, but no fruit; and it is like knowledge 
without any application to use ; and like the foundation upon 
which a house is built to be lived in. These things are first as 
to time, but they are not first as to end ; and what is first as to 
end is primary ; for habitation is the first as to end, but the 
foundation is the first as to time ; use also is first as to end, and 
knowledge is first as to time ; in like manner the first thing as 
to end, when a tree is planted, is the fruit, but the first things 
as to time are the branches and leaves. With the understand 
ing it is similar, which is formed in man first, but to this end, 
that what a man sees with his understanding, he may bring 
into act ; otherwise the understanding is like a preacher, who 
teaches well, but lives ill. Beside all truth is sown in the in 
ternal man, and rooted in the external ; wherefore, unless the 
truth that is inseminated takes root in the external man, 
which is effected by doing it, it becomes like a tree planted, 
not in the ground, but upon it, which withers on exposure 
to the heat of the sun : the man who has acted up to the truth, 
takes this root with him after death ; but not the man who had 

41 



17 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. 1 

only known and acknowledged it now as in faith. Many of 
the ancients made that which is first as to time, the first also as 
to end, that is, primary ; therefore they said, that first-begotten 
signified truth in doctrine and faith in the church ; not know 
ing that this is the first-begotten apparently, and not actually. 
But :ill they who have made truth in doctrine and in faitli 
primary, are condemned, because in this there is nothing of 
action or operation, or nothing of life ; therefore Cain, who 
was the first-begotten of Adam and Eve, was condemned : that 
by him is signified truth in doctrine and in faith, may be seen 
in the Angelic Wisdcm concerning the Divine Providence, n. 
242. And Reuben also, who was the first-begotten of Jacob, 
was condemned by his father, Genesis xlix. 3, 4, and his birth 
right taken from him, 1 Chron. v. 1 ; that by Reuben, in the 
spiritual sense, is meant truth in doctrine and in faith, will be 
seen presently. By the first-born of Egypt, which were all cut 
off, because condemned, nothing else is meant in the spiritual 
sense, but truth in doctrine and in faith separate from the good 
of life, which truth is in itself dead. By the goats in Daniel 
and in Matthew, none others are to be understood, but those 
who are m faith separate from life, concerning whom see The 
Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning Faith, n. 61 68. 
That they who were in. faitli separate from life, were rejected 
and condemned about the time of the last judgment, may be 
seen in The Continuation concerning the Last Judgment, n. 16, 
and following ones. From this brief account it may appear, 
that truth in doctrine and in faith is not the first-begotten of 
the church ; but truth in act or operation, which is good of life ; 
for the church is not in man, unless truth is in the life, and 
when truth is in the life, then it is good ; for the thought of 
the understanding, and the memory, do not flow into the will, 
and through the will into act; but the will flows into the 
thought of the understanding, and into the memory, and acts ; 
and what proceeds from the will, through the understanding, 
proceeds from affection, which is of love, through the thought, 
which is of the understanding, and is all called good, as it enters 
into the life ; wherefore the Lord saith, that " he who doeth the 
ttuth cometh to the light, that his deeds may be made mani 
fest, that they are wrought in God," John iii. 21. Because 
John represents the good of life, and Peter the truth of faith, 
as may be seen above, n. 5, therefore John leaned on the 
Lord s breast, and followed Jesus, but not Peter, John xxi. 18 
21 ; the Lord also said of John, that he should tarry till he 
came, verse 22, 23 ; thus to this day,*which is the Lord s com 
ing ; the good of life is therefore now taught by the Lord for 
those who are to be of his 2s"ew Church, which is the New Je 
rusalem. In short, that is the first-begotten which truth first 
produces from good, thus what the understanding produces from 



V. 5.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 18, 19 

the will ; because truth is of the understanding, and good is of 
the will : this first is primary, because it is as the seed from 
which proceeds every thing else. So the Lord is the first-be 
gotten from the dead, because he, as to his Humanity, is the 
truth itself united to the divine good, from whom all men, who 
in themselves are dead, are made alive. The same is under 
stood in David : " I will make him my first-born higher than 
the kings of the earth," Psalm Ixxxix. 27 ; speaking of the Lord s 
Humanity. It is on this account that Israel is called the first 
born, Exod. iv. 22, 23 : by Israel is understood truth in act, and 
by Jacob truth in doctrine ; and because there is no church 
from the latter alone, therefore Jacob was named Israel ; but 
in a supreme sense by Israel is meant the Lord. On account of 
this representation of the first-born, all the first-born and all the 
first-fruits were sanctified to Jehovah, Exod. xiii. 2, 12 ; xxii. 29. 
On account of this representation of the first-born, the Levites 
were taken instead of all the first-born in the Israelitish church ; 
and it is said that thereby they belonged to Jehovah, Numbers 
iii. 12, 13 46, xviii. 15 18 : for by Levi is signified truth in act, 
which is the ^ood of life ; and therefore the priesthood was given 
to his posterity, which will be treated of below. For the same 
reason a double portion of the inheritance Avas given to the first 
born, and he was called the beginning of strength, Deut. xxi. 
15 17. The reason why first-born signifies th*, primary of 
the church, is, because in the "Word by natural births, spiritual 
births are signified, and then what first produces them in man, 
is understood by his first-born ; for there is no church in him, 
until the truth of doctrine conceived in the internal man is 
brought forth in the external. 

18. And the prince of the kings of the earth, signifies, from 
whom is derived all truth proceeding from good in the church. 
This follows from what has gone before, because by faithful 
witness, the Lord as to divine truth is signified ; and by first- 
begotten, the Lord as to divine good ; therefore by prince of 
the earth, is signified, that all good from truth in the church 
is from him ; the reason why this is signified by prince of the 
kings of the earth, is, because by kings in the spiritual sense of 
the Word, are meant those that are in truths derived from good, 
and, abstractedly, truths from good ; and by earth is understood 
the church : that this is the signification of kings and earth, 
may be seen below, n. 20 and n. 285. 

19. To him that loved us and washed us from our sins in 
his blood, signifies, who out of love and mercy reforms and re 
generates men by his divine truths from the Word. That to 
wash us from our sins is to purify from evils, thus to reform 
and regenerate, is evident ; for regeneration is spiritual wash 
ing ; but that by his blood, is not meant the passion of the cross, 
as many believe, but divine truth proceeding from him, may 

48 



20 THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. [Cliap. 1- 

appeal^ from many passages in the "Word, which it would be 
too tedious here to adduce, but they will be adduced below, 11. 
379, 653. In the mean time, see what is said and shown con 
cerning the signification of the Lord s flesh a ad blood in the 
holy supper, as set forth in The New Jerusalem and its Hea 
venly^ Doctrine, n. 212 222 ; and concerning spiritual washing, 
which is regeneration, in the same, n. 202 209. 

20. And hath made us kings and priests, signifies, who gives 
to those who are born of him, that is, who are regenerated, to 
be in wisdom from divine truths, and in love from Si vine goods. 
It is well known, that in the Word the Lord is called a king, 
and also a priest ; he is called a king from his divine wisdom, 
and a priest from his divine love ; therefore, they who are in 
wisdom from the Lord are called kings sons, and also kings ; 
and they who are in love from him, are called ministers and 
priests ; for the love and wisdom in them is not from them 
selves, thus not their own, but the Lord s ; hence it is that they 
are meant in the Word by kings and priests ; not that they are 
such, but that the Lord is such in them, and causes them to be 
so called. They are also called born of him, sons of the king 
dom, sons of the Father, and heirs ; " born of him," John i. 12, 
13, that is, born again, or regenerated, John iii. 3, and subse 
quent verses : " children of the kingdom," Matt. viii. 12, xiii. 
38 ; " children of your Father which is in heaven," Matt. v. 45 ; 
" heirs," Psalm cxxvii. 3, 1 Sam. ii. 8, Matt. xxv. 34 ; and 
because they are called heirs, sons of the kingdom, and born of 
the Lord as their Father, they are denominated kings and 
priests : then also it is said that " they will sit with the Lord 
upon his throne," Apoc. iii. 21. There are two kingdoms into 
which the universal heaven is distinguished, the spiritual king 
dom and the celestial kingdom ; the spiritual kingdom is what 
is called the Lord s royalty, and as all who are therein are in 
wisdom from truths, therefore they are meant by kings, which 
the Lord will make those men who are in wisdom from 
him ; and the celestial kingdom is what is called the Lord s 
priesthood, and all who are there, are in love from good, there 
fore they are meant by priests, which the Lord will make thosb 
men who are in love from him : in like manner, the Lord s 
church upon earth is distinguished into two kingdoms ; con 
cerning those two kingdoms, see the work On Heaven and Hell, 
n. 24, 226. He who does not know the spiritual signification 
of kings and priests, may be led into mistakes by many things 
which are recorded concerning them in the prophets and in 
the Apocalypse ; as in the following instances in the prophets : 
" The sons of strangers shall build up thy walls, and their kings 
shall minister unto thee ; thou shalt also suck the milk of the 
Gentiles, and shalt suck the breasts of kings ; and thou shalt 
know that I Jehovah am thy Saviour and thy Redeemer," Isaiah 
44 



7. 5, 6.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 20 

Ix. 10, 10. " Kings shall be thy nursing fathers, and their 
queens thy nursing mothers," Isaiah xlix. 23 ; aiid in other 
places, as in Genesis xlix. 20 ; Psalm ii. 10 ; Isaiah xiv. 9 ; 
xxiv. 21 ; lii. 15 ; Jerem. ii. 26 ; iv. 9 ; Ixix. 3 ; Lament, ii. 6. 
9 ; Ezek. vii. 26, 27 ; Hosea iii. 4 ; Zeplian. i. 8 : by kings in 
these passages, kings are not understood, but they who are in 
divine truths from the Lord, and, abstractedly, divine truths, 
from which is derived wisdom. Neither are kings meant by the 
king of the south and the king of the north, who waged war 
with each other, Daniel xi. 1, and subsequent verses ; but by 
the king of the south are meant those who are in truths, and 
by the king of the north those who are in falses. It is the 
same in the Apocalypse, where kings are frequently mentioned ; 
as in the following passages : " And the sixth angel poured out 
his vial upon the great river Euphrates, and the water thereof 
was dried up, that the way of the kings of the east might be 
prepared," xvi. 12. u The kings of the earth have committed 
fornication with the great whore that sitteth upon many waters," 
xvii. 2. " For all nations have drunk of the wine of the 
wrath of the fornication of Babylon, and the kings of the earth 
have committed fornication with her," xviii. 3. " And I saw 
the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies gathered 
together to make war against him that sat on the white horse," 
xix. 19. " And the nations of them which are saved shall 
walk in the light of it, and the kings of the earth do bring 
their glory and honour into the New Jerusalem," xxi. 24; and 
in other places, as xvii. 9 14 ; xviii. 9, 10 ; by kings are here 
meant those who are in truths, and, in an opposite sense, those 
who are in falses ; and, abstractedly, truths or falses ; by the 
fornication of Babylon with the kings of the earth is meant 
the falsification of the truth of the church ; that Babylon, or 
the woman who sat upon the scarlet-coloured beast, did not 
commit fornication with kings, but that she falsified the truths 
of the Word, is evident. It appears, therefore, that by kings, 
which the Lord will make those who are in wisdom from him, 
it is not to be understood that they will be kings, but that they 
will be wise ; the evidence of which enlightened reason can 
discern. So in the following passages : " Thou hast made us 
unto our God kings and priests, and we shall reign upon the 
earth," Apoc. v. 10. That the Lord, by a king, meant truth, 
is evident from his own words to Pilate : " Pilate said unto him, 
Art thou not a king then ? Jesus answered, Thou sayest that 
I am a king ; to this end was I born, and for this cause came 
I into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth ; 
every one that is of the truth heareth my voice : Pilate saith 
unto him, What is truth?" John xviii. 37, 38; to bear wit 
ness unto the truth, means that he himself is truth ; and be 
cause from it he called himself a king, Pilate said, what ia 



21 23 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. 1 

truth, that is, truth is a king. That priests signify those who 
are in the good of love, and, abstracted from person, the goods 
of love, will appear in what follows. 

21. Unto God and his Father, signifies, and thus images of 
his divine wisdom, and of his divine love. By God and Father, 
in the spiritual sense, two persons are not understood ; but by 
God is understood the Divinity as to wisdom, and by Father 
the Divinity as to love ; for there are two things in the Lord, 
divine wisdom and divine love, or divine truth and divine 
good ; these two are understood in the Old Testament by God 
and Jehovah, and here, by God and the Father. Now because 
the Lord teaches, that he and the Father are one, and that he is 
in the Father and the Father in him (John x. 30 ; xiv. 10, 11), 
by God and the Father are not understood two persons, but 
only the Lord; the Divinity also is one and indivisible, there 
fore by Jesus Christ making us kings and priests unto God and 
his Father, is signified, that they appear in his sight as images 
of his divine wisdom and of his divine love ; for in these two 
consists the image of God in men and angels. That the Divin 
ity, which in itself is one, is expressed by various names in the 
Word, may be seen in the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem con 
cerning the Lord. That the Lord himself is also the Father, is 
evident from the following places in Isaiah : " For unto us a 
child is born, unto us a son is given, and his name shall be 
called "Wonderful, Counsellor, the Mighty God, the Everlasting 
Father, the Prince of Peace," ix. 5. In the same : " Thou, 
Jehovah, art our Father, our Redeemer, thy name is fram 
everlasting," Ixiii. 16 ; and in John, u If ye had known me, ye 
should have known my Father also, and from henceforth ye do 
know him, and have seen him : Philip saith unto him, Lord, 
show us the Father ; Jesus saith unto him, He that hath seen 
me hath seen the Father, and how sayest thou then, Show us the 
Father? believe me, that I am in the Father, and the Father 
in me," xiv. 7, 8, 9, 11. See n. 960, below. 

22. To him ~be glory and might for ever and ever, signifies, 
to whom alone belong divine majesty and divine omnipotence 
to eternity. By glory in the Word, where the Lord is treated 
of, is understood the divine majesty ; this being predicated of 
his divine wisdom; and by might, is meant divine omnipo 
tence, this being predicated of his divine love ; and by for 
ever and ever, is meant eternity. That such is the meaning 
of glory, might, and ever and ever, when spoken of Jehovah or 
the Lord, may be confirmed from many passages in the Word. 

23. Amen, signifies divine confirmation from the truth, thus 
from himself. Amen signifies truth ; arid because the Lord was 
truth itself, he so often said, Amen (verily), I say unto you, as 
in Matt. v. 18, 26 ; vi. 16 ; x. 23, 42 ; xvii. 20 ; xviii. 13, 18 ; 
xxv. 12 ; xxviii. 20; John iii. 11 ; v. 19, 24, 25 ; vi. 26, 32, 47 

46 



V. T.J THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 24 

53; viii. 34, 51, 58 ; x. 7; xiii. 16, 20, 21; xd. 18, 25; and in 
the following passage in the Apocalypse : " These things saith 
the Amen, the faithful and true witness," iii. 14 ; that is, the 
Lord. That the Lord is truth itself, he himself teaches in John 
xiv. 6 ; xvii. 19. 

24. J3ehold he cometh with clouds, signifies that the Lord 
will reveal himself in the literal sense of the Word, and will 
open its spiritual sense at the end of the church. He who does 
not know any thing of the internal or spiritual sense of the 
Word, cannot know what was meant by the Lord concerning 
his coming in the clouds of heaven ; for he said unto the high 
priest, who adjured him to declare whether he was the Christ 
the Son of God, " Thou hast said ; nevertheless I say unto you, 
hereafter shall ye see the Son of Man sitting on the right hand 
of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven," Matt. xxvi. 64 ; 
Mark xiv. 61, 62 ; and where the Lord speaks to his disciples 
of the consummation of the age, he says, "And then shall ap 
pear the sign of the Son of Man in heaven ; and they shall see 
the Son of Man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and 
great glory," Matt. xxiv. 30 ; Mark xiii. 26. By the clouds of 
heaven in which he is to come, nothing else is meant but the 
Word in its literal sense ; and by the glory in which they will 
see him, the Word in its spiritual sense. That this is the case, 
is difficult to be believed by those who do not think beyond the 
literal sense of the Word ; with such, a cloud is a cloud, and 
thence comes their belief that the Lord will appear in the clouds 
of heaven, when the last judgment is at hand; but this idea 
falls to the ground, when it is known what is the meaning of 
cloud, and that it denotes divine truth in ultimates, and thus 
the Word in its literal sense. In the spiritual world there ap 
pear clouds as well as in the natural world; but the clouds in 
the spiritual world appear beneath the heavens, with those who 
are in the literal sense of the Word, darker or brighter accord 
ing to their understanding and reception of the" Word ; the 
reason is, because the light of heaven there is divine truth, 
and darkness there proceeds from falses ; consequently bright 
clouds are the divine truth veiled in appearances of truth, such 
as the Word is in the letter with those who are in truths ; and 
dark clouds are the divine truth covered with fallacies and con 
firmed appearances, such as the Word is in the letter with those 
who are in falses : I have often seen those clouds, and it was 
evident whence and what they are. Now because the Lord, 
after the glorification of his humanity, was made divine truth, 
or the Word, even in ultimates, he said unto the high priest, 
that hereafter they should " see the Son of Man coming in the 
clouds of heaven." But his saying to his disciples, that in the 
consummation of the age the sign of the Son of Man should 
appear, and that they snould see him coming in the douds of 
47 



2-1 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. 1. 

heaven with power and glory, signifies that at the end of the 
church, when the last judgment shall take place, he will appear 
in^the Word, and reveal its spiritual sense, which is also accom 
plished at this day, because now is the end of the church, and 
the last judgment has taken place, as may appear from the 
Treatise on the Last Judgment and its Continuation : this, 
therefore,^ what is meant in the Apocalypse, by "behold he 
cometh with clouds :" also in the following passages : " I looked, 
and behold, a white cloud, and upon the cloud one sat like unto 
the Son of Man," Apoc. xiv. 14. As also in Daniel : " I saw in 
the night visions, and behold one like the Son of Man with 
clouds of heaven," vii. 13 ; that by the Son of Man is meant the 
Lord as to the Word, may be seen in the Doctrine of the New 
Jerusalem concerning the Lord, n. 19 28. That by cloud in 
other parts of the Word, is meant, also, divine truth in ulti- 
mates, and thence the Word in the letter, may be seen in other 
passages where clouds are mentioned; as in these: "There is 
noae like unto the God of Jeshurun, w r ho rideth upon the hea 
ven in thy help, and in his excellency on the clouds" Deut. 
xxxiii. 26. " Sing unto God, sing praises to his name, extol 
him that rideth upon the clouds" Psalm Ixviii. 4. "Jehovah 
rideth upon a light cloud" Isaiah xix. 1 : to ride upon the 
clouds, signifies to be in the wisdom of the Word, for a horse 
signifies the understanding of the Word ; who cannot see that 
Jehovah does not ride upon the clouds ? " And he rode upon 
a cherub, and made the clouds of heaven his pavilion," Psalm 
xviii. 10, 11 : here there is a similar signification ; cherubs also 
signify the Word, as may be seen below, n. 239, 672 ; pavilion 
signifies a habitation. " Jehovah layeth the beams of his 
chambers in the waters, who maketh the clouds his chariot," 
Psalm civ. 3. Waters signify truths, chambers signify doc- 
trinals, and chariot doctrine, all which, because they belong to 
the literal sense of the Word, are called clouds. " He bindeth 
up the waters in his thick clouds, and the cloud is not rent under 
them ; he holdeth back the face of his throne, and spreadeth 
his cloud upon it," Job xxvi. 8, 9 : this is to be understood in 
like manner, "God caused the light of his cloud to shine," Job 
xxxvii. 15. "Ascribe ye strength unto God, his excellency is 
over Israel, and his strength is in the clouds" Psalm Ixviii. 34. 
The light of a cloud signifies the divine truth of the Word, and 
strength signifies its divine power. " Thou, Lucifer, hast said 
in thine heart, I will ascend above the heights of the clouds ; 
I will be like the Most High," Isaiah xiv. 14. " Forsake ye 
Babylon, for her judgment reacheth unto heaven, and is lifted 
up even to the clouds Jer. li. 9. By Lucifer and Babylon are 
signified those who profane the goods and truths of the Word, 
therefore these truths are to be understood there by clouds. 
"Jehovah spread a cloud for a covering," Psalm cv. 39 " Jev 
48 



T. 7.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 25, 26 

hovah will create upon every dwelling-place of Mount Zion, a 
cloud and smoke by day, for upon all the glory shall be a de 
fence" Isaiah iv. 5 : here, also, by cloud, is meant the Word 
in its literal sense, which sense, as it includes and covers the 
spiritual sense, is called a covering upon the glory ; that the 
literal sense of the Word is a covering, or defence, lest its 
spiritual sense should be violated, may be seen in The Doctrine 
of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture, n. 33 ; 
and that it is a defence, n. 97. Divine truth in ultimates, which 
is the same with the Word in its literal sense, is also represented 
by the cloud, in which Jehovah descended upon Mount Sinai, 
and promulgated the law, Exocl. xix. 9 ; xxxiv. 5. Also by the 
cloud which covered Peter, James, and John, when Jesus was 
transfigured, concerning which it is written : u While Peter yet 
spake, behold a bright cloud overshadowed them, and behold a 
voice out of the cloud which said. This is my beloved Son, heai 
ye him," Matt. xvii. 5 ; Mark ix. 7 ; Luke ix. 34, 35. The 
Lord in this transfiguration caused himself to be seen as the 
Word ; therefore a cloud overshadowed them, and a voice was 
heard out of the cloud, saying that he was the Son of God ; a 
voice out of the cloud, means out of the Word. That by cloud, 
in an opposite sense, is meant the Word as to its literal sense 
falsified, \vill be seen elsewhere. 

25. And every eye shall see him, signifies that all who are 
in the understanding of divine truth from affection will acknow 
ledge him. In the spiritual sense, by eye, is not meant the eye, 
but the understanding; therefore, every eye shall see him, 
denotes that all who are in the understanding of divine truth 
from affection will acknowledge him, because they alone un 
derstand and acknowledge ; the rest see indeed and also under 
stand, but do not acknowledge ; the former, then, are signified, 
because it follows, that they, also, who pierced him will see 
him, by whom are understood they who are in falses. That the 
eye signifies understanding, will be seen below, n. 48. 

26. And they also who pierced him, signifies that they also 
will see who are in falses in the church. By piercing Jesus 
Christ, nothing else is meant but the destruction of Ills divine 
truth in the Word ; this, also, is understood by " one of the 
soldiers piercing his side, and water and blood coming there 
out," John xix. 34. Blood and water are divine truth, spirit 
ual and natural, thus the Word in its spiritual and in its natural 
sense ; and to pierce the Lord s side is to destroy both by falses, 
as was also done by the Jews ; for all the circumstances of the 
Lord s passion represented the state of the Jewish church as to 
the Word, on which subject, see The Doctrine of the New Jeru 
salem concerning the Lord, n. 15 17. The reason why piercing 
him, signifies to destroy the Word by falses, is, because this i-a 
eaid of Jesus Christ, who presently after is called the Son of Man, 

49 D 



27 29 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. !. 

and by the Son of Man is meant the Lord as to the Word, there* 
fore to pierce the Son of Man, is to do the same to the Word. 

27. And all the tribes of the earth shall wail because of 
him, signifies that this will be when there are no longer any 
goods and truths in the church. That the tribes of the earth 
signify the goods and truths of the church, will be seen in the 
explanation of the seventh chapter, where the twelve tribes of 
Israel are treated of; wailing signifies lamentation, by reason 
of their being dead. The same is meant here as by the Lord s 
words in Matthew : " Immediately after the tribulation of those 
days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give 
her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven ; arid then shall 
appear the sign of the Son of Man, and then shall all the tribes 
of the earth mourn" xxiv. 29, 30 ; these things are said of the 
consummation of the age, which is the end of the church ; the 
sun shall be darkened, signifies that there is no longer any love 
and charity ; the moon shall not give her light, signifies that 
there is no longer any intelligence and faith ; the stars shall 
fall from heaven, signifies that there are no longer any know 
ledges of good and truth; all the tribes of the earth shall mourn, 
signifies that there are no longer any goods arid truths ; tribu 
lation, signifies that state of the church. 

28. Even so, Amen, signifies the divine confirmation that so 
it will be. This is evident from what was explained above, n. 19. 

29. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the 
End, signifies who is the self-subsisting and only-subsisting 
from first principles to ulti mates ; from whom proceed all 
things ; thus, who is the self-subsisting and only-subsisting love, 
the self-subsisting and only-subsisting wisdom, and the self-sub 
sisting and only-subsisting life in himself; and, consequently, 
the self-subsisting and only-subsisting Creator, Saviour, and 
Illuminator, from himself; and thence the all in all of heaven 
and the church. These and many more things besides are con 
tained in the above words, by which the Lord is described ; 
that they are spoken of the Lord, and, indeed, of his Humanity, 
is very evident, for it follows, that John heard a voice, saying, 
" I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last ; and 
1 turned to see the voice that spake with me, and saw the Son 
of Man in the midst of seven candlesticks," chap. i. 10 13; 
who, also, a little further on, says, " I am the First and the 
Last, Tarn he that liveth and was dead," verse 1Y, 18 ; chap, ii- 
8. But that all the particulars above enumerated are contained 
in these words, cannot be confirmed briefly, for to confirm 
them, so as to be well comprehended, would require many vol 
umes; still they are in part confirmed in The Angelic Wisdom 
concerning the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom. The Lord 
calls himself the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the 
End, because Alpha and Omega refer to his divine love, and 

00 



V. 8.J THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 80 y 31 

Beginning and End, to his divine wisdom ; for there is, in every 
particular of the Word, a marriage of love and wisdom, or of 
good and truth; on which subject, see The Doctrine of th# 
JVew Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture, n. 80 90. 
The Lord is called the Alpha and the Omega, because alpha is 
the first letter and omega the last in the Greek alphabet, and 
therefore signify all in the aggregate ; the reason is, because 
each letter of the alphabet, in the spiritual world, signifies 
something ; and a vowel, being used for sound, somewhat of 
affection or love ; from this origin, spiritual and angelic speech, 
and, also, the Scriptures, are derived ; but this is an arcanum 
hitherto unknown ; for there is a universal language which all 
angels and spirits use ; and this has nothing in common with 
any language of men in the world : every man comes into this 
language after death ; for 5t is inherent in every man from 
creation, therefore they ail can understand each other in the 
spiritual world. It has been granted me frequently to hear that 
language, and also to speak it ; and I have compared it with 
the languages in this world, and have found that it does not, 
even in the smallest particular, make one with any natural lan 
guage upon the earth ; it differs from these in its first princi 
ples, which are, that each letter of every word has a sense and 
signification peculiar to itself, as well in speaking as in writing : 
therefore it is that the Lord is called the Alpha and the Omega, 
which signifies that he is the All in all of heaven and the 
church ; and as these two letters are vowels, they have relation 
to lovtf. as was said above. Concerning this language, and the 
writing of It, as flowing from the spiritual thought of the angels, 
something may be seen in Tke Angelic Wisdom concerning the 
Divine Love ana Che Divine Wisdom, n. 295. 

30. Saith the Lor**, w/io is^ ana who was, and who is to come ; 
that this signifies who is eternal and infinite, and who is Jelio- 
vah, may be seen above, n. ib, wnere tne same is explained. 

31. The Almighty, signifies who is, lives, and has power 
from himself, and who governs all things from first principles by 
ultirnates. Since all things are from the Lord, and are created 
from the first principles which are from him ; and since there 
is nothing made which does not thence derive its existence, as 
is abundantly shown in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the 
Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom, it follows, that he is om 
nipotent. Suppose a one from whom are all things ; are not 
all things of that one, upon which they depend in their order, 
as the links of a chain upon their hook ; or as the blood-vessels 
of the whole body upon the heart ; or as all and every thing in 
the universe upon the sun ? thus do all things depend upon the 
Lord, who is the sun of the spiritual world, from whom all the 
essence, life, and power, possessed by those who are under that 
sun, is derived ; in a word, from him we live, and move, and 

51 



39 THE APOCAIYP8E REVEALED. [Cha I. 

have our being, Acts xvii. 28: this is divine omnipotence. 
That the Lord rules all things from first principles by ultimates. 
is an arcanum never before" revealed ; but it is now explained 
in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord, 
and concerning the Sacred Scripture, in many places ; and also 
in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Providence, n. 
124; and concerning The Divine Love, n. 221. It is well known 
that the Divine being infinite, does not fall within the ideas of 
the thought of any man or angel, because these are finite, and 
what is finite is not capable of perceiving the infinite ; still, that 
it may in some manner be perceived, it has pleased the Lord 
to describe his infinity by these words : I am the Alpha and 
the Omega, the Beginning and the End ; who is, and who was, 
and who is to come, the Almighty ; these words, therefore, in 
clude all things that ever angel or man can think, spiritually 
and naturally, concerning the Divine ; which things, in general, 
are what were adduced above in an universal manner. 

32. / John, who also am your brother and companion, signi 
fies those who are in the good of charity, and thence in the 
truths of faith. It was observed above, n. 5, that the apostle 
John represented those who are in the good of charity ; and 
they who are in the good of charity are, also, in the truths of 
faith, because charity is the life and soul of faith ; hence it is, 
that John calls himself the brother and companion of those in 
the church to whom he wrote, for he wrote to the seven 
churches : by brother, in the spiritual sense of the Word, is 
meant one who is in the good of charity ; and, by companion, 
one who is thence in the truths of faith ; for all are, as it were, 
in consanguinity by charity, but in affinity by faith ; for char 
ity conjoins ; not so faith, except it be from chanty : when faith 
is from charity, then charity conjoins, and faith ccnsociates ; 
and since they make one, therefore the Lord commanded that 
all should be brethren, for he says, " One is your master, even 
Christ, but all ye are brethren," Matt, xxiii. 8 ; the Lord, also, 
calls those brethren who are in the good of charity, or in good 
of life ; for he said, " My mother and my brethren are these, 
who hear the Word of God, and do it," Luke viii. 21 ; Matt, 
xii. 49 ; Mark iii. 33 35. By mother, is meant the church, 
and by brethren, those who are in charity ; arid as the good of 
charity is denoted by brother, therefore the Lord calls those 
who are principled therein, brethren, in Matthew, also, xxv. 40, 
and likewise disciples, Matt, xxviii. 10 ; John xx. 17 ; but it 
is not written that the disciples called the Lord brother, be 
cause brother denotes the good which is from tlie Lord : the 
case is comparatively as it is with kings, princes, and great 
men, who call those who are connected with them by blood or 
affinity, brethren, but yet the latter do not in their turn call 
them so ; for the Lord says, " One is your master, even Christy 



V. 9.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 33 

but all ye are brethren, "Matt, xxiii. 8; also, "Ye call me master 
and Lord ; and ye say well, for so I am," John xiii. 13. The chil 
dren of Israel called all those brethren who were descended from 
their father Jacob : and in a more extensive sense, those also who 
were descended from Esau ; but such as were not descended from 
them they called companions. But as the Word, in its spiritual 
sense, treats only of those who are in the Lord s church, therefore 
in that sense, by brethren, they are meant who are in the good of 
charity from the Lord, and, by companions, they who are in the 
truths of faith; as in the following passages: "Thus shall ye say 
every one to his companion, and every one to his brother, What 
hath Jehovah answered?" Jer. xxxiii. 35. " Ye have not hearken 
ed unto me in proclaiming liberty every one to his brother, and 
every man to his companion" Jer. xxxiv. 17. " He shall not 
exact it from his companion, or of his brother" Deut. xv. 2. 
" For my brethren and companions 9 sakes, I will now say," 
Psalm cxxii. 8. "They help every one his companion, and 
every one said to his brother, Be of good courage," Isaiah xli. 6 ; 
and, in an opposite sense, " Take ye heed every one of his com 
panion, and trust not in any brother, for every brother will ut 
terly supplant, and every companion will walk with slanders," 
Jer. ix. 4. " I will set the Egyptians against the Egyptians, 
and they shall fight every one against his brother, and every 
one against his companion" Isaiah xix. 2 ; and in other places. 
These passages are adduced, that it may be known why John 
calls himself brother and companion ; and that by brother, in the 
Word, is meant one who is in charity or in good, and, by com 
panion, one who is in faith or in truth. But as it is charity from 
which faith is derived, therefore none are called companions by 
the Lord, but brethren or neighbour ; every one, indeed, is a 
neighbour according to the quality of good, Luke x. 36, 37. 

33. In tribulation, and in the kingdom and patience of 
Jesus Christ, signifies which in the church are infested by evils 
and falses, but which will be removed by the Lord at his 
coming. By tribulation, is meant the state of the church when 
there are no longer any goods of charity and truths of faith, but 
instead of them, evils and falses ; by the kingdom, is meant the 
church ; and, by patience of Jesus Christ, is meant the Lord s 
advent ; therefore these words, " In tribulation, and in the king 
dom and patience of Jesus Christ," when collated into one 
sense,. signify when the goods and truths of the church are 
infested by evils and falses, but which will be removed by the 
Lord at his coming. That by tribulation, is meant the state of 
the church when it is infested by evils and falses, is evident 
from the following passages: "In the consummation of the 
age, they shall deliver you up to be afflicted, and shall kill you. 
There shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the 
beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be. 
53 



84 36 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. L 

Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun 
be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the 
stars shall fall from heaven," Matt. xxiv. 9, 21, 29 ; Mark xiii. 
19, 24. That the kingdom signifies the church, will be seen in 
what follows. 

34. I was in the isle called Patmos, signifies a state and 
p.ace in which he could be illuminated. The reason why this 
revelation was made to John in Patmos, was, because it was an 
island in Greece, not far from the land of Canaan, and between 
Asia and Europe ; and by isles are signified the nations more 
remote from the worship of God, but yet which will accede to 
it, because they are capable of being illuminated ; the same is 
signified by Greece ; but the church itself is signified by the 
land of Canaan ; by Asia, they of the church who are in the 
light of truth from the Word ; and, by Europe, they to whom 
the Word is about to come ; hence it is, that by the isle of 
Patmos, is signified a state and place in which he could be illu 
minated. That by isles in the Word are signified the nations 
which are more remote from the worship of God, but which yet 
will accede to it, is evident from the following places : " Glorify 
Jehovah in the fires, even the name of the Lord God of Israel 
in the isles of the sea," Isaiah xxiv. 15. " He shall not fail 
nor be discouraged till he have set judgment in the earth, and 
the isles shall wait for his law. Sing unto Jehovah a new song 5 
the isles and the inhabitants thereof, let them give glory unto 
Jehovah ; and declare his praise in the islands" Isaiah xlii. 4, 10, 
12. " Listen, O isles ^ unto me ; and hearken, ye people from 
far," Isaiah xlix. 1. "The isles shall wait upon me, and on 
mine arm shall they trust," Isaiah li. 5. " The isles shall wait 
for me, and the sliips of Tarshish," Isaiah Ix. 9. " Hear the 
Word of Jehovah, O ye nations, and declare it in the isles afar 
off," Jer. xxxi. 10. "And men shall worship Jehovah every 
one from his place, even all the isles of the heathen," Zeph. ii. 
11 ; and elsewhere. That the same is signified by Greece, is 
not so evident from the Word, because Greece is mentioned 
only in Daniel viii. 21 ; x. 20 ; xi. 2 ; as also in John xii. 20 ; 
Mark vii. 26. That by the land of Canaan is meant the Lord s 
church, which is thence called the Holy Land, and the heavenly 
Canaan, is evident from many passages in the Word ; that by 
Asia are meant they in the church who are in the light of truth 
from the Word, may be seen above, n. 11 ; and that by Europe, 
they to vhom tne Word is about to come, is plain. 

35. For the Word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus 
Christ, signifies that divine truth from the Word might be 
received from the heart and so in the light, and that the Lord s 
Humanity might be acknowledged to be divine ; this was ex 
plained above, n. 6. 

36. I was in the spirit on the Lord s day, signifies a spiritual 
54 



r. 10.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 36 

state at that time from divine influx. I was n the spirit^signi- 
fies the spiritual state in which he was when he was in visions, 
which state will be explained in what follows ; on the Lord s 
day, signifies influx then received from the Lord ; for in that 
day the Lord is present, because the day is holy ; from which 
it is evident, that by being in the spirit on the Lord s day, is 
signified a spiritual state at that time from divine influx. Con 
cerning the prophets it is written, that they were in the spirit 
or in vision, also that the Word came to them from Jehovah : 
when they were in the spirit or in vision, they were not in tho 
body, but in their spirit, in which state they saw such things as 
are in heaven ; but when the Word came to them, then they 
tvere in the body, and heard Jehovah speak ; these two states of 
the prophets are carefully to be distinguished. In the state of 
vision the eyes of their spirit were opened, and the eyes of their 
body shut ; and then they heard what the angels spake, or what 
Jehovah spake by the angels, and also saw the things which 
were represented to them in heaven ; and then they sometimes 
seemed to themselves to be carried from one place to another, 
the body still remaining in its place ; in this state was John 
when he wrote the Apocalypse ; and sometimes, also, Ezekiel, 
Zechariah and Daniel ; and then it is said that they were in 
vision, or in the spirit ; for Ezekiel says, " The spirit took ine 
iip, and brought me in a vision by the Spirit of God into 
Chaldea, to them of the captivity : so the vision that I had seen 
went up from me," chap. xi. 1, 24. It is said also, that the 
spirit took him up, and that he heard behind him a voice of a 
great rushing and other things, iii. 12, 24 ; also, that the spirit 
lifted him up between the earth and the heaven, and brought 
him in the visions of God to Jerusalem, and he saw abomina 
tions, viii. 3, and subsequent verses. In like manner he was 
in a vision of God, or in the spirit, when he saw the four animals 
which were cherubs, i. and x. ; as also when he saw the new 
earth and the new temple, and the angel measuring them, xl. 
to xlviii. ; and that the spirit took him up, xliii. 5. The same 
was the case with Zechariah, in whom there was an angel at the 
time, when he saw the man riding among the myrtle trees, i. 8, 
&c. : When he saw four horns, and afterwards a man, in whose 
hand was a measuring line, ii. 1, 5, &c. : When he saw Joshua, 
the high priest, iii. 1, &c. : When he saw the candlestick and 
the two olive trees, iv. 1, &c. : When he saw the flying roll and 
the ephah, v. 1, 6 : And when he saw the four chariots coming 
out from between two mountains, and horses, vi. 1. In a 
similar state was Daniel, when he saw four beasts coming up 
out of the sea, Dan. vii. 1, &c. : And when he saw the battle 
of the ram and the lie-goat, viii. 1, &c. That he saw these 
things in visions, he himself saith, vii. 1, 2, 7, 13 ; viii. 2 ; x. 1, 
7, 8 ; and that the angel Gabriel was seen by him in a vision, 
ix. 21. It was the same with John ; as when he saw the Sou 
55 



37 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. 1 

of Man in the midst of the seven candlesticks, Apoc. i. : When 
he saw a throne in heaven, and him that sat thereon, and four 
animals round about the throne, iv. : When he saw the book 
sealed with seven seals, v. : When he saw four horses corning 
out of the book that was opened, vi. : When he saw the lour 
angels standing upon the four corners of the earth, vii. : When 
he saw the locusts coming out of the bottomless pit, ix. : When 
he saw the angel in whose hand was a little book, which ho 
gave him to eat, x. : When he heard the seven angels sound 
with their trumpets, xi. : When he saw the dragon, and the 
woman whom the dragon persecuted, and the former making 
war with Michael, xii. ; and afterwards two beasts arising, one 
out of the sea, and the other out of the earth, xiii. : When he 
saw the seven angels having the seven last plagues, xv., xvi. : 
When he saw the great whore sitting upon the scarlet-coloured 
beast, xvii. 18 ; and afterwards, a white horse, and one sitting 
thereon, xix. ; and lastly, a new heaven and a new earth, and 
then the New Jerusalem coming down out of heaven, xxi., xxii. 
That John saw these things in the spirit, and in a vision, ho 
himself says, i. 10 ; iv. 2 ; ix. 17 ; xxi. 10 ; this also is under 
stood by the expression, I saw, wherever it occurs. It appears, 
evidently, from these examples, that to be in the spirit, is to be 
in vision ; which is effected by the opening of the sight of a 
man s spirit ; which, when it is opened, the things which are in 
the spiritual world appear as clearly as the things which are in 
the natural world appear to the bodily sight. I can testily that 
it is so, from many years experience. In this state the disciples 
were when they saw the Lord after his resurrection, wherefore 
it is said that their eyes were opened, Luke xxiv. 30, 31. Abra 
ham was in a similar state when he saw the three angels, and 
discoursed with them. So were Hagar, Gideon, Joshua, and 
others, when they saw the angels of Jehovah ; and, in like 
manner, the boy of Elisha, when he saw the mountain full ol 
chariots and horses of fire about Elisha ; for Elisha prayed and 
said, " Jehovah, I pray thee, open his eyes, that he may see ; 
and Jehovah opened the eyes of the young man, and he saw," 
2 Kings vi. 17. But as to the Word, it was not revealed in a 
state of the spirit or in vision, but was dictated by the Lord 
viva voce to the prophets ; therefore, it is nowhere said that 
they spake it from the Holy Spirit, but from Jehovah ; see 
The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord, n. 53 
37, And I heard behind me a great voice, as of a trwupet, 
signifies manifest perception of divine truth revealed from 
heaven. A great voice, when heard from heaven, signifies 
divine truth, as will be seen below ; the reason why it was heard 
as the sound of a trumpet, is, because when divine truth 
descends from heaven, it is sometimes so heard by the angels 
of the ultimate heaven, and then is manifestly perceived ; there 
fore, by a voice as of a trumpet, is signified manifest perception 
56 



V. 11.] THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. 38 

of the signification of trumpet, more will be seen below, n. 397, 
519. That a great voice, when heard from heaven, signifies 
divine truth, is evident from the following passages : " The voice 
of Jehovah is upon the waters ;" " the voice of Jehovah is power 
ful ;" " the voice of Jehovah is full of majesty ;" " the voice of 
Jehovah breaketh the cedars ;" "the voice of Jehovah divideth 
the flames of fire;" "the voice of Jehovah shaketh the wilder 
ness;" "the voice of Jehovah maketh the hinds to calve," Ps. 
xxix. 3 9. " Sing unto God, ye kingdoms of the earth, lo, lie 
doth send out his voice, and that a mighty voice" Psalm. Ixviii. 
32, 33. " Jehovah nttered his voice before his army, for his 
camp is very great, for he is strong that executeth his AVord," 
Joel ii. 11. "Jehovah shall utter his voice from Jerusalem," 
Joel iii. 16. And since voice signifies divine truth from the 
Lord, therefore the Lord said, " That the sheep hear his voice, 
that they know his voice / and other sheep I have, them also I 
must bring, and they shall hear my voice : my sheep hear my 
voice, and I know them, and they follow me," John x. 3, 4, 16, 
27. And in another place : " The hour is coming, and now is, 
when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of Man, and they 
that hear shall live," John v. 25. Voice here denotes the divine 
truth of the Lord from his Word. 

38. Saying, I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and 
the Last, signifies who is the self-subsisting, and the only-sub 
sisting, from first principles to ultirnates, from whom are all 
things ; therefore, who is the self-subsisting and only-subsisting 
love, the self-subsisting and only-subsisting wisdom, and the 
self-subsisting and only-subsisting life in himself; consequently 
the self-subsisting and only-subsisting Creator, Saviour, and 
Illuminator from himself; and thence the All in all of heaven 
and the church : \vho alone is infinite and eternal, and who is 
Jehovah ; arid that the Lord is He. That all these things, and 
infinitely more, are contained in these words, may be seen 
above, n. 13, 29. It was there said, that all the syllables or 
letters of the alphabet, in the spiritual world, signify things ; 
and that thence originates the speech and writing of those who 
are there ; and that therefore the Lord describes his divinity 
and infinity by Alpha and Omega ; by which is signified that 
he is the All in all of heaven and the church. Now every 
letter signifying a thing in the spiritual world, and thence in 
the language of the angels ; therefore David wrote the 119th 
Psalm, in order, according to the letters of the alphabet, be 
ginning with Aleph and ending with Thau, as may appear 
from the initials of the verses ; the like appears in Psalm cxi., 
but not so evidently. Therefore, also, Abram was called Abra 
ham, and Sarai Sarah ; which was done to the intent that in 
heaven, by Abraham and Sarah, they should not be understood, 
but the divine, as is also the case, for the letter II involves 
57 



39 42 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. 1. 

infinity, being only an aspirate : more on this subject may be 
seen above, n. 29. 

39. And what thou seest, write in a ~book that his signifies 
that it may be revealed to posterity, is evident -vithout ex 
planation. 

40. And send [if] to the churches which are in Asia, signi 
fies for those in the Christian world, who are in the light of 
truth from the Word. That they are meant by the churches in 
Asia, may be seen above, n. 10, 11. 

41. Unto Ephesus, und unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos^ 
and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, 
and unto Laodicea, signifies specifically according to the state 
of reception of each. That all states of reception of the Lord 
and of his church are signified by these seven names, in the 
spiritual sense, will be seen below ; for John, when he received 
this command, was in a spiritual state, and in that state nothing 
is mentioned by name which does not signify some thing or 
state ; therefore these things which were written by John, were 
not sent to any church in those places, but were told to their 
angels, by whom are understood those who receive. That by 
all the names of persons and places throughout the whole Word, 
are meant spiritual things, is abundantly shown in the Arcana 
Ccelestia, as what is meant by Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob ; also 
by Israel, and by the names of his twelve sons ; as also, what 
is meant by various places in the land of Canaan, and by places 
in the vicinity of that land ; as what by Egypt, Syria, Assyria, 
and other places. It is the same with these seven names. But 
he who chooses to abide in the literal sense, let him do so, since 
that sense conjoins ; only let him know, that by those names 
the angels perceive things and states of the church. 

42. And I turned to see the voice that spake, with me, signi 
fies inversion of the state of those who are in good of life, with 
respect to the perception of truth in the Word, when they turn 
themselves to the Lord. John says that .he heard a voice be 
hind him (verse 10), and now, that he turned to see the voice 
and again, that being turned, he saw seven candlesticks ; from 
which it is evident, that he heard a voice from behind, and that 
he turned himself, to see from whence it proceeded : that there 

s an arcanum in this, is evident; the secret is that before man 
urns himself to the Lord, and acknowledges him as the God 
of heaven and earth, he cannot see divine truth in the Word ; 
the reason is, because God is one, both in person and in essence, 
in whom there is a trinity ; and that God is the Lord; there 
fore, they who acknowledge a trinity of persons, look primarily 
to the Father, and indeed to the Holy Spirit, and rarely to the 
Lord, and if they do look up to the Lord, they think of his 
Humanity as of a common man ; when a man does this, he 
can by no means be illuminated in the Word, for the Lord is 
58 



V. 1$.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 43 

the "Word, for it is from him and concerning him : therefore 
they who do not approach the Lord alone, see him and his 
Word behind them, and not before them ; or backward, and 
not in front. This is the arcanum which lies concealed in these 
words : That John heard a voice behind him, and that he turned 
fro see the voice, and, being turned, saw seven golden candle 
sticks, and in the midst of them the Son of Man ; for the voice 
which he heard came from the Son of Man, who is the Lord. 
That the Lord alone is the God of heaven and earth, he now 
teaches in a manifest voice, for he says, " I am the Alpha and 
the Omega, the Beginning and the End, saith the Lord, who 
is, and who was, and who is to come," verse 8 ; and here, " I 
am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last," verse 
11 ; and afterwards, " I am the First and the Last," verse 17, 
and ii. 8. That by a voice, when from the Lord, Divine Truth 
is understood, may be seen above, n. 37. And that by John 
are understood they of the church, who are in good of life, n. 
5, 6. From these things it may now appear, that by these 
words, " And I turned to see the voice which spake with me," 
is signified inversion of the state of those who are in good of 
life, as to the perception of truth in the Word, when they turn 
themselves to the Lord. 

43. A.nd being turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks, sig 
nifies the New Church, which will be in illumination from the 
Lord out of the Word. That the seven candlesticks are the 
seven churches, is said in the last verse of this chapter ; and 
that by the seven churches are to be understood all who are in 
the Christian world, and accede to the church, may be seen 
above, n. 10 ; and specifically according to the state of reception 
of each, n. 41. The reason why the New Church is meant by 
the seven candlesticks is, because in it, and in the midst of it, 
the Lord is ; for it is said, that in the midst of the seven candle 
sticks he saw one like unto the Son of Man, and by the Son of 
Man is meant the Lord as to the Word. They appeared to bo 
golden candlesticks, because gold signifies good, and every 
church is a church from good, which is formed by truths ; that 
gold signifies good, will be seen in what follows. Those candle 
sticks were not placed one close to another, or in contact, but 
at certain distances, forming a kind of circle, as is evident from 
these words in the subsequent chapter, "These things saith he, 
who walketh in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks," 
verse 1. Nothing is said of the lamps of those candlesticks ; 
but in what follows it is said, that the holy Jerusalem, that is, 
the New Church, hath no need of the sun, neither of the moon, 
for the Lamb is the light [lamp] thereof, and the nations which 
are saved shall walk in his light, Apoc. xxi. 23, 24. And 
moreover, they need no lamp, for the Lord God giveth them 
light, xxii. 5 ; for they who will be of the Lord s New Church, 
59 



44 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. 1 

can only be candlesticks which will have their light from the 
Lord. By the golden candlestick in the tabernacle, was repre 
sented the church as to illumination from the Lord, concerning 
which candlestick, see Exod. xxv. 11 to the end ; xxxvii. 17 
20; Lev. xxiv. 3, 4; Numb. viii. 2, 3, 4; that it represented 
the Lord s church as to divine love spiritual, which is love 
towards the neighbour, may be seen in The Arcana Ccdestia, 
n. 9548, 9555, 9558, 9561, 9572, 9783 ; also, below, n. 493. 
By the candlestick in Zechariah iv., is also signified the New 
Church to be established by the Lord, because it signifies the 
new house of God, or the new temple; as is evident "from what 
follows there ; and by the house of God, or temple, the church 
is signified, and in a supreme sense, the Lord s Divine Hu 
manity, as he himself teaches, John ii. 19 21, and elsewhere: 
but it shall be shown what is signified in its order, in the 4th 
chapter of Zechariah, when he saw the candlestick. By what 
is contained from verse 1 to 7, is signified the illumination of 
the New Church by the Lord, from the good of love by truth ; 
the olive trees there signify the church as to the good of love : 
by the contents from verse 8 to 10, is signified that these 
things are from the Lord ; by Zerubbabel, who is to build the 
house, thus the church, the Lord is represented ; by what is 
contained from verse 11 to 14, is signified that in that church 
there will also be truths from a celestial origin : this expla 
nation of that chapter was given me from the Lord through 
heaven. 

44. And in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto 
the, Son of Man, signifies the Lord as to the Word, from whom 
that church is. It is well known from the Word, that the Lord 
called himself the Son of God, and also the Son of Man that 
by the Son of God he meant himself as to his Divine Hu 
manity, and by the Son of Man, himself as to the Word, is 
fully demonstrated in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem con 
cerning the Lord, n. 19 28 ; and as it is there fully confirmed 
from the Word, it is unnecessary to add any further confirma 
tion here. Now, as the Lord represented himself unto John 
as the Word, therefore as seen of him, he is called the Son of 
Man. He represented himself as the Word, because the New 
Church is the subject treated of, which is a church from the 
Word, and according to the understanding thereof; that the 
church is from the Word, and that such as its understanding of 
the Word is, such is the church, may be seen in The Doctrine 
of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture, n. 76 
79. As the church is a church from the Lord through the 
Word, therefore the Son of Man was seen in the midst of the 
candlesticks ; in the midst signifies in the inmost, from which 
the things which are round about, or which are without, de 
rive their essence, in this instance, their light and intelligence ; 
60 



V. 13.J THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 45 

that the inmost is the all in the things which are round about, 
or without, is abundantly shown in The Angelic Wisdom con 
cerning the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom it is like 
light or flame in the centre, from which the circumference is 
illuminated and warmed. In the midst, has the same signifi 
cation in the following passages in the Word : " Cry out and 
shout, thou inhabitant of Zion ; for great is the Holy One of 
Israel in the midst of thee," Isaiah xii. 6. " God, my King of 
old, working salvation in the midst of the earth," Psalm Ixxiv. 
12. " We liave thought of thy loving kindness in the midst 
of his temple," Psalm xlviii. 9. " God standeth in the congre 
gation of the mighty ; he judgeth in the midst of the gods," 
Psalm Ixxxii. 1. They are called gods who are in divine 
truths from the Lord, and, abstractedly, the truths themselves. 
" Behold, I send an angel before thee, beware of him and obey 
his voice, for my name is in the midst of him," Exod. xxiii. 20 5 
21. The name of Jehovah is every thing Divine ; in the midst, 
is in the inmost, and thereby in the all of him. The midst also 
signifies the inmost, and thence the all, in many other passages 
in the Word, where evils are also treated of, as in Isaiah xxiv. 
13 ; Jerem. xxiii. 9 ; Psalm v. 9 ; ix. 4, 5 ; xxxvi. 2 ; Iv. 7 ; Ixii. 4. 
These passages are adduced in order to show, that in the midst 
of the candlesticks signifies in the inmost, from which the 
church and every thing belonging to it is derived ; for the church 
and every thing that belongs to it is from the Lord through the 
Word. That candlesticks signify the New Church, may bo 
seen above, n. 43. 

45. Clothed with a garment down to the foot, signifies the 
proceeding divine, which is divine truth. The reason why a 
garment down to the foot signifies the proceeding divine, which 
is divine truth, is, because garments, in the Word, signify truths, 
thence talaris, which is an outer garment or vest, when the 
Lord is treated of, signifies the proceeding divine truth. That 
garments, in the Word, signify truths, is, because in heaven the 
angels are clothed according to the truths proceeding from their 
good ; concerning which see the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 
177 182. In what follows it will also be seen, that nothing 
else is understood by garments in the Word in its spiritual 
sense ; therefore that nothing else is understood by the Lord s 
garments, when he was transfigured, which appeared white as 
the light, Matt. xvii. 14 ; Mark ix. 28 ; Luke ix. 2836. 
Nor is any thing else understood by the Lord s garments which 
the soldiers divided, John xix. 23, 24. That similar things are 
represented, and therefore signified, by the garments of Aaron, 
may be seen in The Arcana Codestia, n. 9814, 10,068 ; particu 
larly what is signified by the ephod, n. 9477, 9824, 10,005 ; 
what by the robe, n. 9825, 10,005 ; what by the coat, n. 9826, 
9942 : and what by the mitre, n. 9827 : for Aaron represented 
61 



6, 47 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. I. 

the priestly office of the Lord. Concerning the signification cf 
garments in the Word, see below, n. 166, 328. 

46. And girt about the paps with a golden girdle, signifies 
the proceeding, and, at the same time, the conjoining divine, 
which is divine good. That a golden girdle has this significa 
tion, is, because by the Lord s breast, and especially "by the 
paps, his divine love is signified ; thence, by the golden girdle 
which girded them, is signified the proceeding, and at the same 
time the conjoining divine, which is the divine good of his 
divine love : moreover gold signifies good ; see below, n. 913. 
A zone or girdle, in the Word, likewise signifies a common 
band, whereby all things are kept in their order arid connexion ; 
as in Isaiah : " There shall come forth a rod out of the stem of 
Jesse, and righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins, and 
faithfulness the girdle of his reins," xi. 1 5 ; the rod coming 
out of the stem of Jesse is the Lord. That the girdle of the 
ephod and the belt of Aaron s coat, signified conjunction, may 
be seen in The Arcana Codestia, n. 9837, 9944. As a girdle 
signifies a band conjoining the goods and truths of the church, 
therefore when the church among the children of Israel was 
destroyed, Jeremiah the prophet was commanded to procure 
himself a girdle, and put it upon his loins, and then to hide it 
in a hole of a rock beside the Euphrates ; and at the end of 
days, when he took it, behold it was rotten, and was profitable 
for nothing, Jerem. xiii. 1 12 ; by which was represented, 
that at that time there was no good in the church, and thence 
that truths were dissipated. The same is signified by girdle in 
Isaiah: " Instead of a girdle there shall be a rent, iii. 24; 
and also in other places. That by the paps or breasts divine 
.ove is signified, is evident from those passages in the Word 
where they are mentioned, as also from their correspondence 
with love. 

47. His head, and his hairs, were white like wool, as white 
as snow, signifies the divine love of the divine wisdom in first 
principles and in ultimates. By the head of a man is signified 
the all of his life; and the all of man s life has relation to love 
and wisdom, therefore by the head is signified wisdom, and also 
love ; but as there is no love without its wisdom, nor wisdom 
xvithout its love, therefore it is the love of wisdom, which is 
understood by the head ; and when the Lord is spoken of, it is 
the divine love of divine wisdom. But the sign ificatioii of the 
head will be shown from the Word, below, n. 538, 565. Since, 
therefore, by the head is understood love, and also wisdom, in 
their first principles, it follows that by hair is to be understood 
love and wisdom in their ultimates ; and because hairs are here 
spoken of the Son of Man, who is the Lord as to the Word, by 
his hairs are signified the divine good which is of love, and the 
divine truth which is of wisdom, in the ultimates of the Word ; 

62 



V. 14.] THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALFD. 47 

and the nltimates of the Word are what are contained in its 
literal sense : that the Word in this sense is signified by the 
hairs of the Son of Man, or of the Lord, seems a paradox, but 
yet it is true ; this may appear from the passages in the Word 
adduced in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the 
Sacred Scripture, n. 35 49 ; where it is also shown, that the 
N"azarites in the Israelitish church represented the Lord as to 
the Word in ultimates, which is its literal sense ; for STazarite, 
in the Hebrew language, signifies hair, or a head of hair ; hence 
the strength of Samson, who was a Nazarite from the womb, 
was in his hair ; that in like manner divine truth is in its power, 
in the literal sense of the Word, may be seen in the above- 
mentioned Doctrine concerning the Sacred Scripture, n. 37 49; 
therefore, also, the shaving of the head was strictly prohibited 
the high priest and his sons ; and, for the same reason, forty- 
two children were torn in pieces by two bears, because they 
called Elisha, Baldhead. Elisha, as well as Elijah, represented 
the Lord as to the Word ; bald signifies the Word without its 
ultimate, which, as was observed, is its literal sense, and bears 
signify that sense of the Word separated from its internal sense ; 
they who separate them, appear also in the spiritual world, at a 
distance, like bears, whence it is evident why this was done to 
the children : therefore also to induce baldness was the greatest 
disgrace, and a mark of extreme grief. For which reason, when 
the Israelitish nation had perverted all the literal sense of the 
Word, this lamentation was made over them: "Her Nazarites 
tvere purer than snow, they were whiter than milk ; their 
risage is blacker than a coal, they are not known in the streets," 
Lament, iv. 7, 8. Also : " Every head was made bald, and 
every shoulder was peeled," Ezek. xxix. 18. And : " Shame 
^hall be upon all faces, and baldness upon all their heads," 
.&zek. vii. 18. In like manner, Isaiah xv. 2 ; Jerem. xlviii. 
6 1 ; Amos viii. 10. As the children of Israel dispersed by 
falses all the literal sense of the Word, therefore the prophet 
Ezekiel was commanded to represent this by shaving his head 
with a razor, and to burn with fire a third part of the hair, and 
smite a third part with a sword, and scatter a third part in the 
wind, and to collect some in his skirts, and afterwards cast them 
also into the fire, Ezek. v. 1 4. Therefore, also, it is said in 
Mi call : " Make thee bald and poll thee for thy delicate children, 
enlarge thy baldness as the eagle ; for they are gone into cap 
tivity from thee," i. 16. The delicate children are the genuine 
truths of the church from the Word. And as Nebuchadnezzar, 
king of Babylon, represented the Babylonian falsification of the 
Word, and destruction of all truth therein, therefore it came to 
pass that his hairs were grown like eagles feathers, Dan. iv. 33. 
By reason that hairs signified that holy principle of the Word 
it is said of the Nazarite. " That he should not shave the hair ot 
63 



45 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. i. 

his head, because the consecration of his God is upon his head," 
Numb. vi. 1 21; and therefore it was ordained, "That the 
high priest and his sons should not uncover their heads, lest 
they should die, and lest wrath should come upon all the people," 
Leyit. x. 6. Now as by hairs is signified divine truth in its 
ultimates, which, in the church, is the Word in its literal sense 
therefore, also, the same is said of the Ancient of Days in 
Daniel: "I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the 
Ancient of Days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and 
the hair of his head like pure wool," vii. 9 ; that the Ancient 
of Days is the Lord, appears evidently in Micah : " But thou 
Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands 
of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to 
be ruler in Israel, whose goings forth have been from of old, 
from everlasting," v. 2 ; and in Isaiah, where he is called the 
Father of Eternity, ix. 5. From these passages, and many 
others, which are not adduced by reason of their abundance, it 
may appear, that by the head and hairs of the Son of Man, 
which were white like wool, as white as snow, is understood tha 
divine of love and wisdom, in first principles and in ultimates; 
and as by the Son of Man, the Lord is understood as to the 
Word, it follows, that this also is understood in first principles 
and in ultimates ; otherwise to what purpose would the Lord 
here in the Apocalypse, and the Ancient of Days in Daniel, be 
described as to the hair ? That by hair, the literal sense of the 
Word is signified, appears evidently from those who are in the 
spiritual world ; they who have held the literal sense of the 
Word in contempt, appear bald there ; and on the contrary, 
they who have loved the literal sense of the Word, appear there 
with becoming hair. It is said white as wool, and as snow, be 
cause wool signifies good in ultimates, and snow, truth in ulti 
mates; as also in Isaiah i. 18: for wool is from sheep, by 
which is signified the good of charity, and snow is from water, 
by which are signified the truths of faith. 

48. And his eyes were as a flame of fire, signifies the divine 
wisdom of the divine love. By eyes, in the Word, is meant the 
understanding, and thence, by the eye-sight, intelligence; there 
fore, when spolten of the Lord, the divine wisdom is understood ; 
but by a flame of fire, is signified spiritual love, which is charity ; 
wherefore, when spoken of the Lord, the divine love is under 
stood ; hence, then, by his eyes being like a flame of fire, is sig 
nified the divine wisdom of the divine love. That the eye sig 
nifies the understanding, is, because they correspond ; for as 
the eye sees from natural light, so does the understanding from 
spiritual light ; wherefore to see is predicated of both. That by 
eye in the Word, the understanding is signified, is evident from 
the following passages : " Bring forth the blind people that have 
eyes, and the deaf that have ears," Isaiah xliii. 8. " In that 
64 






V. 14.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 4& 

day shall the deaf hear the words of the book, and the eyes of 
the blind shall see out of obscurity," Isaiah xxix. 18. " Thea 
the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf 
shall be unstopped," Isaiah xxxv. 5, 6. " I will give thee for 
a light of the Gentiles, to open the blind eyes" Isaiah xlii. 7. 
This is spoken of the Lord, who, when he comes, will open the 
understanding of those who are in ignorance of the truth. That 
this is meant by opening the eyes, is moreover evident from the 
following passages: "IVtake the heart of this people fat, and 
shut their eyes, lest they see with their eyes" Isaiah vi. 9, 10 ; 
John xii. 46. " Jehovah hath poured out upon you the spirit 
of deep sleep, and hath closed your eyes / the prophets, and your 
rulers, the seers, hath he covered," Isaiah xxix. 10 ; xxx. 10. 
"And shutteth his eyes from seeing evil," xxxiii. 15. "Hear 
this, O rebellious house, which have eyes to see and see not," 
Ezek. xii. 2. "Woe to the idle shepherd that leaveth the 
flock ! the sword shall be upon his arm and upon his right eye, 
and his right eye shall be utterly darkened," Zech. xi. 17. 
" And this shall be the plague, wherewith Jehovah will smite 
all the people that have fought against Jerusalem ; their eyes 
shall consume away in their holes," Zech. xiv. 12. " I will 
smite every horse with astonishment, and every horse of the 
people with blindness," Zech. xii. 4. Horse, in the spiritual 
sense, denotes the understanding of the Word, n. 298. "Hear 
me, Jehovah, my God, lighten mine eyes, lest I sleep the sleep 
of death," Psalm xiii. 3. That in these passages, by eye is 
signified the understanding, every one sees. Hence it is evident 
what the Lord meant by eye in these places : " The light of the 
body is the eye ; if therefore thine eye be single, thy whole body 
shall be full of light. But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body 
shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee 
be darkness, how great is that darkness !" Matt. vi. 22, 23 ; 
Luke xi. 34. " And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, 
and cast it from thee : for it is better for thee to enter into life 
with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into hell- 
fire," Matt v. 29 ; xviii. 9. By eye in these places is not 
meant the eye, but the understanding of truth. As by eye is 
signified the understanding of truth, therefore it was among the 
statutes of the children of Israel, that a blind man, or one 
that hath a blemish in his eye, of the seed of Aaron, should 
not come nigh to offer sacrifice, nor enter within the vail, Levit. 
xxi. 18, 20 ;" moreover, that any thing blind should not be 
offered as a sacrifice, Levit. xxii. 22 ; Malachi i. 8. From these 
considerations it is evident what is meant by eye, when predi 
cated of a man ; hence it follows, that by eye, when predicated 
of the Lord, his divine wisdom is understood, as also his divino 
omniscience and providence ; as in these passages : " Open 
thine eyes, Jehovah, and see," Isaiah xxxvii. 18. " For I will 
65 s 



49 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Cliap. L 

Bet mine eyes upon them for good, and I will build them," 
Jerem. xxiv. 6. "Behold the eye of Jehovah is upon them 
that fear him," Psalm xxxiii. 18. " Jehovah is in his holy 
temple, his eyes behold, his eye-lids try the children of men, " 
Psalm xi. 4. As by cherubs is signified the care and provi 
dence of the Lord that the spiritual sense of the Word should 
not be violated ; therefore it is said of the four animals which 
were cherubs, that they were full of eyes before and behind, 
and their wings were fiill of eyes within, Apoc. iv. 6, 8 : also, 
that the wheels upon which the cherubs were drawn, were full 
of eyes round about, Ezek. x. 12. That by a flame of lire is 
meant his divine love, will be seen in what follows, when flame 
and lire are mentioned ; and because it is said, that his eyes 
were like a flame of fire, the divine wisdom of his divine love 
is signified. That in the Lord there is the divine love of divine 
wisdom, and the divine wisdom of divine love, and thus a 
reciprocal union of both, is revealed in The Angelic Wisdom 
concerning the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom, n. 34 
39 ; and elsewhere. 

49. And his feet were like unto fine brass, as if they burned 
in a furnace, signifies divine good natural : the Lord s feet sig 
nify his divine natural ; fire, or what burns, signifies good ; and 
fine brass signifies the good of truth natural ; therefore, by the 
feet of the Son of Man like unto fine brass, as if they burned 
in a furnace, is signified divine good natural. That his feet 
have this signification is from correspondence. There is in the 
Lord, and therefore from the Lord, the divine celestial princi 
ple, the divine spiritual, and the divine natural ; the divine 
celestial is understood by the head of the Son of Man ; the 
divine spiritual, by his eyes, and by his breast, which was girt 
about with a golden girdle ; and the divine natural, by his feet ; 
because these three are in the Lord, therefore also they are in 
the angelic heaven; the third or supreme heaven is in the 
divine celestial principle ; the second or middle heaven is in 
the divine spiritual ; and the first or ultimate heaven in the 
divine natural. In like manner, the church upon earth : for 
the universal heaven before the Lord is as one man, in which 
they who are in the Lord s divine celestial principle constitute 
the head ; they who are in the divine spiritual constitute the 
body ; and they who are in the divine natural constitute the 
feet : hence, also, in every man, by reason of his being created 
after the image of God, there are these three degrees, and, as 
these are opened, he becomes an angel either of the third, or 
of the second, or of the ultimate heaven : hence also it is, that 
in the Word there are three senses ; the celestial, the spiritual, 
and the natural. This may be seen in The Angelic Wisdom 
concerning the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom, particu 
larly in the third part, which treats of these three degrees. 
66 



V. 15.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 49 

That the feet, the soles of the feet, and the heels, correspond to 
natural things in man, and therefore in the Word signify things 
natural, may be seen in The Arcana Codestia, n. 2162, 4938 - 
4952. The divine natural good is also signified by feet in the 
following places ; in Daniel : "I lifted up mine eyes, and 
looked, and behold a man clothed in linen, whose loins were 
girded with fine gold of Uphaz ; his body also was like the 
beryl, and his eyes as lamps of fire, and his arms and his feet 
like in colour to polished brass," x. 5, 6. In the Apocalypse : 
" And I saw another mighty angel come down from heaven, and 
his feet as pillars of fire," x. 1. And in Ezekiel : " The feet 
of the cherubs sparkled like the colour of burnished brass," i. 
7. The reason why the angels and cherubs had that appear 
ance, was, because the Divine of the Lord was represented in 
them. The Lord s church being under the heavens, thus under 
the Lord s feet, it is therefore called his footstool, in the follow 
ing places : " The glory of Lebanon shall come unto thee, to 
beautify the place of my sanctuary ; and I will make the place 
of my feet glorious. And they shall bow themselves down at 
the soles of thy feet" Isaiah Ix. 13, 14. " The heaven is my 
throne, and the earth is my footstool" Isaiah Ixvi. 1. " The 
Lord hath not remembered his footstool in the day of his anger," 
Lament, ii. 1. " Worship at the footstool of Jehovah," Psalm 
xcix. 5. " Lo, we heard of it at Ephratah [Bethlehem]. We 
will go into his tabernacles ; we will worship at his footstool" 
Psalm cxxxii. 6, 7 ; thence it is, that " they came and held the 
Lord s feet and worshipped him," Matt, xxviii. 9 ; Mark v. 22 ; 
Luke viii. 41 ; John xi. 32 : also, that " Mary kissed his feet, 
and did wipe them with the hairs of her head," Luke vii. 37, 
38, 44, 46 ; John xi. 2 ; xii. 3. As by feet is signified the na 
tural principle, therefore the Lord said unto Peter, when he 
washed his feet, " He that is washed, needeth not save to wash 
his feet, but is clean every whit," John xiii. 10. To wash the 
feet, is to purify the natural man ; and when this is purified, the 
whole man is also purified; as is abundantly shown in The 
Arcana Cc&lestia and in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem. 
The natural man, which is also the external man, is purified, 
when he shuns the evils which the spiritual or internal man 
sees to be evils and that they ought to be shunned. Now since 
the natural degree of man is understood by feet, and this per 
verts all things if it be not washed or purified ; therefore the 
Lord says, "And if thy foot offend thee, cut it off; it is better 
for thee to enter halt into life, than having two feet to be cast 
into hell, into the fire that never shall be quencned," Mark ix. 
45 ; here the foot is not understood, but the natural mar The 
same is understood by trampling under foot the good pasture, 
and troubling the waters with their feet, Ezek. xxxii. 13 ; xxxiv. 
18, 19; Dan. vii. 7, 19; and in othei places. Since by the 



50 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. 1. 

Son of Man is meant the Lord as to the Word, it is evident, 
that by his feet is also understood the "Word in its natural 
sense ; which is much treated of in The Doctrine of the New 
Jerusalem concerning the Sacred /Scripture; as also that the 
Lord came into the world, that he might fulfil all things of the 
Word, and thereby be made the Word also in ultimates, n. 98 
100 ; but this arcanum is for those who will be in the Kew 
Jerusalem. The Lord s divine natural degree is also signified 
by the brazen serpent, which was set up by the command of 
Moses in the wilderness ; by looking upon which, all who had 
been bit by serpents were healed, Numb. xxi. 6, 8, 9 ; that it sig 
nified the Lord s divine natural degree, and that they are saved 
who look up to it, the Lord himself teaches in John : "And as 
Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the 
Son of Man be lifted up, that whosoever believeth in him should 
not perish, but have eternal life," iii. 14, 15 : the reason why 
the serpent was made of brass, is, because brass, as also fine 
brass, signifies the natural degree as to good. See below, n. 775. 
50. And his voice as the voice of many waters, signifies 
divine truth natural. That voice, when proceeding from the 
Lord, signifies divine truth, may be seen above, n. 37 ; that 
waters signify truths, and, specifically, natural truths, which are 
knowledges from the Word, is evident from many passages in 
the Word ; of which only the following are adduced : "For. the 
earth shall be full of the knowledge of Jehovah, as the waters 
cover the sea," Isaiah xi. 9. "Therefore with joy shall ye 
draw waters out of the wells of salvation," Isaiah xii. 3. " He 
that walketh righteously and speaketh uprightly ; bread shall 
be given him ; his waters shall be sure," Isaiah xxxiii. 15, 16. 
" The poor and needy seek water, and there is none ; and their 
tongue faileth for thirst ; I will open rivers in high places, and 
fountains in the midst of the valleys : I will make the wilder 
ness a pool of water, and the dry land springs of water, that 
they may see, and know, and consider, and understand toge 
ther," Isaiah xli. 17, 18, 20. " For I will pour water upon him 
that is thirsty, and floods upon the dry ground, I will pour out 
my spirit upon thy seed," Isaiah xliv. 3. " Then shall thy 
light rise in obscurity ; and thou shalt be like a watered gar 
den, and like a spring of water whose waters fail not," Isaiah 
Iviii. 10, 11. " For my people have committed two evils ; they 
have forsaken me, the fountain of living waters, and hewed 
them out cisterns, that can hold no water" Jerem. ii. 13. "And 
their nobles have s&nt their little ones to the waters : they came 
to the pits and found no water they returned with their vessel 
empty," Jerem. xiv. 3. "They have forsaken Jehovah, the 
fountain of living waters" Jerem. xvi. 13. " They shall come 
with weeping ; and with supplications will I lead them : I will 
cause them to walk by rivers of waters in a straight way," 
68 



V. 15.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 50 

Jerem. xxxi. 9. " I will break the staff of bread ; and they 
shall drink water by measure with astonishment : and consume 
away for their iniquity," Ezek. iv. 16, 17 ; xii. 18, 19 ; Isaiah 
li. 14. " Behold the days come, saith Jehovah God, that 1 
will send a famine in the land, not a famine of bread, nor a 
thirst for water, but of hearing the words of Jehovah : and they 
shall wander from sea to sea ; they shall run to and fro to seek 
the Word of Jehovah, and shall not find it. In that day shall 
the fair virgins and young men faint for thirst," Amos viii. 11 
13. "And it shall be in that day that living waters shall go 
out from Jerusalem," Zech. xiv. 8. " Jehovah is my shepherd ; 
he leadeth me beside the still waters" Psalm xxiii. 1, 2. Be 
hold he smote the rock, and the waters gushed out, and the 
streams overflowed," Psalm Ixxviii. 20. " O God, thou art my 
God ; early will I seek thee : my soul thirsteth for thee, in a 
dry and thirsty land where no water is," Psalm Ixiii. 1. " Je 
hovah sendeth out his Word, he causeth his wind to blow, and 
the waters flow," Psalm cxlvii. 18. "Praise Jehovah, ye hea 
vens of heavens, and ye waters that be above the heavens," 
Psalm cxlviii. 4. Jesus, as he sat at Jacob s well, said unto 
the woman, " Whosoever drinketh of this water, shall thirst 
again : but whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give 
him, shall never thirst ; but the water that I shall give him, 
shall be in him a well of water springing up into everlasting 
life," John iv. 6 14. Jesus said, " If any man thirst, let 
him come unto me, and drink. He that believeth on me, as 
the Scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of 
living water" John vii. 37, 38. " I will give unto him that is 
athirst, of the fountain of the water of life freely," Apoc. xxi. 
6. "And he showed me a river of water of life, proceeding 
out of the throne of God, and of the Lamb," Apoc. xxii. 1. 
"And the Spirit and the Bride say, Come. And let him that 
heareth say, Come. And let him that is athirst, come. And 
whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely," Apoc. 
xxii. 17. By waters, in these passages, are understood truths : 
hence it is evident, that by the voice of many waters, is under 
stood the divine truth of the Lord in the Word ; as, also, in 
these places : "And, behold, the glory of the God of Israel 
came from the way of the east, and his voice was like a noise 
of many waters : and the earth shined with his glory," Ezek. 
xliii. 2. "And I heard a voice from heaven as the voice of 
many waters" Apoc. xiv. 2. " The voice of Jehovah is upon 
the waters : Jehovah is upon many waters" Psalm xxix. 3. 
When it is known, that by waters in the Word, are meant 
truths in the natural man, it may appear what was signified by 
washings, in the Israelitish church ; and also what is signified 
by baptism ; and likewise by these words of the Lord, in John ; 
" Except a man be born of water^ and of the spirit, he cannot 
69 



51 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. 1. 

enter into the kingdom of God," iii. 5. To be born of water, 
signifies to be born by truths ; and of the spirit, signifies by a 
life according to them. That waters in an opposite sense sig 
nify falses, will be seen in what follows. 

51. And he had in his right hand seven stars, signifies all 
knowledges of goodness and truth in the Word from him, which 
are thence with the angels of heaven and men of the church. 
About the angels, when they are beneath the heavens, there 
appear, as it were, little stars in great abundance ; and in like 
manner, about spirits, \vlio, when" they lived in the w r orld, had 
acquired to themselves knowledges of goodness and truth, or 
truths of life and doctrine from the Word. These stars appear 
fixed, with those who are in genuine truths from the Word ; 
but wandering, with those who are in falsified truths. Con 
cerning these little stars, as also concerning the stars which 
appear there in the firmament, I could relate wonderful things, 
but it does not belong to this work : hence it is evident that by 
stars are signified knowledges of goodness and truth from the 
Word. The Son of Man s having them in his right hand, sig 
nifies, that they are from the Lord alone through the Word. 
That seven signify all, may be seen above, n. 10. That know 
ledges of things good and true from the Word, are signified by 
stars, may also appear from these passages : " I will lay the 
earth desolate : For the stars of heaven and the constellations 
thereof shall not give their light," Isaiah xiii. 9, 10 : the earth, 
which shall be laid desolate,^is the church ; which being vas- 
tated, the knowledges of things good and true in the Word 
do not appear. "And when I shall put thee out, I will cover 
the heaven and make the stars thereof dark : All the bright 
lights of heaven will I make dark over thee, and set darkness 
upon thy land," Ezek. xxxii. Y, 8 : darkness upon the land, 
means falses in the church. " The sun and the moon are dark 
ened, and the stars have withdrawn their shining," Joel ii. 10, 
11 ; iii. 15. " Immediately after the tribulation of those days 
shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her 
light, and the stars shall fall from heaven," Matt. xxiv. 29 ; 
Mark xiii. 24. "And the stars of heaven fell unto the earth, 
even as a fig-tree casteth her untimely figs," Apoc. vi. 13. 
" And I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth," Apoc. ix. 
1. By stars falling from heaven are not to be understood 
stars, but that the knowledges of things good and true will 
perish. This is still more evident from its being said, that the 
tail of the dragon drew the third part of the stars from heaven. 
Apoc. xii. 4: also, that the he-goat cast down some of the 
stars and stamped upon them, Dan. viii. 8 11 : therefore in 
the next verse, in Daniel, it is also said, that it cast do\vn the 
truth to the ground, verse 12. The knowledges of thmgs good 
and true, are also signified by stars, in these passages . u leho 
70 



V. 16.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 52 

vali telletli the number of the stars ; he calleth them all by 
their names," Psalm clxvii. 4. " Praise Jehovah all ye stars 
of light," Psalm cxlviii. 3. " The stars in their courses fought 
against Sisera," Judges v. 20. From hence it appears what is 
meant by these words in Daniel : "And they that be wise shall 
shine as the brightness of the firmament ; and they that turn 
many to righteousness, as the stars for ever and ever," xii. 3. 
They that be wise, are such as are in truths ; and they that turn 
many to righteousness, are such as are in goods. 

52. And out of his mouth went a sharp two-edged sword^ 
signifies the dispersion of falses by the Word, and by doctrine 
thence from the Lord. Sword very often occurs in the Word, 
and by it nothing else is signified but truth fighting against 
falses and destroying them ; and, also, in an opposite sense, the 
false fighting against truths : for by wars in the Word, are sig 
nified spiritual wars, which are wars of truth against falsity, 
and of falsity against truth ; wherefore, by weapons of war, 
such things are signified as are made use of in spiritual conflict. 
That the dispersion of falses by the Lord is here understood, is 
evident, because the sword was seen to go out of his mouth ; 
and to go out of the mouth of the Lord, is to go out of the 
Word, for this the Lord spake with his mouth ; and as the 
Word which is drawn from it is understood by the doctrine, 
this is also signified. It is called a sharp two-edged sword, 
because it penetrates the heart and soul. To show that by 
eword is here meant the dispersion of falses by the Word from 
the Lord, some passages shall be adduced in which sword is 
mentioned: "A sword upon the inhabitants of Babylon, and 
upon her princes, and upon her wise men. A sword is upon 
the liars, and they shall dote : a sword is upon her mighty men, 
and they shall be dismayed. A sword is upon their horses, and 
upon their chariots ; a sword is upon her treasures, and they 
shall be robbed. A drought is upon her waters, and they shall 
be dried up," Jerem. 1. 35 38. These things are said of 
Babylon, by which those are understood who falsify and adul 
terate the Word ; therefore by the liars who will dote, and the 
horses and chariots upon whom there is a sword, and the trea 
sures which will be taken away, are signified the falses of their 
doctrines : that the waters upon which is a drought that they 
may be dried up, signify truths, may be seen above, n. 50. 
" Prophesy, and say, A sword is sharpened, and also furbished. 
It is sharpened to make a sore slaughter ; and let the sword be 
doubled the third time ; the sword of the slain ; it is the sword 
of the great men that are slain, which entereth into their privy 
chambers," Ezek. xxi. 9 20. By sword is here also meant, 
the devastation of truth in the church. " Jehovah will plead 
by his sword with all flesh, and the slain of Jehovah shall be 

71 



52 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Cliap 1. 

many," Isaiah Ixvi. 16. They are called the slain of Jehovah 
here, and in other parts of the Word, who perish by falses. 
" The spoilers are come upon all high places through the wilder 
ness : for the sword of Jehovah shall devour from the one end 
of the land, even to the other," Jerem. xii. 12. " We gat our 
Dread with the peril of our lives, because of the sword of the 
wilderness," Lament, v. 9. "Woe to the idle shepherd that 
leaveth the flock ! the sword shall be upon his arm and upon his 
right eye," Zech. xi. 17. The sword upon the right eye of the 
shepherd is the falsity of his understanding. " Lven the sons 
of men, whose teeth are spears and arrows, and their tongue a 
sharp sword" Psalm Iviii. 4. " Behold they belch out with 
their mouth : swords are in their lips," Psalm lix. 7. " The 
workers of iniquity, who whet their tongue like a sword" 
Psalm Ixiv. 3. the same is signified by sword in other 
places, as in Isaiah xiii. 13, 15 ; xxi. 14, 15 ; xxvii. 1 ; xxxi. 7, 
8 ; Jerem. ii. 30 ; v. 12 ; xi. 22 ; xiv. 1318 ; Ezek. vii. 15 ; 
xxxii. 10 12. Hence it may appear what the Lord meant by 
sword in the following passages : "Jesus said, that he came not 
to send peace on earth, but a sword" Matt. x. 34. Jesus said, 
" He that hath a purse and a scrip, let him take it ; and he that 
hath no sward, let him sell his garment and buy one. And his 
disciples said, Lord, behold, here are two swords. And he said 
unto them, It is enough," Luke xxii. 36, 38. " For all they 
that take the sword, shall perish with the sword" Matt. xxvi. 
52. Jesus says, concerning the consummation of the age, 
"They shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led 
away captive into all nations, and Jerusalem shall be trodden 
down of the Gentiles," Luke xxi. 24. The consummation of 
the age is the last time of the church ; the sword is falsity 
destroying truth ; the Gentiles are evils ; Jerusalem which shall 
be trodden down, is the church. Hence, then, it is evident, 
that l)y a sharp sword going out of the mouth of the Son of 
Man, is signified the dispersion of falses by the Lord by means 
of the Word. The same is signified in the following passages 
in the Apocalypse: "And there was given unto him a great 
sword who sat upon the red horse," vi. 4. "And out of his 
mouth who sat upon the white horse goeth a sharp sword, that 
with it he should smite the nations. And the remnant were 
slain with the sword of him that sat upon the horse," xix. 15, 
21. By him who sat upon the white horse, is understood the 
Lord as to the Word, which is plainly declared, verse 13, 16. 
The same is understood in David : " Gird thy sword upon thy 
thigh, O most Mighty, with thy glory and thy majesty. And 
in thy majesty ride prosperously because of truth. Thine 
arrows are sharp in the heart of the king s enemies," Psalm 
xlv. 3 5; speaking of the Lord. And in another p]ace, 

T2 



V. 16.] THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. 53 

" Let the saints be joyful in glory, and a two-edged sword in 
their hand," Psalm cxlix. 5, 6. And in Isaiah, " Jehovah 
hath made my mouth a sharp sword" xlix. 2. 

53. And his face was as the sun shineth in his power, sig 
nifies the divine love and the divine wisdom, which are himself, 
and proceed from himself. That by the face of Jehovah, or of 
the Lord, is understood the Divine Himself in his Essence, 
which is divine love and divine wisdom himself, will be thus 
seen in the explanations below, where mention is made of the 
face of God. The same is signified by the sun shining in his 
strength. That the Lord is seen as a sun in heaven before the 
angels, and that it is his divine love together with his divine 
wisdom, which have that appearance, may be seen in the work 
concerning Heaven and ifell, n. 116 125 ; and in The An 
gelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and the Divine 
Wisdom, n. 83 172. It remains here only to be confirmed 
from the Word, that the sun, when mentioned in reference to 
the Lord, signifies his divine love, and at the same time his 
divine wisdom ; this may appear from the following places : 
" In that day the light of the moon shall be as the light of the 
sun, and the light of the sun shall be seven-fold, as the light of 
seven days," Isaiah xxx. 26. That day is the advent of the Lord, 
when the old church is destroyed, and a new one is about to be 
established ; the light of the moon is faith from charity, and 
the light of the sun is intelligence and wisdom from love, and 
thus from the Lord. " Thy sun shall no more go down, neither 
shall thy moon withdraw itself; for Jehovah shall be thine 
everlasting light," Isaiah Ix. 20. The sun which shall not set, 
is love and wisdom from the Lord. " The rock of Israel spake 
unto me : And he shall be as the light of the morning when the 
sun riseth," 2 Sam. xxiii. 3, 4. The rock of Israel is the Lord. 
" His throne shall be as the sun before me," Psalm Ixxxix. 36, 
37. This is said of David : but by David is there meant the 
Lord. " They shall fear thee as long as the &im and moon en 
dure. In his days shall the righteous flourish, and abundance 
of peace so long as the moon endureth : his name shall be con 
tinued as long as the sun : and men shall be blessed in him," 
Psalm Ixxii. 5, 7, 17. This also is said of the Lord. As the 
Lord appears as a sun in heaven in the sight of the angels, 
therefore when he was transfigured, " his face did shine as the 
sun, and his raiment was white as the light," Matt. xvii. 2. 
And it is said of the strong angel who came down from heaven, 
that he was " clothed with a cloud, and his face was as it were 
the sun," Apoc. x. 1 : and of the woman, that she appeared 
" clothed with the sun" Apoc. xii. 1. The sun in these pas 
sages also signifies love and wisdom from the Lord ; the woman 
is the church, which is called the New Jerusalem. Since, bv 
the sun, is understood the Lord as to love and wisdom, it 1A 

73 



53 THE APOCALT1SE REVEALED. [Cliap. i. 

evident what is signified by the sun in the following places : 
"And it shall come to pass in that day that the moon shall be 
confounded, and the sun ashamed, when Jehovah of hosts shall 
reign in mount Zion," Isaiah xxiv. 21, 23. "And when I shall 
have put thee out, I will cover the heavens and make the stars 
thereof dark ; I will cover the sun with a cloud and the moon 
shall not give her light : and I will set darkness upon thy land," 
Ezek. xxxii. 7, 8. "The day of Jehovah cometh, a day of 
darkness, the sun and the moon shall be dark, and the stars 
shall withdraw their shining," Joel ii. 1, 10. " The sun shall 
be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the 
great and terrible day of Jehovah come," Joel ii. 31. "The 
day of Jehovah is near in the valley of decision. The sun and 
the moon shall be darkened," Joel iii. 14, 15. "And the fourth 
angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, and 
the third part of the stars, and the day shone not for a third 
part of it," Apoc. viii. 12. "And the sun became black as 
sack-cloth of hair, and the moon became as blood," Apoc. vi. 
12. "And the sun and the air were darkened by the smoke of 
the pit," Apoc. ix. 2. In these passages, by sun is not meant 
the sun of this world, but the sun of the angelic heaven, which 
is the divine love and the divine wisdom of the Lord ; these 
are said to be obscured, darkened, covered, and to become 
black, when there are evils and falses in man. Hence it is 
evident, that the same is meant by the Lord s words, where he 
speaks of the consummation of the age, which is the last time 
of the church : " Immediately after the tribulation of those 
days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give 
her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven," Matt. xxiv. 29 ; 
Mark xiii. 24, 25. And in like manner in the following pas 
sages : "And the sun shall go down over the prophets, and the 
day shall be dark over them," Micah iii. 5, 6. " In that day 
I will cause the sun to go down at noon, and I will darken the 
earth in the clear day," Amos viii. 9. " She that hath borne 
seven hath given up the ghost ; her sun is gone down while it 
was yet day," Jerem. xv. 9; speaking of the Jewish church, 
which was to breathe out its soul, or, in other words, would 
perish : the sun shall set, signifies thai there will be no longer 
any love and charity. What is said in Joshua, that the sun 
stood still upon Gibeon, and the moon in the valley of Ajalon, 
x. 12, 13, appears as if it was historical, but it is prophetic, 
being quoted from the book of Jasher, which was a prophetic 
book ; for it is said, " Is not this written in the book of Jasher?" 
verse 13 ; the same book is also mentioned as prophetic by 
David, 2 Sam. i. 17, 18 ; something similar is also said in Ha- 
bakkuk : " The mountains trembled, the sun and moon stood 
still in their habitation," iii. 10. " Thy sun shall no more g 
down ; neither shall thv moon withdraw itself," Isaiah Ix. 20 
74 



V. 17.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 54:, 55 

for to make the sun and moon stand still would be to destroy 
the universe. The Lord as- to his divine love and his divine 
wisdom, being meant by the sun, therefore the ancients in their 
holy worship turned their faces to the rising sun ; and also their 
temples, which custom still continues. That the sun and moon 
of this world are not understood in these places, is evident from 
its having been considered profane and abominable to adore 
them, as may be seen in Numb. xxv. 1 4 ; Deut. iv. 19 ; xvii. 
3, 5 ; Jerem. viii. 1, 2; xliii. 10, 13 ; xliv. 1719, 25 ; Ezek. viii. 
16 ; for by the sun of this world is understood self-love and tho 
pride of self-derived intelligence ; and self-love is diametrically 
opposite to divine love ; and the pride of self-derived intelli 
gence is opposite to divine wisdom. To adore the sun of this 
world is also to acknowledge nature to be creative, and self- 
derived prudence to be effective of all things, which implies a 
negation of God, and a negation of the Divine Providence. 

54. And when I saw him, I fell at his feet as dead, signifies 
that from such presence there was a defect or deprivation of his 
own life. Man s proper life cannot sustain the presence of the 
Lord, such as the Lord is in himself, nor such as he is inti 
mately in his Word ; for the Divine Love is just like the sun, 
which no one can bear as it is in itself, without being consumed. 
This is what is meant by saying that " no one can see God and 
live," Exod. xxxiii. 20 ; Judges xiii. 22. This being the case, 
the Lord appears to the angels in heaven as a sun, at a distance 
from them, as the sun of this world is from men ; the reason is, 
because the Lord in himself is in that sun. But yet the Lord 
so moderates and tempers his Divine Essence as to enable man 
to sustain his presence, which is done by veilings or coverings ; 
such was the case when he revealed himself to many in the 
Word ; yea, by veils or coverings he is present in every one who 
worships him ; as he himself says in John : " He that hath my 
commandments, and keepeth them ; I will manifest myself to 
him," xiv. 21, 23. "That he will be in them, and they in 
him," xv. 4, 5. Hence it is evident why John, when he saw 
the Lord in such glory, fell at his feet as dead ; and also, why 
the three disciples, when they saw the Lord in glory, were heavy 
with sleep, and a cloud covered them, Luke ix. 32, 34. 

55. And he laid his right hand upon me, signifies life then 
inspired from him. The reason why the Lord laid his right 
hand upon him, is, because communication is produced by the 
touch of the hands, for the life of the mind, and thence of the 
body, puts itself forth into the arms, and through them into the 
hands ; on this account, the Lord touched with his hand those 
whom he restored to life and healed, Mark i. 31, 41 ; vii. 32, 
33 ; viii. 2227 ; x. 13, 16 ; Luke v. 12, 13 ; vii 14; xviii. 15 ; 
xxii. 51 ; and in like manner, " After his disciples saw Jesus 
transfigured, he touched them, and they fell on their faces," 

75 



56, 57 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Cliap. 1 

Matt. xvii. 6, 7. The origin of this is, because the presence of 
the Lord with man is adjunction, and thus conjunction by con 
tiguity, and this contiguity is nearer and fuller in proportion 
as man loves the Lord, that is, does his commandments. From 
these few considerations it may appear, that by laying his right 
hand upon him, is signified inspiring him with his lite. 

56. Saying unto me, Fear not, signifies resuscitation, and at 
the same time adoration from the most profound humiliation. 
That it signifies resuscitation to life, is a consequence of what 
went before, n. 55 ; and that it signifies adoration from the 
most profound humiliation, is evident, for he fell at the Lord s 
feet ; and as a holy fear seized him, the Lord said, on his being 
resuscitated, Fear not. Holy fear, which sometimes is joined 
with a sacred tremor of the interiors of the mind, and sometimes 
with horripilation,* supervenes, when life enters from the Lord 
in place of man s proper life ; the proper life of man is to look 
from himself to the Lord, but life from the Lord is to look from 
the Lord to the Lord, and yet as if from himself; when man is 
in this latter life, he sees that he himself is not any thing, but 
only the Lord. Daniel also was in this holy fear, when he saw 
the man clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with fine 
gold of Uphaz, his body like the beryl, his face like lightning, 
his eyes like lamps of fire, and his arms and feet as the shining 
of polished brass, upon seeing whom Daniel also became as 
dead, and a hand touched him, and a voice said, Fear not, 
Daniel, Dan. x. 5 12. Something similar occurred to Peter, 
James, and John, when the Lord was transfigured, and appeared 
as to his face like the sun, and his garments as the light, upon 
which they also fell upon their faces, and were sore afraid, and 
then Jesus came and touched them, saying, Be not afraid, Matt, 
xvii. 5, 6, 7. The Lord also said unto the woman who saw him 
at the sepulchre, Fear not, Matt, xxviii. 10. Likewise the an 
gel, \vhose face was like lightning, and his garment as snow, 
said unto those women, Fear not ye, Matt, xxviii. 3, 4, 5. The 
angel said to Zechariah also, Fear not, Luke i. 12, 13. In like 
manner the angel said to Mary, Fear not, Luke i. 30. The 
angel said to the shepherds also, when the glory of the Lord 
shone round about them, Fear not, Luke ii. 9, 10. A similar 
holy fear seized Simon, by reason of the draught of fishes ; 
therefore he said, Depart from me, for I am a sinful man, O 
Lord ; but Jesus said unto him, Fear not, Luke v. 8, 9, 10 ; 
besides other places. These are adduced that it may be known 
why the Lord said to John, Fear not, and that by it is denoted 
resuscitation and then adoration from the most profound hu 
miliation. 

57. I am the First and the Last, which signifies that He 

* Erection of the hair caused by horror. 

76 



V. IT, 18.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 58 60 

alone is eternal and infinite, therefore the only God, may appear 
from the explanation above, n. 13, 29, 38. 

58. And am he that liveth, signifies, who alone is life, and 
from whom alone is life. Jehovah, in the Word of the Old Tes 
tament, calls himself the LIFE and the LIVING, because he alone 
lives ; for he is love itself and wisdom itself, and these are 
life. That there is one only life, which is God, and that angels 
and men are recipients of life from him, is abundantly shown 
in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and the 
Divine Wisdom. Jehovah calls himself the Living and him 
that Liveth, in Isaiah xxxviii. 18, 19 ; Jerem. v. 2 ; xii. 16 ; 
xvi. 14, 15 ; xxiii. 7, 8 ; xlvi. 18 ; Ezek. v. 21. The Lord as to 
his Divine Humanity also is life, because the Father and he are 
one ; therefore he says, " As the Father hath life in himself, so 
hath he given to the Son to have life in himself," John v. 26. 
"Jesus said, I am the resurrection and the life" John xi. 25. 
" Jesus said, I am the way, the truth, and the life" John xiv. 6. 
" In the beginning was the Word, and God was the Word ; ir 
him was life; and the Word was made flesh," John i. 1 4, 14. 
Because the Lord is alone life, it follows, that from him alone 
life is derived, therefore he says, " Because I live* ye shall livo 
also," John xiv. 19. 

59. And was dead, signifies that he was neglected in the 
church, and his Divine Humanity not acknowledged. By his 
becoming dead is not understood that he was crucified, and so 
died, but that he was neglected in the church, and his Divine 
Humanity not acknowledged, for so he became dead among 
men. His divinity from eternity is indeed acknowledged, but 
this is Jehovah himself; but his Humanity is not acknowledged 
to be divine, although the divine essence and the human in him 
are like soul and body, and therefore are not two but one, yea, 
one person, according to the doctrine received throughout the 
whole Christian world, which has its name from Athanasius. 
When, therefore, the divine in him is separated from the hu 
man, by saying that his Humanity is not divine, but like the 
human essence of any other man, in this case he is dead among 
men. But concerning this separation and consequent death of 
the Lord, more may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jeru 
salem concerning the Lord ; and in The Angelic Wisdom con 
cerning the Divine Providence, n. 262, 263. 

60. And, behold, I am alive for ever and ever, signifies that 
he is life eternal. Now as, who am alive, signifies that he 
alone is life, and from him alone life is derived, as above, n. 58, 
it follows that, Behold, I am alive for ever and ever, signifies 
that he alone is life to eternity, and consequently that eternal 
life is from him alone ; for eternal life is in him, and con 
sequently from him. For ever and ever, signifies eternity. 
That eternal life is from the Lord alone, is plain from the 

77 



61 65 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. 1. 

following passages : " Jesus said, Whosoever believeth on me 
shall not perish, but have everlasting life" John iii. 16. 
" Every one that believeth in the Son hath everlasting life, but 
he who believeth not in the Son, shall not see life, but the 
wrath of God abideth on him," John vi. 40, 47, 48. " Verily, 
I say unto you, he that believeth on me hath everlasting life" 
John vi. 47. "I am the resurrection and the life; he that 
believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live : and 
whosoever believeth in me, shall never die," John xi. 24, 26 : 
and in other places. Hence, then, the Lord is called, He that 
is alive. for ever and ever : as also in the following passages of 
the Apocalypse, iv. 9, 10 ; v. 14; x. 6 ; Dan. iv. 34. 

61. Amen, signifies the divine confirmation that it is the 
truth. That amen is the truth, which is the Lord, may be seen 
above, n. 23. 

62. And have the keys of hell and death, signifies that he 
alone has power to save. ~By keys is signified the power of 
opening and shutting ; in this instance, the power of opening 
hell, that man may be brought forth, and of shutting it, lest, 
when he is brought forth, he should enter it again ; for man is 
born in evils of all kinds, thus in hell, for evils are hell : he is 
brought out of it by the Lord, to whom belongs the power of 
opening it. The reason why by having the keys of hell and 
death, is not understood the power of casting into hell, but the 
power of saving, is, because it immediately follows after these 
words : " Behold, I am alive for ever and ever ;" by which is 
signified that he alone is eternal life, n. 60 ; and the Lord never 
casts any one into hell, but man casts himself. By keys is sig 
nified the power of opening and shutting, in the Apocalypse 
also, iii. 7; ix. 1 ; xx. 1 : also in Isaiah, xxii. 21, 22 ; in Mat 
thew, xvi. 19 ; and in Luke, xi. 52. The power of the Lord is 
not only over heaven, but also over hell ; for hell is kept in 
order and connexion by oppositions against heaven ; for which 
reason, he who governs the one must necessarily govern the 
other ; otherwise man could not be saved : to be saved is to be 
brought out of hell. 

63. Write the things which thou hast seen, and the things 
which are, and the things which shall be hereafter, signifies that 
all the things now revealed are for the use of posterity ; as may 
appear without explanation. 

64. The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my 
right hand, and the seven golden candlesticks, signifies arcana 
in visions concerning the new heaven and the new church. 
That by seven stars is signified the church in the heavens, and 
by seven candlesticks the church upon earth, will be seen in 
what now follows. 

65. The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, sig 
nifies the New Church in the heavens, which is the new he* 

78 



V. 19, 20.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 66, 67 

ven. The church exists in the heavens as well as upon earth ; 
for the Word is in the heavens as well as upon earth, and 
there are doctrines and preachings from it : on which subject 
see The New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture, n. 
TO 75, and n. 104 113. That church is the new heaven, con 
cerning which something is said in the preface. The reason 
why the church in the heavens, or the new heaven, is meant by 
the seven stars, is, because it is said, that the seven stars are 
the angels of the seven churches, and by angel is signified a 
heavenly society. In the spiritual world there appears a firma 
ment full of stars, as m the natural world, and this appearance 
is from the angelic societies in heaven : each society there 
shines like a star to those who are below ; hence they there 
know in what situation the angelic societies are. That seven 
does not signify seven, but all who are of the church there, 
according to the reception of each, may be seen above, n. 10, 
14, 41 ; therefore, by the angels of the seven churches, is 
meant the universal church in the heavens, consequently the 
new heaven in the aggregate. 

66. And the seven candlesticks which thou sawest are the 
seven churches , signifies the new church upon earth, which is 
the New Jerusalem descending from the Lord out of the new 
heaven. That the candlesticks are the church, may be seen 
above, n. 43 ; and whereas seven signify all, n. 10, by the sevei? 
candlesticks are not understood seven churches, but the church 
in the aggregate, which in itself is one, but various according 
to reception. Those varieties may be compared to the various 
jewels in the crown of a king ; and they may also be compared 
to the various members and organs in a perfect body, which yet 
make a one. The perfection of every form consists in various 
things being suitably disposed in their order ; hence it is, that 
the universal new church is described, as to its various partic 
ulars, by the seven churches, in what follows. 

67. THE FAITH OF THE NEW HEAVEN AND NEW CHURCH, COM 
PREHENDED IN ONE UNIVERSAL IDEA, is this, that the Lord from 
eternity, who is Jehovah, came into the world to subdue the 
hells and glorify his Humanity ; and that without this no flesh 
could have been saved; and that they will be saved who be 
lieve in him. 

It is said, in a universal idea, because this is the universal 
of faith, and the universal of faith is what enters into all and 
every particular. It is a universal of faith, that God is one in 
person and in essence, in whom there is a trinity, and that the 
Lord is that God. It is a universal of faith, that no mortal 
could have been saved unless the Lord had come into the world. 
It is a universal of faith, that he came into the world that he 
might remove hell from man ; and that he did remove it by 
successive combats against it and victories over it ; whereby he 
79 



67 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. 1L 

finally subdued it, and reduced it to order, and under obedience 
to himself. It is also a universal of faith, that he came into the 
world to glorify the Humanity, which he assumed in the world, 
that is, to unite it with the all-begetting Divinity, from whom 
are all things ; thus having subdued hell, he keeps it in order, 
and under obedience, to eternity. Now as neither of these 
could have come to pass except by means of temptations, even 
to the last and most extreme of all, which was the passion of 
the cross, therefore he endured it. These are the universals of 
faith concerning the Lord. 

The universal of the Christian faith on man s part, is, to 
believe in the Lord ; for by believing in him he has conjunc 
tion with him, and by conjunction, salvation. To believe in 
him is to have confidence that he will save ; and because none 
can have such confidence but he who leads a good life, there 
fore this also is understood by believing in him. 

These two universals of the Christian faith have been speci 
fically treated of; the first, which relates to the Lord 5 in The 
Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord; and the 
second, which relates to man, in The Doctrine of the N&w Jeru 
salem concerning Charity and Faith, and in The Doctrine of 
Life : and both now in the explanations of the Apocalypse. 



CHAPTER II. 



1. UNTO the angel of the church of Ephesus write ; These 
things saith he that holdeth the seven stars in his right hand, 
who walketh in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks. 

2. I know thy works, and thy labour, and thy endurance. 
B"d how thou canst not bear them that are evil, and hast tried 
them that say they are apostles, and are not, and hast found 
them liars ; 

3. And hast borne, and hast endurance, and for my name s 
sake hast laboured, and hast not fainted. 

4. Nevertheless I have somewhat against thee, that thou 
hast left thy first charity. 

5. Kemember therefore from whence thou art fallen ; and 
repent, and do the first works ; or else I will come unto thee 
quickly, and will remove thy candlestick out of its place, ex 
cept thou repent. 

6. But this thou hast, that thou hatest the works of the 
Nicolaitanes, which I also hate. 

80 



Cliap. il/} THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 

7. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith 
unto the churches : To him thac overcometh will I give to eat 
of the tree of life, which is in the midst of the paradise of God, 

8. And unto the angel of the church in Smyrna write ; 
These things saith the i?irst and the Last, who was dead, and 
is alive. 

9. I know thy works, and tribulation, and poverty (but 
thou art rich), and I know the blasphemy of them that say they 
are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan. 

10. Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer. Be 
hold, the devil shall cast some of you into prison, that ye may 
be tried : and ye shall have tribulation ten days : be thou faith 
ful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life. 

11. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith 
unto the churches : He that overcometh shall not be hurt of the 
second death. 

12. And to the angel of -ho church in Pergamos write , 
These things saith He that hath the sharp sword with two 
edges. 

13. I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, even where 
Satan s throne is : and thou holdest fast my name, and hast 
not denied my faith, even in those days wherein Antipas was 
my faithful martyr, who was slain among you where Satan 
dwelleth. 

14. But I have a few things against thee, because thou hast 
there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balak 
to cast a stumbling-block before the children of Israel, to eat 
things sacrificed unto idols, and to commit fornication. 

15. So hast thou also them that hold the doctrine of the 
Nicolaitanes ; which thing I hate. 

16. Repent, or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will 
light against them with the sword of my mouth. 

17. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith 
unto the churches : To him that overcometh will I give to eat 
of the hidden manna ; and will give him a white stone, and in 
the stone a new name written, which no man knoweth saving 
he that receiveth it. 

18. And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write ; 
These things saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes like unto 
a flame of fire, and his feet like fine brass. 

19. I know thy works, and charity, and service, and faith, 
and thy endurance, and thy works ; and the last to be more 
than the first. 

20. Notwithstanding, I have a few things against thee, be 
cause thou sufferest that AVOID an Jezebel, who calleth herself a 
prophetess, to teach, and to seduce my servants to commit 
whoredom, and to eat things sacrificed unto idols. 

Rl 



68 THE APOCALYPSE BEVEALED. [Chap. l w 

21. And I gave her time to repent of her whoredom ; and 
she repented not. 

22. Behold, I will cast her into a bed, and them that com 
mit adultery with her into great tribulation, except they repent 
of their deeds. 

23. And I will kill her children with death. And all the 
churches shall know that I am he that searcheth the reins and 
hearts ; and I will give unto every one of you according to 
your works. 

24. But unto you, I say, and unto the rest in Thyatira, as 
many as have not this doctrine, and who have not known the 
depths of Satan, as they speak ; I will put upon you none other 
burden. 

25. Nevertheless, that which ye have, hold fast till I come. 

26. And he that overcometh and keepeth my works unto 
the end, to him will I give power over the nations ; 

27. And he shall rule them with a rod of iron, as the vessels 
of a potter shall they be broken to shivers : even as I received 
of my Father. 

28. And I will give him the morning star. 

29. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith 
unto the churches. 



THE SPIRITUAL SENSE. 

68. THE CONTENTS OF THE WHOLE CHAPTER. To the churches 
in the Christian world : to those therein who primarily regard 
truths of doctrine and not good of life, who are understood by 
the church of Ephesus, n. 72 90. To those therein who are 
in good as to life and in falses as to doctrine, who are under 
stood by the church in Smyrna, n. 91 106. To those therein 
who place the all of the church in good works, and not any 
thing in truths, who are understood by the church in Pergamos, 
n. 107 123. And to those therein who are in faith originat 
ing in charity, as also to those who are in faith separated from 
charity, who are understood by the church in Thyatira, n. 12-4 
152. All these are called to the New Church, which is the 
New Jerusalem. 

THE CONTENTS OF EACH YEESE. v. 1, " Unto the angel of 
tne church of Ephesus write," signifies to those and concerning 
those who primarily respect truths of doctrine, and not good 
of life : "These things saith he that holdeth the seven stars in 

82 






CLap. ii.] THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. 68 

his right hand," signifies the Lord, from whom, by the Word, 
proceed all truths : " Who walketh in the midst of the seven 
golden candlesticks," signifies from whom all illumination is 
received by those who are of his church: v. 2, "I know thy 
works," signifies that he sees all the interiors and exteriors of 
man at once : " And thy labour and thy endurance," signifies 
their study and patience : " And how thou canst not bear them 
that are evil," signifies that they cannot bear that evil should 
be called good, nor the reverse : " And hast tried them that say 
they are apostles, and are not, and hast found them liars," sig 
nifies that they scrutinize those things which are called goous 
and truths in the church, which nevertheless are evils and 
falses: v. 3, "And hast borne and hast endurance," signifies 
patience with them : "And for my name s sake hast laboured, 
and hast not fainted," signifies their study and endeavour to 
attain the things which belong to religion and its doctrine : v. 
4, " Nevertheless I have somewhat against thee, that thou hast 
left thy first charity," signifies that this is against them, that 
they do not esteem good of life in the first place : v. 5, " Re 
member therefore from whence thou art fallen," signifies re* 
membrance of their error : " And repent, and do the first 
works," signifies that they ought to invert the state of their 
life: "Or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will remove 
thy candlestick out of its place, except thou repent," signifies 
that otherwise, of a certainty, illumination will not be given 
them to see truths any longer : v. 6, " But this thou hast, that 
thou hatest the works of the Nicolaitanes, which I also hate," 
signifies that they know this by virtue of the truths they pos 
sess, and thence are not willing that works should be meritorir 
ous : v. 7, " He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit 
saith unto the churches," signifies that he that understands, 
ought to obey what the divine truth of the Word teaches those 
who are to be of the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem 9 * 
" To him that overcometh," signifies he who fights against evils 
and falses, and is reformed : " Will I give to eat of the tree of 
life," signifies appropriation of the good of love and charity 
from the Lord : " Which is in the midst of the paradise of God," 
signifies interiorly in the truths of wisdom and faith. 

v. 8, "And unto the angel of the church in Smyrna write," 
signifies to those and concerning those who are in good as to 
life, but in falses as to doctrine : " These things saith the First 
and the Last," signifies the Lord, that he is the only God : 
" Who was dead and is alive," signifies that he is neglected in 
the church, and his Humanity not acknowledged to be divine, 
when yet as to that also he alone is life, and from him alone 
is life everlasting : v. 9, "I know thy works," signifies that the 
Lord sees all their interiors and exteriors at once : " And tribu 
lation and poverty (but thou art rich)," signifies that they are 
Do 



68 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Cliap. 11. 

in falses, and thence not in goods : "And I know the blasphemy 
of them that say they are Jews, and are not," signifies the false 
assertion that they possess the goods of love, when in fact they 
do not : " But are the synagogue of Satan," signifies, because 
they are in falses as to doctrine : v. 10, " Fear none of those 
things which thou shalt suffer," signifies, despair not when in 
fested by evils and assaulted by falses : " Behold the devil shall 
cast some of you into prison," signifies that their good of life 
will be infested by evils from hell : " That ye may be tried," 
signifies by falses fighting against them : "And ye shall have 
tribulation ten days," signifies that it will endure its full time : 
" Be thou faithful unto death," signifies reception of truths 
until falses are removed : "And I will give thee a crown of life," 
signifies that they will then have eternal life, the reward of 
victory : v. 11, " He that hath an ear, let him hear what the 
Spirit saith unto the churches," signifies here, as before : " He 
that overcometh," signifies he that fights against evils and 
falses, and is reformed : " Shall not be hurt of the second 
death," signifies that afterwards they shall not yield to evils 
and falses from hell. 

v. 12, "And to the angel of the church in Pergamos write," 
signifies to those and concerning those who place the all of the 
church in good works, and not any thing in truths of doctrine : 
" These things saith he that hath the sharp sword with two 
edges," signifies the Lord as to the truths of doctrine from the 
Word, by which evils and falses are dispersed : v. 13, " I know 
thy works," signifies here, as before : "And where thou dwell- 
est, even where Satan s throne is," signifies their life in dark 
ness : "And thou boldest fast my name, and hast not denied 
my faith," signifies when yet they have religion and worship 
according to it : " Even in those days wherein Antipas was my 
faithful martyr, who was slain among you where Satan dwell- 
eth," signifies when all truth was extinguished by falses in the 
church : v. 14, " But I have a few things against thee," signifies 
that the things which follow are against them : "Because thou 
hast there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught 
Balak to cast a stumbling-block before the children of Israel, 
to eat things sacrificed unto idols, and to commit fornication," 
signifies that there are some among them who do hypocritical 
works, by which the worship of God in the church is defiled 
and adulterated: v. 15, "So nast thou also them that hold the 
doctrine of the Nicolaitanes, which thing I hate," signifies that, 
there are some among them also who make works meritorious : 
v. 16, " Repent," signifies that they should take heed of such 
works : "Or else I will come unto thee quickly, and ^ will fight 
against them with the sword of my mouth," signifies, if not, 
that the Lord will contend with them from the ^Word : v. 17, 
" He that hath an ear, let 1 im hear what the Spirit saith untc 
84 



Chap ii.] TBE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 68 

the churches/ signifies here, as before : " To him that over- 
cometh," signifies here, the same as before : " Will I give to 
eat of the hidden manna," signifies the appropriation then of 
the good of celestial love, and thus conjunction of the Lord 
with those who operate : " And will give him a white stone," 
signifies truths affirmative and united to good: "And in the 
stone a new name written," signifies that thus they will have 
good of a quality such as they had not before : "Which no man 
kuoweth saving he that receiveth it," signifies that it does not 
appear to any one, because it is written in their lives. 

v. 18, "And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write," 
signifies to those and concerning those, who are in faith 
grounded in charity, and thence in good works ; and also to 
those and concerning those, who are in faith separated from 
charity, and thence in evil works : " These things saith the Son 
of God who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire," signifies 
the Lord as to the divine wisdom of his divine love : "And his 
feet like fine brass," signifies divine good natural : v. 19, " I 
know thy works," signifies here, as before : " And charity and 
service," signifies the spiritual affection which is called charity, 
and its operation: "And faith, and thy endurance, and thy 
works," signifies truth and the desire of acquiring and teaching 
it : " And the last to be more than the first," signifies the in 
crease thereof from the spiritual affection of truth : v. 20, 
u Notwithstanding, I have a few things against thee," signifies 
what follows : " Because thou sufferest that woman Jezebel," 
signifies that among them there are some in the church who 
separate faith from charity : "Who calleth herself a prophetess," 
signifies, and who make the doctrine of faith the sole doctrine 
of the church : " To teach and to seduce my servants to commit 
whoredom," signifies, from which it comes to pass that the 
truths of the Word are falsified : "And to eat things sacrificed 
unto idols," signifies the defilement of divine worship, and pro 
fanations : v. 21, "And I gave her time to repent of her whore 
dom, and she repented not," signifies that they who have con 
firmed themselves in that doctrine will not recede, although 
they see things contrary to it in the Word : v. 22, " Behold, I 
will cast her into a bed, and them that commit adultery with 
her into great tribulation," signifies that therefore they wiL be 
left in their doctrine with falsifications, and that they will be 
grievously infested by falses : " Except they repent of their 
deeds," signifies if they will not desist from separating faith 
from charity : v. 23, "And I will kill her children with death," 
signifies that all the truths of the Word will be turned into 
falses : " And all the churches shall know that I am he which 
searcheth the reins and hearts," signifies that the church shall 
know that the Lord sees the quality of every one s truth, and 
the quality of his good : " And I will give unto every one of 
85 



9, 70 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. U. 

you according to your works," signifies that lie gives unto every 
one according to the charity and its faith which is in his works : 
v. 24, " But unto you I say, and unto the rest in Thyatira. as 
many as have not this doctrine," signifies to those with whom 
the doctrine of faith is separated from charity, and to those with 
whom the doctrine of faith is joined with charity : "And who 
have not known the depths of Satan as they speak," signifies 
they who do not understand their interiors, which are mere 
falses : " I will put upon you none other burden," signifies 
only that they should beware of them : v. 25, " Nevertheless, 
that which ye have, hold fast till I come," signifies that they 
should retain the few things which they know concerning 
charity, and thence concerning faith from the Word, and live 
according to them until the Lord s coming : v. 26, " And he 
that overcometh and keepeth my works unto the end," signifies 
those who are in charity and thence actually in faith, and 
remain in them to the end of their lives : " To him will I give 
power over the nations," signifies that they shall overcome the 
evils in themselves which are from hell : v. 27, "And he shall 
rule them with a rod of iron," signifies by truths from the 
literal sense of the Word, and at the same time by rational 
principles derived from natural light : " As the vessels of a 
potter shall they be broken to shivers," signifies as of little or 
no account : " Even as I received of my Father," signifies this 
from the Lord, who, when he was in the world, procured to 
himself all power over the hells, from the divine principle 
which was within him : v. 28, " And I will give him the morn 
ing star," signifies intelligence and wisdom: v. 29, "He that 
hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the church 
es," signifies here, as before. 



THE EXPLANATION. 

69. THIS and the following chapter treat of the seven 
churches, by which are described all those in the Christian 
church who have any religion, and out of whom the New Church, 
which is the New Jerusalem, can be formed ; and this is formed 
by those who APPROACH THE LORD ONLY, AND AT THE SAME 

TIME PERFORM REPENTANCE FROM EVIL WORKS. The rest, who 

do not approach the Lord alone, from the confirmed negation 
of the divinity of his Humanity, and who do not perform re 
pentance from evil works, are indeed in the church, but have 
nothing of the church in them. 

70. Since the Lord alone is acknowledged as the God of 
heaven and earth, by those who are of his Ne\v Church in the 

86 



Chap, ii.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 71, 72 

heavens, and by those who will be of his New Church upon 
earth ; therefore, in the first chapter of the Apocalypse the 
Lord a^ne is treated of; and in the two following chapters, it 
is he alone who speaks to the churches, and he alone who will 
give the felicities of eternal life. That it is he alone who speaks 
to the churches is evident from these passages : " Unto the 
angel of the church of Ephesus write, These things saith He 
that holdeth the seven stars in his right hand, who walketh in 
the midst of the seven golden candlesticks" ii. 1. "Unto the 
angel of the church in Smyrna write, These things saith the 
First and the Last" ii. 8. " To the angel of the church in 
Pergamos write, These things saith He which hath the sharp 
sword with two edges" ii. 12. " Unto the angel of the church 
in Thyatira write, These things saith the Son of God, who hath 
his eyes like unto a flame of fire, and his feet are like fine 
brass" ii. 18. " Unto the angel of the church in Sardis write, 
These things saith He that hath the seven spirits of God, and 
the seven stars," iii. 1. "To the angel of the church in Phila 
delphia write, These things saith He that is holy, He that is 
true, He that hath the key of David," iii. 7. "And unto the 
angel of the church of the Laodiceans write, These things saith 
the Amen, the faithful and true Witness, the Beginning of the 
creation of God" iii. 14. These expressions are taken from 
the first chapter, in which the Lord alone is treated of, and 
where he is described by all these attributes. 

71. That the Lord alone will give the felicities of eternal life 
to those who are and will be of his church, is evident from 
these passages : The Lord said to the church of Ephesus, " To 
him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree of life, which 
is in the midst of the paradise of God, ii. 7. Unto the church 
in Smyrna, " 1 will give thee a crown of life. He that over 
cometh shall not be hurt of the second death," ii. 10, 11. Unto 
the church in Pergamos, " To him that overcometh will I give 
to eat of the hidden manna, and will give him a white stone, 
and in the stone a new name written, which no man knoweth 
saving he that receiveth it." ii. 17. Unto the church in Thya 
tira, " To him will I give power over the nations, and I will 
give him the morning star" ii. 26, 28. Unto the church in 
Philadelphia, " Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in 
the temple of my God ; and I will write upon him the name of 
my God, and the name of the city of my God, which is New 
Jerusalem, and my new name," iii. 12. Unto the church in 
Laodicea, " To him that overcometh will I grant to sit with me 
in my throne," iii. 21. From these passages it is also evident, 
that the Lord alone is to be acknowledged in the New Church. 
Hence it is that this church is called The Lamb s Wife, Apoc. 
xix. 7, 9 ; xxi. 9, 10. 

72. That the .New Church, which is the New Jerusalem, i 
87 



73 75 THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. [Cliap. 11. 

to be formed of those who do repentance from evil works, is 
also manifest from the Lord s words to the churches : to that in 
Ephesus ; u I know thy works ; nevertheless I have somewhat 
against thee, that thon hast left thy first charity. Repent, and 
do the first works ; or else I will come unto thee quickly, and 
will remove thy candlestick out of his place, except thou repent] 
ii. 2, 4, 5. To the church in Pergamos ; " I know thy works, 
repent*" ii. 13, 16. To the church in Thyatira ; " I will de 
liver her into great tribulation, except they repent of their deeds, 
and I will give unto every one of you according to his 
works," ii. 19, 22, 23. To the church in Sardis ; " I have not 
found thy works perfect before God ; repent" iii. 1 3. To 
the church in Laodicea ; " 1 know thy works ; be zealous, 
therefore, and repent" iii. 16, 19. But to proceed to the ex 
planation. 

73. Unto the angel of the church of Ephesus write, signifies, 
to those and concerning those, who primarily respect truths of 
doctrine and not good of life. It was shown above, n. 66, that 
by the seven churches are not meant seven churches, but the 
church in the aggregate, which in itself is one, but various ac 
cording to reception ; and that those varieties may be com 
pared with the various members and organs in a perfect body, 
which yet make a one. They may also be compared with the 
various jewels in a king s crown; and hence it is that the uni 
versal New Church, with its various particulars, is described, 
in what now follows, by seven churches. That lay the church 
of Ephesus, are understood those in the church who primarily 
respect truths of doctrine and not good of life, is clear from 
what is written to them, when understood in the spiritual sense. 
It is written to the angel of that church, because by an angel 
is understood an angelic society which corresponds to a church 
consisting of such, as above, n. 65. 

74-. These things saith He that holdeth the seven stars in 
his right hand, signifies the Lord, from whom, by the Word, 
proceed all truths. That He who holds the seven stars in his 
right hand, is the Lord, and that the seven stars in his right 
hand are all the knowledges of good and truth in the Word, 
which are thence from the Lord, with the angels of heaven and 
men of the church, may be seen above, n. 51. The knowledges 
of good and truth from the Word are truths. 

75. Who walketh in the midst of the seven golden candle 
sticks, signifies, from whom all illumination is received by 
those who are of his church. That the seven candlesticks, in 
the midst of which was the Son of Man, signify the church 
which is in illumination from the Lord, may be seen above, n. 
43 eg. He is here said to be walking, because to walk sig 
nifies to live, n. 167; and in the midst, signifies in the inmost 
and then co in all, r 44, 383. 
88 






V 1, 2.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 76 79 

76. / know thy works, signifies that lie sees all the interiors 
and exteriors of man at once. Works are often mentioned in 
the Apocalypse, but few know what is meant by works. This, 
however, is well known, that ten men may do works which 
externally appear alike, and which yet differ with them all ; 
and this because they proceed from different ends and different 
causes, the end and the cause rendering the works either good 
or bad ; for every work is a work of the mind, therefore such 
as is the quality of the mind, such is that of the work : if the 
mind be charity, the work becomes charity ; but if the mind be 
not charity, the w r ork is not charity : still, however, they may 
both appear externally alike. Works appear to men in their 
external form, but to angels in their internal form ; and to the 
Lord their quality is apparent from inmost to outmost. Works 
in their external form appear like the outside of fruits, but 
works in their internal form appear like the inside of fruits, 
where there are innumerable eatable parts, and in the midst 
seeds, in which there are also things innumerable, which are too 
minute for the keenest eye to discern, yea, which are above the 
intellectual sphere of man : such are all works, the internal 
quality of which the Lord alone sees, and which the angels also 
perceive from the Lord, when performed by man. But on this 
subject more may be seen in The Angelic Wisdom concerning 
the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom, n. 209 220, and n. 
277281 ; and also below, n. 141, 641, 868. From this it may 
appear, that by " I know thy works," is signified that the 
Lord sees all the interiors and exteriors of man at once. 

77. And thy labour and endurance that this signifies their 
study and patience, is evident without explanation. 

78. And how thou canst not bear them that are evil, signi 
fies that they cannot bear that evil shall be called good, nor 
the reverse, because this is contrary to the truths of doctrine. 
That this is the signification of these words, is evident from 
what follows, by which is signified that they scrutinize those 
things in the church which are called goods and truths, when 
yet they are evils and falses. To know goods, whether they be 
good or evil, pertains to doctrine, and is among its truths, but 
to do good or evil, pertains to life : this is said, therefore, of 
those who hold truths of doctrine in the first place, and not 
goods of life, n. 73. By them which are evil, in the spiritual 
sense, are not understood evil persons, but evils, because this 
sense is abstracted from persons. 

4 79. And hast tried them which say they are apostles, and are 
not, and hast found them liars, signifies that they scrutinize 
those things which are called goods and truths in the church, 
which nevertheless are evils and falses. That this is what is 
signified, cannot be seen except by the spiritual sense, and con 
sequently by knowing what is meant by apostles and liars : by 
89 



80, 81 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Cliap. ll, 

apostles are not understood apostles, but all wlio teach the 
goods and truths of the church, and, in an abstract sense, the 
goods and truths themselves of its doctrine. That apostles are 
not understood by apostles, clearly appears from these words 
addressed to them : " When the Son of Man shall sit on the 
throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones judg 
ing the twelve tribes of Israel," Matt. xix. 28 ; Luke xxii. 30. 
Who does not see that the apostles neither will nor can judge 
any one, much less the twelve tribes of Israel, but that the 
Lord alone will do this according to the goods and truths of the 
doctrine of the church from the Word ? In like manner from 
this passage : " And the wall of the city New Jerusalem had 
twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve 
apostles of the Lamb," Apoc. xxi. 14 ; because by the New 
Jerusalem, is signified the New Church, n. 880, 881 ; and by 
its foundations, all the goods and truths of its doctrine, n. 902, 
and following numbers. And also from this passage : " Rejoice 
over her, thou heaven, and ye holy apostles and prophets," 
Apoc. xviii. 20. What can the rejoicing of the apostles and 
prophets signify, unless by them are meant all who are in goods 
and truths of doctrine in the church ? By the Lord s disciples 
are meant those who are instructed by the Lord in the goods 
and truths of doctrine ; but by apostles they who, after they are 
instructed, teach them ; for it is said, " Jesus sent his twelve 
disciples to preach the kingdom of God, and the apostles, when 
they were returned, told him all that they had done," Luke ix. 
1, 2, 10 ; Mark vi. 7, 30. That by liars are meant they who 
are in falses, and, abstractedly, the falses themselves, may 
appear from many places in the Word, which, if they were 
adduced, would iiil several pages ; neither are lies, in the spir 
itual sense, any thing else but falses. From these considera 
tions it may appear, that by " Thou hast tried them which say 
they are apostles, and are not, and hast found them liars," is 
signified that they scrutinize those things which are said to be 
good and true in the church, but which nevertheless are evil 
and false. 

80. And hast borne and hast endurance / that this signifies 
their patience with them, is evident without explanation. 

81. And for my name s sake hast laboured, and hast not 
fainted, signifies their study and endeavour to attain, and also 
to teach, the things which belong to religion and its doctrine. 
By the name of Jehovah or of the Lord, in the Word, is not 
meant his name, but all by which he is worshipped ; and be 
cause he is worshipped in the church according to doctrine, by 
his name is meant the all of doctrine, and, in a universal sense, 
the all of religion. The reason why these things are meant by 
the name of Jehovah, is, because in heaven no other names ara 
given but what involve the quality of any one, and the quality 

90 



V. 2, 3.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 81 

of God is all by which he is worshipped. He that is not aware 
of this signification of name in the Word, can only understand 
name ; in which alone nothing of worship nor of religion is in 
volved. He that keeps in mind, therefore, the signification of 
the NAME OF JEHOVAH as here explained, whenever it occurs in 
the Word, w T ill understand of himself what it means in the fol 
lowing places : " In that day shall ye say, Praise Jehovah, call 
upon his name" Isaiah xii. 4. " Jehovah, have we waited for 
thee : the desire of our soul is to thy name, by thee only will 
we make mention of thy name" Isaiah xxvi. 8, 13. " From 
the rising of the sun shall he call upon my name" Isaiah xli. 
25. " From the rising of the sun even unto the going down of 
the same, my name shall be great among the Gentiles ; and in 
every place incense shall be offered unto my name for my 
name shall be great among the Gentiles : but ye have profaned 
my name, in that ye say, the table of Jehovah is polluted ; 
and ye have snuffed at my name when ye brought that which 
was torn, and lame, and sick," Malachi i. 11 13. " For all 
people will walk in the name of his God, and we will walk in 
the name of Jehovah our God," Micah iv. 5. " Every one that 
is called by my name, for I have created him for my glory, 
I have formed him," Isaiah xliii. 7. " Thou shalt not take the 
name of Jehovah thy God in vain ; for Jehovah w T ill not hold 
him guiltless that taketh his name in vain," Deut. v. 11. They 
shall worship Jehovah in one place w r here he will put his 
name, Deut. xii. 5, 11, 13, 14 ; xvi. 2, 6, 11, 15, 16 ; besides 
many other places. Who may not perceive that in these, name 
alone is not understood ? The same is signified in the New 
Testament by the name of the Lord, as in the following: Jesus 
said, " Ye shall be hated of all men for my name s sake," Matt. 
x. 22; xxiv. 9. "For where two or three are gathered toge 
ther in my name, there am I in the midst of them," Matt, xviii. 
20. "And every one that hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or 
sisters, for my name s sake, shall receive an hundred-fold, and 
shall inherit everlasting life," Matt. xix. 29. " But as many as 
received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of 
God, even to them that believe on his name" John i. 12. 
" Many believed in his name," John ii. 23. " He that believeth 
not is condemned already, because he hath not believed in 
the name of the only-begotten Son of God," John iii. 18. 
They who believe will have life in his name, John xx. 31. 
" Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord," Matt, 
xxi. 9 ; xxiii. 39 ; Luke xiii. 35 ; xix. 38. That the Lord, as to 
his Humanity, is the name of the Father, appears in these 
places : " Father, glorify thy name," John xii. 28. " Hallowed 
be thy name, thy kingdom come," Matt. vi. 9 ; also Exod. xxiii. 
20, 2i ; Jerem. xxiii. 6 ; Micah v. 4. That name, applied to 
others, signifies the quality of worship, appears in tho following 
91 



82 84: THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. 1 1. 

passages : The shepherd of the sheep " calleth his own sheep 
by their name" John x. 3. " Thou nast a few names even in 
Sardis," Apoc. iii. 4. " I will write upon him the name of 
my God, and the name of the city of my God, which is New 
Jerusalem, and my new name" Apoc. iii. 12 ; and in other 
places. Hence it may appear, that u for my name s sake thou 
hast laboured, and hast not fainted," signifies study and en 
deavour to acquire, and also to teach, the things which belong 
to religion and its doctrine. 

82. Nevertheless, I have somewhat against thee, that thou hast 
left thy first charity , signifies that this is against them, that thej 
do not esteem good of life in the first place, which, nevertheless, 
was and is done in the beginning of every church. This is 
said to the church, because by it are meant those in the church 
who primarily or in the first place respect truths of doctrine, and 
not goods of life, n. 73 ; when yet good of life is to be considered 
in the first place, that is, primarily ; for in proportion as a man 
is in goods of life, in the same proportion he is really in truths of 
doctrine, and not vice versa ; the reason is, because goods of life 
open the interiors of the mind, and these being opened, truths 
appear in their own light, whence they are not only understood, 
but also loved ; not so when doctrinals are primarily, or in the 
first place, respected ; in this case truths may indeed be known, 
but not seen interiorly, and loved from spiritual affection ; but 
this has been illustrated above, n. 17. Every church, at its be 
ginning, respects goods of life in the first place, and truths of 
doctrine in the second ; but as the church declines, it begins to 
respect truths of doctrine in the first place, and goods of life in 
the second; and at length in the end it respects faith alone, 
and then it not only separates the goods of charity from faith, 
but also omits them. From hence then it may appear, that by 
these words, " Thou hast left thv^ first charity," is signified that 
they do not esteem good of life in the first place, which never 
theless is, and has been done at the beginning of every church. 

83. Remember therefore from whence thou art f alien j that 
this signifies remembrance of their error, is plain from what 
has just been said. 

84. And repent, and do the first worlds, signifies that they 
ought to invert the state of their life. Every man respects 
truths of doctrine in the first place, yet so long as he does this, 
he is like unripe fruit ; but he who is regenerated, after he has 
imbibed truths, respects good of life in the first place, and in 




pro .ific. These two states have been witnessed by 
in men wh(. were become spirits : in the first state, they ap 
peared turned to the valleys which are over hell ; and in the 
second, to the paradises in heaven. It is this conversion of tht 
92 



V. 3 6.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 85, 86 

state of life which is here understood. That this is effected 
by repentance, and after it by good of life, is understood by 
"Kepent, and do the first works. 5 

85. Or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will remove 
thy candlestick out of its place, except thou repent, signifies that 
otherwise of a certainty illumination will not be given them to 
see truths any longer. By quickly is signified certainly, n. 4, 
947 ; and by candlestick, the church as to illumination, n. 43. 
66 ; hence, by removing it out of its place, is signified to re 
move illumination, that they may not see truths in their own 
light, and at length, that they may not see them any more. 
This follows from what was said above, n. 82, namely, that if 
truths of doctrine are respected primarily, or in the first place, 
they may indeed be known, but not interiorly seen, and loved 
from spiritual affection, therefore they successively perish ; for 
to see truths from their own light, is to see them from man s 
interior mind, which is called the spiritual mind, and this mind 
is opened by charity ; and when it is open, light and the affec 
tion of understanding truths flow in out of heaven from the 
Lord, which constitutes illumination. The man who is in this 
illumination, acknowledges truths as soon as he reads or hears 
them ; but it is not so with the man whose spiritual mind is not 
opened, who is one that is not principled in the goods of charity, 
howsoever he may be principled in the truths of doctrine. 

86. But this thou hast, that thou hatest the works of the 
Nicolaitanes, which I also hate, signifies that they know this 
by virtue of the truths they possess, and thence are not willing 
that works should be meritorious, because this is contrary to 
the merit and righteousness of the Lord. That the works of 
the Nicolaitanes are meritorious works, has been made known 
by revelation. It is said, that they hate those works, because 
the church from the truths of its doctrine knows this, and 
thence does not will it : therefore it is said, " this thou hast." 
Yet all those make works meritorious who put the truths of 
faith in the first place, and the goods of charity in the second ; 
out not those who put the goods of charity in the first place 
the reason is, because genuine charity admits not of merit, 
for it loves to do good, existing in it and acting from it ; and 
from good it looks to the Lord ; and from truths it knows that 
all good is from him ; it therefore has an aversion to merit. 
Now because they who respect the truths of faith in the first 
place, cannot do any other works than such as are meritorious, 
and yet know, from their truths, that such works ought to be 
detested, therefore this follows after its having been said, that 
if they do not esteem charity in the first place, they do works 
which ought to be held in aversion. It is asserted, that it is 
contrary to the merit and righteousness of the Lord ; for they 
who place merit in works, claim righteousness to themselves ; 

93 



87. 88 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Cliap. ii. 

for they say that justice is on their side because they have 
merit, ^heii yet it is the greatest injustice, inasmuch as the 
Lord alone has merit, and alone does good in them. That the 
Lord alone is righteousness, is taught in Jeremiah : " Behold, 
the days come, that I will cause the branch of righteousness to 
grow up unto David, and this is his name whereby he shall be 
called, Jehovah our righteousness" xxxiii. 5, 6 ; xxxiii. 15, 16. 

87. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith 
unto the churches, signifies that he who understands, ought to 
obey what the divine truth of the Word teaches those who are to 
be of the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem. By hear 
ing, is signified both to perceive and to obey; because a person 
gives attention in order that he may perceive and obey : that 
both these are signified by hearing, is evident from common 
discourse, when we speak of hearing any one and of hearkening 
to him ; the latter signifying to obey, and the former to per 
ceive. That hearing has these two significations, is from corre 
spondence ; for they are in the province of the ears in heaven, 
who are in perception and at the same time in obedience. As 
both these things are signified by hearing, therefore the Lord so 
often said, " He that hath ears to hear, let him hear," Matt. 
xi. 15 ; xiii. 43; Mark iv. 9, 23 ; vii. 16 ; Luke viii. 8 ; xiv. 35: 
and the same is likewise said to all the churches, as. is evident 
from verses 11, 17, 29, of this chapter, and from verses 6, 13, 
and 22, of the following. But by the Spirit which speaks to 
the churches, is signified the divine truth of the Word ; and by 
the churches, the universal church in the Christian world. That 
by the Spirit of God, which is also the Holy Spirit, is under 
stood divine truth proceeding from the Lord, may be seen in 
The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord, n. 
51 ; and as the universal church is understood, it is not said, 
what the Spirit saith to the church, but what the Spirit saith to 
the churches. 

88. To him that overcometh, signifies he that fights against 
his evils and falses, and is reformed. Now as, in what is 
written to the seven churches, is described the state of all in 
the Christian church who are capable of receiving the doctrine 
of the New Jerusalem, and of living according to it, thus who 
are capable, by combats against evils and falses, of being re 
formed ; therefore it is said to each, HE THAT OVERCOMETII : as 
here to the church of Ephesus, " To him that ovecometh will 
I give to eat of the tree of life." To the church in Smyrna, 
" He that overcometh shall not be hurt of the second death," 
li. 11. To the church in Pergamos, "To him that overcometh 
will I give if] eat of the ^hidden manna," ii. 17. To the 
church in Thyatira, " He that overcometh and keepeth mj 
works unto the end, to him will I give power over the na 
tions," ii. 26. To the church in Sardis, " He that overcometk } 

94 



V. 6, 7.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 89, 90 

the same shall be clothed in white raiment," iii. 5. To the 
church in Philadelphia, "Him that overcometh will I inajce a 
pillar in the temple of my God," iii. 12. And to the church 
in Laodicea, " To him that overcometh will I grant to sit with 
me in my throne," iii. 21. He that overcometh, in these places, 
signifies" he who fights against evils and falses, and thus is 
reformed. 

89. Will I give to eat of the tree of life, signifies appropria 
tion of the good of love and charity from the Lord. To eat, 
in the Word, signifies to appropriate ; and the tree of life sig 
nifies the Lord as to the good of love ; therefore by eating of 
the tree of life, is signified the appropriation of the good of 
love from the Lord. To eat signifies to appropriate, because 
as natural food, when it is eaten, is appropriated to the life of 
man s body, so spiritual food, when it is received, is appro 
priated to the life of his soul. The tree of life signifies the 
Lord as to the good of love, because nothing else is signified by 
the tree ^/"LiFE in the garden of Eden ; also because celestial 
and spiritual life is derived to man from the good of love and 
charity, which is received from the Lord. Tree is mentioned in 
many places, and by it is understood a man of the church, and 
in a universal sense the church itself, and by its fruit good of 
life; the reason is, because the Lord is the tree of life, from 
whom comes all good in the man of the church, and in the 
church : but of this in its proper place. It is said the good of 
love and charity, because the good of love is celestial good, 
which is that of love to the Lord, and the good of chanty is 
spiritual good, which is that of love towards our neighbour. 
The nature and quality of these two kinds of good will be ex 
plained in what follows ; they are treated of also in the wt>rk 
concerning Heaven and Hell, n. 13 19. 

90. Which is in the midst of the paradise of God, signifies 
interiorly in the truths of wisdom and faith. In the midst sig 
nifies the inmost, n. 44, 383, here, the interior ; the paradise 
of God signifies the truths of wisdom and faith ; therefore the 
tree of life, which is in the midst of the paradise of God, sig 
nifies the Lord with the good of love and charity interiorly in 
the truths of wisdom and faith : good is also within truths, for 
good is the esse of life, and truth is the existere of life thence 
derived, as is abundantly shown in The Angelic Wisdom con 
cerning the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom. That the 
paradise of God means the truth of wisdom and of faith, is 
evident from the signification of garden in the Word : garden 
there signifies wisdom and intelligence, because trees signify 
men of the church, and their fruits goods of life ; nothing else 
is signified by the garden of Eden, for by it is described the 
wisdom of Adam. The same is understood by the garden of 
God in Ezekiel : " With thy wisdom and thine intelligence "tho 

95 



91, 92 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Cliap. ii. 

hadst gotten thee riches : thou hast been in Eden the garden of 
God; ever j precious stone was thy covering," xxviii. 4, 13; 
speaking of Tyre, by which is signified the church as to the 
knowledges of truth and good, thus as to intelligence ; therefore 
it is said, In thy wisdom and thine intelligence thou hadst got 
ten thee riches : by a covering of precious stones are signified 
the truths of intelligence. Again : " Behold, the Assyrian was 
a cedar in Lebanon ; the cedars in the garden of God could 
not hide him : nor any tree in the garden of God was like unto 
him in his beauty. All the trees of Eden that were in the gar 
den of God envied him," xxxi. 3, 8, 9. This is said of Egypt and 
Ashur, because by Egypt is signified science, and by Ashur ra 
tionality, by which conies intelligence ; the like is signified by 
cedar. But because, by his rationality, he came into the pride 
of self-derived intelligence, therefore it is said of him, u To 
whom art thou thus like in glory and in greatness among the 
trees of Eden? yet shalt thou be brought down with the trees of 
Eden unto the nether parts of the earth : thou shalt lie in the 
midst of the uncircumcised," verse 18 of the same chapter ; the 
uncircumcised are they who are without the good of charity. 
So in Isaiah : " Jehovah shall comfort Zion ; and he will make 
her wilderness like Eden, and her desert like the garden of Je 
hovah" li. 3. Zion there is the church; the wilderness and the 
desert are the defect and ignorance of truth ; Eden and the 
garden of God are wisdom and intelligence. Wisdom and in 
telligence are also signified by garden in Isaiah Iviii. 11 ; Ixi. 
11; Jerem. xxxi. 12 ; Amos ix. 14; Numb. xxiv. 6. The man 
of the church is also like a garden as to intelligence, when he 
is in the good of love from the Lord, because the spiritual heat 
w T hich vivifies him is love, and spiritual light is intelligence 
thence derived. It is well known that gardens in this world 
flourish by means of heat and light ; it is the same in heaven : 
in heaven there appear paradisiacal gardens, with fruit-trees 
according to the wisdom of the inhabitants grounded in the 
good of love received from the Lord : but around those who are 
in intelligence and not in the good of love, there do not appeal- 
gardens, but grass ; and around those who are in faith sepa 
rated from charity, not even grass, but sand. 

91. And unto the angel of the church in Smyrna write, sig 
nifies to those and concerning those, who are in good as to 
life, but in falses as to doctrine. That these are meant by the 
church in Smyrna, is clear from the things written to it when 
understood in the spiritual sense. 

92. These things saith the First and the Last, signifies the 
Lord, that he is the only God. That the Lord calls himself the 
First and the Last, also the Beginning and the End, and 
Alpha and Omega, and He who is, and who was, and who is tc 
come, may be seen, chap. i. 4, 8, 11, 17; and what they signify 

96 



V. 7 9.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 93 06 

above, n. 13, 2931, 38, 57; where it is plain, that by the 
above is also understood, that he is the only God. 

93. Who was dead and is alive, signifies that he is neglected 
in the church, and his Humanity not acknowledged to be 
divine, when yet as to that also he alone is life, and from him 
alone is life everlasting. That this is understood by these 
words, may be seen above, n. 58 60, where they are ex^ 
plained, why these and the preceding things are said, is, 
because the primary falsity of those who are described by this 
church, is, that they do not acknowledge the Lord s Divine 
Humanity, and therefore do not approach him. 

94. / know thy works ; that this signifies that the Lord sees 
all their interiors and exteriors at once, is evident from the same 
explained above, n. 76 ; in the present case it denotes that he 
sees that they are in falses, and yet as to life in goods, which 
they believe to be goods of life, when yet they are not. 

95. And affliction and poverty (but thou art rich), signifies 
that they are in falses, and thence not in goods. To know 
their affliction signifies to see that they are in falses, and to 
know their poverty signifies to see that they are not in goods ; 
for in the Word, affliction is predicated of * falses, as above, n. 
33 ; and poverty of the defect of goods, neither is spiritual 
poverty any thing else. Poor and needy are often mentioned 
in the Word, and in the spiritual sense by poor is understood 
one who is not in truths, and by needy one who is not in goods. 
These words are also added, "but thou art rich," but in a 
parenthesis, because in some copies they are omitted. 

96. And I know the blasphemy of them that say they are 
Jews, and are not, signifies the false assertion that they possess 
the goods of love, when yet they do not. Blasphemy here sig 
nifies false assertion ; by Jews are not signified Jews, but they 
who are in the good of love, and, abstractedly, goods of love ; 
so by the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are 
not, is signified the false assertion that they possess the goods 
of love, when yet they do not. By Jews are meant they who 
are in the good of love, because in the Word by Judah, in a 
supreme sense, is meant the Lord as to the divine good of 
divine love, and by Israel, the Lord as to the divine truth of 
divine wisdom ; hence by Jews are signified they who are in 
the good of love from the Lord, and by Israel they who are in 
divine truths from the Lord: that these are meant by Jews, 
may appear from many passages, which will be adduced below, 
n. 350 ; something may also be seen on this subject in The 
Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord, n. 51. In 
the abstract the goods of love are meant by Jews, because tho 
spiritual sense is abstracted from persons,. as may be seen above, 
n. 78, 79. He who is not aware, that by Jews, in the Wor i, 
are meant those who belong to- the Lord s celestial church, by 

97 G 



7 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. II. 

reason of their being principled in love to him, is liable to fall 
into many mistakes when reading the prophetical part of the 
Word : but see below, n. 350. 

97. But are the synagogue of Satan, signifies because they 
are in falses as to doctrine. It is called synagogue, because 
Jews are mentioned, and as they taught in synagogues, by 
synagogue is signified doctrine ; and because by Satan is under- 
stood the hell of those who are in falses, therefore it is called 
the synagogue of Satan. Hell is called the devil and Satan, 
and by the hell which is called the devil, are understood such 
there as are in evils, properly who are in self-love; and by the 
hell which is called Satan, are understood such tkere as are in 
falses, properly who are in the pride of self-derived intelligence : 
the hells are called the devil and Satan, because all who are in 
them are called devils and Satans. Hence (hen it may appear, 
that by their being the synagogue of Satan, is signified that as 
to doctrine they are in falses. But as they who are in good as 
to life, and in falses as to doctrine, are here treated of, and as 
such know no other than that they are in good, and that their 
falses are truths, something shall be said respecting them. All 
the good of worship is formed by truths, and all truth is formed 
from good, therefore good without truth -is not good, neither is 
truth, without good, truth ; they appear indeed in their external 
form to be so, but still they are not. The conjunction of good 
and truth is called the heavenly marriage ; from this is the 
church in man, and it is heaven in him ; if therefore there are 
falses instead of truths in man, then he does good from a false 
ground, which is not good, for it is either pharisaical or meri 
torious, or natural connate good. But examples will illustrate 
this : he who is in this falsity, that he thinks he does good 
from himself, from his possessing the faculty of doing good ; 
the good of such a man is not good, because he himself is in it, 
and not the Lord. He who is in this falsity, that he can do 
good which is in itself good,< without a knowledge of what is 
evil in himself, so without repentance, although he appears to 
do good, yet he does not do good, because without repentance 
he is in evil. He who is in this falsity, that good purifies him 
from evils, and does not know any thing of the evils in which he 
is, such a man does no other good than spurious good, which is 
inwardly contaminated by his evils. He who is in this falsity, 
that there is a plurality of gods, the good which such a man 
does is divided good, and divided good is not good. He who is 
in this falsity, that he believes the divinity in the Lord s Hu 
manity is not like the soul in the body, cannot do good from 
him, and good not from the Lord is not good, for it is contrary 
to these words of the Lord : " Except a man abide in me and 
I in him, he cannot bring forth any fruit ; for without ^me ye 
can do nothing. If a man abide not in me, he is cast forth as 
98 



V. 9, 10.] THE APOCALYPSE EEVEALED. 98, 9S 

a branch and is withered, and is cast into the fire and burned," 
John xv. 4 6 ; and so in many other instances ; for good de 
rives its quality from truths, and truths derive their esse from 
good. Who does not know, that the church is no church with 
out doctrine, and doctrine must teach how a man is to think of 
God and from God ; and how he is to act from God and with 
God ; therefore doctrine must be derived from .truths, to act 
according to which, is what is called good ; whence it follows, 
that to act according to falses is not good. It is thought, that 
in the good which a man does, there is not any thing derived 
from truths or falses, when yet the quality of good is not de 
rived from any other source, for they cohere together like love 
and wisdom, and also like love and foolishness ; it is the love 
of the wise man which does good, but the love of the fool does 
what is like good in externals, but totally unlike it in internals ; 
therefore the good of a wise man is like pure gold, but the good 
of a fool is like gold covering dirt. 

98. Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer, sig 
nifies, despair not when ye are infested by evils and assaulted 
by falses, because they who are in goods as to life, and in falses 
as to doctrine, cannot but be so infested and assaulted. This is 
plain from what now follows. 

99. Behold, the devil shall cast some of you into prison., sig 
nifies that their good of life will be infested by evils from hell. 
That this is signified by being cast into custody or into prison 
by the devil, is, because by the devil is meant the hell where 
they are who are in evils, and thus, abstractedly, the evil which 
is there and from thence, n. 97. To be cast into prison, denotes 
to be infested, because they who are infested by evils from hell 
are as if they were bound in prison, for they cannot think any 
thing but evil, when yet they will what is good ; hence comes 
combat and interior anxiety, from which they cannot be re 
leased, being like persons wno are in bonds ; the reason is, be 
cause their good is not good so far as it coheres with falses, and 
so far as it coheres with falses evil is in it ; therefore it is that 
which is infested. But this infestation does not exist in the 
natural world, but in the spiritual world, thus after death. It 
has often been permitted me to see their infestations ; they la 
ment, saying that they have done good, and desire to do good, 
and yet now they cannot, because of the evils which surround 
them. But still they are not all alike infested, but more se 
verely according as they have confirmed themselves in falses, 
therefore it is said the devil shall cast some of you into prison. 
That the confirmation of what is false is hurtful, may be seen 
in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred 
Scripture, n. 91 97. In the Word, by prisoners the same is 
signified as here by those who will be cast into prison, as in 
these places : I will " give thee for a covenant of the people, tc 

99 



100, 101 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. il. 

bring out the prisoners from the prison, and them that sit in 
darkness out of the prison-house, Isaiah xlii. 6, 7 ; xlix. 8, 9. 
"Jehovah hath sent me, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and 
the opening of the prison to them that are bound" Isaiah Ixi. 1. 
" By the blood of thy covenant 1 have sent for thy prisoner* 
out of the pit," Zech. ix. 11. " God bringeth out those which 
are bound with chains" Psalm Ixviii. 6. " Let the sighing of 
the 2^ isoner come before thee," Psalm Ixxix. 11. " To hear the 
groaning of the prisoner, to loose those that are appointed to 
die," Psalm cii. 20. " Jehovah looseth the prisoners," Psalm 
cxlvi. 7. It is plain that by prisoners in these places are not 
meant those who are imprisoned in the world, but those who 
are imprisoned by hell, thus by evils and falses. Similar is the 
signification of these words of the Lord : " I was in prison, 
and ye came unto me," Matt. xxv. 30. As the Lord brings 
out of prison, or delivers from infestation, those who have been 
in good as to life, though in falses as to doctrine, he says, " Pear 
none of those things which thou shalt suffer ;" also, " Be thou 
faithful, and I will give thee a crown of life." 

100. That ye may ~be tried, signifies by falses fighting against 
them. The reason why this is signified is, because all spiritual 
temptation is a combat of the devil and the Lord, which shall 
have possession of man ; the devil or hell brings out his falses, 
and reproaches and condemns him, but the Lord brings out his 
truths, and withdraws him from falses, and delivers him. It is 
this combat which appears to man as in himself, because it is 
from evil spirits who are with him, and is called temptation. 
That spiritual temptation is nothing else, I know by experience, 
because in my temptations I have seen the infernals who brought 
them on, and have perceived the influx from the Lord, who 
delivered me. 

101. And ye shall have tribulation ten days, signifies that 
this will endure its full time, that is, as long as they are willing 
to abide in falses. Affliction here signifies infestation, of which 
above, n. 33, 95, thus temptation ; and ten days signify the 
duration of that state to the full : therefore it follows, " Be 
thou faithful unto death," by which is signified the reception 
and acknowledgment of truths, until by their means falses ai;e 
removed, and as it were abolished. That ten days signify 
duration of state to the full is, because days signify states, and 
ten what is full ; for times in the Word signify states, n. 917, 
and numbers designate their quality, n. 9. As ten signify 
what is full, they also signify much and many, also every thing 
and all, as may appear from these passages which follow : 
" Those men which have seen my glory, have tempted me now 
these ten times," Numb. xiv. 22. "These ten times have ye 
reproached me," Job xix. 3. "Daniel was found ten times 
wiser than the astrologers," Dan. i. 20. " Ten women shall 

100 



V. 10J THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 102, 103 

bake your bread in one oven," Levit. xxvi. 26. " Ten men out 
of all languages of the nations, shall take hold of the skirt ot 
him that is a Jew," Zech. viii. 23. Because ten signify many, 
and also all, therefore the things which were written upon the 
tables of the decalogue by Jehovah, are called the Ten Com 
mandments, Deut. iv. 13 ; x. 4 : the Ten Commandments sig 
nify all truths, for they include them. And because ten signify 
all and every thing, therefore the Lord compared the kingdom 
of heaven to ten virgins, Matt. xxv. 11. Likewise in the 
parable he said of the nobleman, that he gave his servants ten 
talents to trade with, Luke xix. 12, 18. Many are also signi 
fied by the ten horns of the beast which came up out of the 
sea, Dan. vii. 24, and by the ten horns, and the ten crowns 
upon the horns, of the beast which came up out of the sea, in 
the Apoc. xiii. 1 ; also by the ten horns of the dragon, Apoc. 
xii. 3, and by the ten horns of the scarlet-coloured beast, upon 
which the woman sat, Apoc. xvii. 3, 7, 12 : by ten horns is 
signified much power. From the signification of the number 
ten, as denoting what is full, much, and all, it may be seen 
why it was ordained, that a tenth part of all the fruits of the 
earth should be given to Jehovah, and from Jehovah to Aaron 
and the Levites, Numb, xviii. 24, 28 ; Deut. xiv. 22 ; also, why 
Abram gave Melchizedek tithes of all, Gen. xiv. 18, 19 ; for 
by this was signified that all they had was from Jehovah, and 
sanctified, see Malachi iii. 10. From these considerations, it 
may now appear, that by having affliction ten days, is signified 
that their temptation will last its full time, that is, so long as 
they are willing to remain in falses ; for falses are never taKen 
away from a man against his will or consent, but with it. 

102. Be thou faithful unto death, signifies reception and 
acknowledgment of truths, until falses are removed, and, as it 
were, abolished. By be thou faithful unto death, in the natural 
sense, is meant, that they must not depart from their fidelity to 
the end of life ; but in the spiritual sense, that they must re 
ceive and acknowledge truths, until falses are removed by 
them, and, as it were, abolished, for this sense is properly for 
those who are in the spiritual world, who are not liable to death, 
therefore by death is here meant the end of their temptations. 
It is said, until they are, as it were, abolished, because falses 
and evils with man are not abolished, but removed, and when 
they are removed they appear as if they were abolished, be 
cause when evils and falses are removed, man is kept in goods 
arid truths by the Lord. 

103. And I will give thee a crown of life, signifies that 
they will then have eternal life, the reward of victory. Because 
temptations even unto death are here treated of, it is said that 
a crown of life will be given them, such as the martyrs had, 
who were faithful even unto death : and because the martyrs 

101 J 



104 108 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap, il 

wished for it, therefore after death crowns were given them, by 
which was signified the reward of victory; they still appear in 
their crowns in heaven, which it has been permitted me to see. 

104. He that hath an ear, let Jiiin hear what the Spirit saith 
unto the churches ; that this signifies that he who understands 
these things, ought to obey what the divine truth of the Word 
teaches those who are to be of the New Church, which is the 
New Jerusalem, is evident from the explanation of the same 
words above, n. 87. 

105. He that overcometh / that this signifies he that fights 
against evils and falses, and is reformed, is evident from n. 88, 
where the same words occur, and are explained. 

106. Shall not 1)6 hurt of the second death, signifies that 
afterwards they shall not yield to the evils and falses from hell 
By the first death is meant the death of the body, and by the 
second death is meant the death of the soul, which is damna 
tion, see below, n. 853, 873 ; and whereas by "Be thou faithful 
unto death," is signified that they ought to acknowledge truth? 
till by their means falses are removed, n. 102, it follows, that 
by " not being hurt of the scond death," is signified that after 
wards they shall not sink under evils and falses from hell, for 
thereby they are exempted from damnation. 

107. And to the angel of the church in Pergamos write, 
signifies to those and concerning those, who place the all of 
the church in good works, and not any thing in the truths of 
doctrine. That these are meant by the church in Pergamos, 
is evident from what is written to it, when understood in the 
spiritual sense. But something must be premised concerning 
these, in order to make it known who they are in the church, 
and what is their quality : there are two kinds of men, of whom 
the Christian church at this day for the most part consists ; one, 
who are in works alone, and in no truths ; the other, who are 
in worship alone, and neither in works nor in truths : the 
former are here treated of; the latter in what is written to the 
church in Sardis, n. 154. They who are in works alone and in 
no truths, are like people who act and do not understand, and 
actions without understanding are inanimate ; they appear to 
the angels like images carved out of wood ; and they who have 
placed merit in their works, appear like the same images, but 
naked, without any covering whatever : they appear also like 
sheep without wool ; and they who place merit in them, like 
such sheep covered with dirt ; for all works are done from the 
will by the understanding, and in the understanding they re 
ceive life, and at the same time clothing ; hence it is, as was 
observed, that they appear to the angels as things inanimate 
and naked. 

108. These things saith He that hath the sharp sword with 
two edges, signifies the Lord as to the truths of doctrine from 
102 



V. 10 13.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 109,110 

the Word, by which evils and falses are dispersed. In the 
preceding chapter, where the SON OF MAN is described, who is 
the Lord as to the Word, it is said, that a sharp two-edged 
sword was seen to go out of his mouth, verse 16 : that by it is 
signified the dispersion of falses by the Word, and by doctrine 
thence from the Lord, may be seen above, n. 52. This is said 
to those and concerning those, who place the all r>f the church 
in works alone, and not any thing in truths of doctrine; to 
whom, because they omit or lightly esteem truths of doctrine 
which yet are necessary, it is said! in what follows : " Repent, 
or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will fight against 
them with the sword of my month," verse 16 of this chapter. 

109. / know thy works ; that this signifies that the Lord 
sees all their interiors and exteriors at once, may be seen above v 
n. 76, where the same is explained ; in this instance it denotes, 
.that the Lord sees that they are in works alone, and not in 
doctrinals. 

110. And where tlwu dwellest, even where Satan s throne is, 
signifies their life in darkness. That by Satan is meant the 
hell of those who are in falses, may be seen above, n. 97 ; and 
to be in falses, is to be in spiritual darkness: spiritual darkness, 
the shadow of death, and blindness, are nothing else but the 
states of those in hell, who are in the falses of evil ; therefore, 
in the Word, falses are described thereby : from which it may 
appear, that by Satan s throne is signified mere darkness. But 
by darkness here, is not meant that they are in mere falses, but 
that they are in no truths of doctrine; for truths of doctrine, 
which are from the Word, are in light, therefore not to be in 
truths, is not to be in light, consequently to be in darkness. 
That truths are in the light of heaven, may be seen in the work 
concerning Heaven and Sell, n. 126 140 ; and in The Doctrine 
of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture, n. 73, 
104 113. The Word in many places treats of those who are 
in darkness, in the shadow of death, and in thick darkness, 
whose eyes the Lord will open ; and by them are meant the 
Gentiles, who have been in good works, but not in any truths, 
because they did not know the Lord, neither were possessed of 
the Word ; exactly similar to these are they in the Christian 
world, who are in works alone and in no truths of doctrine, 
therefore they cannot be called any thing else but Gentiles ; 
they know the Lord indeed, but yet do not approach him, and 
are in possession of the Word, but yet do not search for the 
truths it contains. By " I know where thou dwellest," is 
signified to know their nature and quality, because in the 
spiritual world every one dwells according to the quality of his 
affection. Hence it may appear, that by u thou dwellest where 
Satan s throne is," is signified the life of their good in darkness. 
For Satanic spirits have power through those in the spiritual 

103 



ill 114 THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. [Chap. 11. 

world who are in works alone, but none without thorn, for they 
draw them into connexion with themselves, provided any one 
of them says, I am thy neighbour, and on this account "good 
offices ought to be extended to me ; on hearing this they accede, 
and give him assistance, without inquiring who and what he is, 
since they are destitute of truths, by which alone one can be 
distinguished from another. This also is signified by "thou 
dwellest where Satan s throne is." 

111. And thou holdest fast my name, and hast not denied 
nvy faith, signifies when yet they have religion and worship 
according to it, and also acknowledge the Word to be divine 
truth. That by the name of Jehovah, or of the Lord, is under 
stood all by which he is worshipped, thus the all of religion, 
may be seen above, n. 81 ; here therefore it signifies that they 
have religion, and, according to religion, worship. By faith, 
here, is not meant that which exists in the church at this day, 
but divine truth, because faith is of truth and truth is of faith ; 
nothing else is understood by faith in heaven, nor by the faith 
of God in the Word ; hence it is that faith and truth are ex 
pressed in the Hebrew language by one and the same word, 
and are called Amuna. Since then by the faith of God is 
meant divine truth, and the Word is divine truth itself, it is 
evident that by " thou hast not denied my faith," is meant, that 
they acknowledge that the Word is divine truth. 

112. Even in those days wherein Antipas was my faithful 
martyr, who was slain among you where Satan dwelleth, signifies 
when all truth was extinguished by falses in the church. By 
martyr is signified confession of the truth, the same as by wit 
ness above, n. 6, 16, because martyr and witness are expressed 
in the Greek language by one and the same word. Antipas is 
named from the spiritual or angelic language. Since by Autipas 
the martyr is signified a confesser of the truth, and, abstractedly, 
the truth itself, it is evident that, by the "days wherein Antipas 
was my faithful martyr, who was slain among you, where Satan 
dwelleth," is signified, when truth was extinguished by falses 
in the church. That by Satan is understood the hell where and 
from whence falses are, may be seen above, n. 97. 

113. But I have a few things against thee, signifies that 
the things which follow are against them, as is evident without 
explanation. 

114. Because thou hast there them that hold the doctrine of 
Balaam, who taught Balak to cast a stumbling-block before the 
children of Israel, to eat things sacrificed unto idols, and to 
commit fornication, signifies that there are some among them 
who do hypocritical works, by which the worship of God in 
the church is defiled and adulterated. That by these expressions 
are meant they who do works by which worship is defiled and 
adulterated, is evident from the historical parts of the Word 

104 






V. 1316.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 115, 116 

which relate to Balaam and Balak king of Moab ; for Balaam 
was a hypocrite, and a diviner, and spake well of the children 
of Israel from Jehovah, when yet he cherished in his heart a 
desire to destroy them, which he also effected by the advice he 
gave Balak ; from which it is evident that his works were hypo 
critical. That he was a diviner appears in Numbers xxii. 7 ; 
xxiv. 1 ; Josh. xiii. 22 ; that he spake in favour of the children 
of Israel, by blessing them, Numb, xxiii. 7 15, 18 24 ; xxiv. 
5 9, 16 19 ; but that he spake these things from Jehovah, 
Numb, xxiii. 5, 12, 16 ; xxiv. 13. That he cherished in his 
heart a desire to destroy them, and also effected it by the advice 
given to Balak, Numb. xxxi. 16. The advice which he gave, 
Numb. xxv. 1, 9, 18. This was the stumbling-block which he 
cast before the children of Israel, concerning which it is written, 
" In Shittim the people began to commit whoredom with the 
daughters of Moab, and they called the people unto the sacri 
fices of their gods ; and the people did eat and bowed down to 
their gods," especially they joined themselves unto Baalpeor : 
u and those that died in the plague were twenty-four thousand," 
Numb. xxv. 1, 9, 18. By the children of Israel is signified 
the church ; by eating of their sacrifices, is signified the appro 
priation of what is holy ; therefore by eating of the sacrifices of 
other gods, or things sacrificed unto idols, is signified the defile 
ment and profanation of what is holy ; by committing whore 
dom, is signified to adulterate and pervert worship ; that by 
Moab, and therefore by the king, and his daughters, are also 
signified they who defile and adulterate worship, may be seen 
in The Arcana Cmlestia, n. 2468. From hence it is evident, 
that this is the spiritual sense of these words. 

115. So hast thou also them that hold the doctrine of the 
Nicolaitanes, which thing I hate, signifies that there are some 
among them also who make works meritorious. That the w r orks 
of the Nicolaitanes are meritorious works, may be seen above, 
n. 86. Among those who place the all of the church and of 
Balvatioii in good works, and not any thing in truths of doctrine, 
as is the case with those who are meant by the church in Per- 
gamos, there are some who do hypocritical works and also 
meritorious works, but not all, therefore it is said, " Thou hast 
there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam ;" as also, " So 
hast thou also them that hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitanes ;" 
and all works of worship are either good, or meritorious, or 
hypocritical, therefore the two latter are here spoken of, and 
good works afterwards in what follows. 

116. Repent, signifies that they should take heed of such 
works, and do works which are good. That these things are 
signified by the injunction to repent, is, because the subject 
now relates to meritorious and hypocritical goods, of which 
they are to take heed who place the all of the church and of 

105 



117 120 f THE APOCALYPSE EEVEALED. [Chap. ii. 

salvation in good works, and not any thing in truths of doctrine; 
"when yet truths of doctrine teach how and what is to be willed 
and taught, or loved and believed, that works may be good. 

117. Or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will fight 
against them with the sword of my mouth, signifies, if not, that 
the Lord will contend with them from the Word, and convince 
them that their works are evil. But the explanation of these 
words may be seen above, n. 108. 

118. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saitk 
unto the churches, signifies that he who understands these 
things, ought to obey what the divine truth of the Word 
teaches those who are to be of the New Church, which is the 
New Jerusalem, as appears above, n. 87, where the same 
words are explained. 

119. To him that overcometh, signifies he that fights against 
his evils and falses, and is reformed, as is also evident from the 
explanation given above, n. 88. 

120. Will I give to eat of the hidden manna, signifies wis 
dom, and at the same time the appropriation of the good of 
celestial love in works, and thus conjunction of the Lord with 
those who do them. By the hidden manna, which they will 
have who are in good works, and who at the same time adjoin 
the truths of doctrine to works, is meant hidden wisdom of a 
quality like that which they who are in the third heaven enjoy ; 
for these, by reason of their having been in good works, and at 
the same time in truths of doctrine in the world, are in wisdom 
above other angels, but in hidden wisdom, for it is written in 
their lives more than in their memory ; therefore that they are 
such, they do not talk of the truths of doctrine, but do them, 
and they do them because they know them, and also see them 
when others speak them. That the good of love is appropriated 
to them, arid that the Lord conjoins himself with those who 
adjoin truths of doctrine to good works, and thus gives them 
wisdom in their good, and that this is giving them to eat of the 
hidden manna, may appear from these words of the Lord : " For 
the bread of God is he which cometh down from heaven, and 
giveth life unto the world. I am the bread of life : your fathers 
did eat manna in the wilderness and are dead. This is the 
bread which cometh down from heaven, that a man may eat 
thereof, and not die. I am the living bread, who came down 
from heaven ; if any man eat of this bread he shall live for 
ever," John vi. 31 51 ; from which it is evident, that the 
Lord himself is the hidden manna, which will be in their works, 
if they approach and worship him alone. Whether you say the 
Lord or the good of celestial love, and the wisdom of that love, 
it amounts to the same. But this is an arcanum which enters 
with difficulty into the natural idea of any one, so long as it is 
surrounded with a cloud from worldly things ; but it does entei 

106 



V. 16, 17.] THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. 121 123 

when the mind is serene and in the sunshine, as may be seen in 
The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and the Divine 
Wisdom, which treats on this subject from beginning to end. 

121. And will give him a white stone, signifies truths affirm 
ative and united to good. A white stone has this signification; 
because in judiciary proceedings, it was the custom to collect 
votes or suffrages by stones, and by white stones those which 
were on the affirmative side ; that they are confirmatory truths 
which are signified, is, because white is predicated of truths, n. 
167, 379 ; hence it is, that by white stone are signified truths 
supporting good ; the reason why they are also united to good, 
is, because good invites and unites them to itself; for all good 
loves truth and conjoins to itself such as accords with it, espe 
cially the good of celestial love ; this so unites truths to itself, 
that they altogether constitute a one ; hence it is, that they see 
truths from good alone. These are understood by those who 
have the law written in their hearts, of whom it is said in Jer 
emiah, " I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it 
in their hearts / and they shall teach no more every man his 
neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know Jehovah, 
for they shall all know me," xxxi. 34. Such are all who are 
in the third heaven ; they do not speak of truths from the mere 
memory, but clearly see them when they hear others speaking 
of them, and especially when they are reading the Word ; the 
reason is, because they are in the very marriage of goodness 
and truth. Such do they become in the world, who have ap 
proached the Lord alone, and have done good works, because 
they are according to the truths of the Word ; concerning whom 
something may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 25, 
26, 270, 271. 

122. And in the stone a new name written, signifies that 
thus they will have good of a quality such as tliey had riot 
before. That name signifies the quality of a thing, may be 
seen above, n. 81, therefore here the quality of good: all the 
quality of good is from the truths that are united to it ; for good 
without truths is like bread and meat without wine and water, 
which do not nourish ; and also like fruit in which there is no 
juice : it appears also like a tree stripped of its leaves, on which 
there hang a few dry apples, left since autumn. This is also 
understood by these words of the Lord: "For every one shall 
be salted with fire, and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt. 
Salt is good, but if the salt have lost its saltness, wherewith will 
ye season it? Have salt in yourselves," Mark ix. 49, 50. Salt 
here is the desire of truth. 

123. Which no man Icnoweth saving he that receiveth it, sig 
nifies that it does not appear to any one, because it is written 
in their lives. That truths united to good are not inscribed on 
their memories, but on their lives, may be seen above, n. 121, 

10T 



124 12S THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. 1L 

122, and what is inscribed on the life alone, and not on the 
memory, does not appear to any one, not even to themselves, 
except from this circumstance, that they perceive whether a 
tiling be true, and what the truth is, when they hear and read ; 
for the interiors of their mind are open even unto the Lord ; 
and because the Lord is in them, and he sees all things, there 
fore he pauses them to see as from themselves ; but yet out of 
their wisdom they know that they do not see truths from them- 
selves, but from the Lord. Hence it may appear what is meant 
by the whole sentence, " I will give him to eat of the hidden 
manna, and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new 
name written, which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth 
it :" the sum of its signification is, that they will be angels of 
the third heaven, if they read the Word, imbibe thence truths 
of doctrine, and approach the Lord. 

124. And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write, 
signifies, to those and concerning those, who are in faith 
grounded in charity, and thence in good works ; and also to 
those and concerning those, who are in faith separate from 
charity, and thence in evil works. That both the former and 
the latter are described by the church in Thyatira, is evident 
from what is written to it, when understood in the spiritual 
sense. 

125. These things saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes 
like unto aflame of fire, signifies the Lord as to the divine wis 
dom of his divine love. That this is the signification, may be 
seen explained above, n. 48. 

126. And his feet like fine brass, signifies divine good nat 
ural, as is evident from the explanation given above, n. 49. 

127. I know thy works, signifies that the Lord sees all their 
interiors and exteriors at once, as may be seen above, where 
these words are explained, n. Y6. 

128. And charity and service, signifies the spiritual affection 
which is called charity, and its operation. Charity is a spir 
itual affection, because charity is love towards our neighbour, 
and love towards our neighbour constitutes that affection : tha/ 
ministry or service is its operation, follows from their being 
called ministers in the "Word who serve the things which are o? 
charity. The man who is a worshipper of God is sometimes 
called a servant, and sometimes a minister ; and he is called a 
servant of God who is in truths, and he is called a minister of 
God who is in goods ; the reason is, because truth serves good, 
and good ministers to truth : that he is called a servant who is 
in truths, may be seen above, n. 3 ; but that he is called a 
minister who is in good, is evident from these places : " But ye 
shall be named the priests of Jehovah ; men shall call you the 
ministers of our God," Isaiah Ixi. 6. "Then may also my 
covenant be broken with David my servant, and with the 

108 



V. 17 20.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 129 132 

Levites the priests, my ministers" Jerem. xxxiii. 21 ; they are 
called ministers, because priests represented the Lord as to 
divine good. " Bless the Lord all ye his hosts, ye ministers 
of his that do his pleasure," Psalm ciii. 21, 22. "Jehovah 
maketh his angels spirits ; his ministers a flaming lire, 7 Psalm 
civ. 4. Angel-spirits are they who are in truths, and angel- 
ministers they who are in goods ; naming fire also signifies the 
good of love. Jesus said, " Whosoever will be great among you, 
let him be your minister and whosoever will be chief among 
you, let him be your servant" Matt. xx. 26, 27 ; xxiii. 11, 12 : 
minister is here predicated of good, and servant of truth. The 
same is signified by ministering and ministry in Isaiah Ivi. 6 ; 
John xii. 26 ; Luke xii. 37 ; and in other places. Hence it is 
evident, that by charity and ministry, is signified spiritual affec 
tion and its operation ; for good is of charity, and truth is of 
faith. 

129. And faith, and thy endurance, and thy works, signifies 
truth, and the desire of acquiring and teaching it. That faith 
signifies truth, may be seen above, n. Ill ; and that in such 
case endurance signifies study and labour in acquiring and 
teaching it, follows of course. 

130. And the last to be more than the first, signifies the 
increase thereof from the spiritual affection of truth, which is 
of charity. By their last works being more than the first, are 
understood all things of their charity and faith, for these are 
the interior things from which works proceed, n. 73, 76, 94 : 
these things increase, when charity is regarded in the first 
place, and faith in the second : for charity is the spiritual affec 
tion of doing good, and from it comes the spiritual affection of 
knowing truth, good loving truth as meat does drink, for it 
desires to be nourished, and is nourished, by truths ; hence it 
is, that they who are in genuine charity have a continual 
increase of truth. This then is what is signified by " I know 
thy last works to be more than the first." 

131. Notwithstanding, I have a few things against thee^ sig 
nifies that the following things may possibly be a stumbling- 
block to them. For what now follows relates to faith separated 
from charity, which may be a stumbling-block to those who are 
in faith grounded in charity. 

132. Because thou sufferest that woman Jezebel, signifies 
that among them there are some in the church who separate 
faith from charity, and account the former alone to be saving. 
That faith separated from charity is meant by the woman Jez 
ebel, is evident from what now follows, when it is unfolded by 
the spiritual sense in its series, and compared with that faith ; for 
these were the evil doings of Jezebel the wife of Ahab : name 
ly, that she went and served Baal, and built him an altar in 
Samaria, and made a grove, 1 Kings xvi. 31 33. That she 

109 



133, 134 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. IL 

slew the prophets of Jehovah, 1 Kings xviii. 4, 23. That she 
was desirous to slay Elijah, xix. 1, 2. That by treacherously 
suborning false witnesses, she took away Naboth s vineyard, and 
put him to death, xxi. 6, 7, and following verses. That by reason 
of these her evil doings, it was foretold to her by Elijah, that the 
dogs should eat her, xxi. 13. That she was thrown down from 
the window where she stood with her face painted, and that 
some of her blood was sprinkled upon the wall, and upon the 
horses which trod her under foot, 2 Kings ix. 30, 32 34. As 
all the historical, as well as the prophetical parts of the Word, 
signify the spiritual things of the church, so also do these ; and 
that they signify faith separated from charity, is evident from 
the spiritual sense, and from collating them together ; for by 
going and serving Baal, and building him an altar, and making 
a grove, is signified to serve lusts of all kinds, or what amounts 
to the same, to serve the devil, without thinking of any evil 
lust, nor of any sin, as they who have no doctrine of charity 
and life, but only of faith, fey slaying the prophets, is signified 
to destroy the truths of doctrine derived from the Word. By 
desiring to slay Elijah, is signified to desire to do the same to 
the Word. By taking away Naboth s vineyard and slaying 
him, is signified the church, for the vineyard is the church": by 
the dogs which did eat her, are signified lusts. By her being 
thrown down from the window, her blood being sprinkled upon 
the wall, and her being trod under foot by the horses, is signi 
fied their destruction, for each of those particulars has its "sig 
nification ; window signifies truth in the light ; blood signifies 
what is false ; wall signifies truth in ultimates, and horse sig 
nifies understanding of the Word. Hence it may be concluded, 
that these things, collated together, coincide with faith sepa 
rate from charity, as may further appear from what follows in 
the Apocalypse, where this faith is treated of. 

133. Which calleth herself a prophetess, signifies, and who 
make it the essential doctrine of the church, and build all 
theology upon it. That by prophet in the Word is signified 
doctrine of the church, may be seen above, n. 8, therefore the 
same is also signified by prophetess. That in the reformed 
Christian church, faith alone is received as the sole medium of 
salvation, and that thence works of charity, as not conducive to 
salvation, are separated from faith, is w r ell known : hence it is, 
that the universal doctrine of the salvation of man, which is 
called theology, at this day constitutes that faith, consequently 
the woman Jezebel. 

134. To teach and to seduce my servants to commit whore 
dom, signifies, from which it comes to pass. that the truths ot the 
Word are falsified. By to teach and to seduce the servants of 
the Lord, is meant those who are able and willing to be in 
structed in truths from the Word ; that they are called servants 

110 






V. 20. J THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 134 

of the Lord who are in truths, may be seen above, n. 3, 128 ; 
and by committing whoredom, is signified to adulterate and 
falsify the Word : that this is the signification of committing 
whoredom, is, because in every particular of the Word there is 
a marriage of goodness and truth, and this marriage is broken 
when good is separated and taken aw r ay from truth. That in 
every particular of the Word there is a marriage of the Lord 
and the church, and thence a marriage of goodness and truth, 
mar be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning 
the Sacred Scripture, n. 80 90 : for this reason it is, that to 
commit whoredom signifies to adulterate the good and falsify 
the truths of the Word; and because this is spiritual whoredom, 
therefore also they, who from their own reason have falsified 
the Word, after death, when they come into the spiritual world, 
become addicted to whoredom : and, what has hitherto been 
concealed from the world, they who have confirmed themselves 
in faith alone to the exclusion of w r orks of charity, are in the 
lust of committing the adultery of a son with his mother ; that 
they are in the lust of committing so abominable a kind of 
adultery, has often been perceived in the spiritual world : re 
member this, and inquire after death, and the truth of it will 
be confirmed to you : I could not venture to reveal this before, 
because it would have offended the ear. This adultery is sig 
nified by the adultery of Reuben with Bilhah his father s con 
cubine. Gen. xxxv. 22 ; for by Reuben that faith is signified, 
for which cause he was cursed by his father Israel, and after 
wards his birthright was taken from him ; for his father Israel, 
prophesying concerning his sons, said of Reuben, " Reuben, 
thou art my first-born, my might, arid the beginning of my 
strength, unstable as w r ater, thou shalt not excel, because 
thou wentest up to thy father s bed ; then defiledst thou it: he 
went up to my couch," Gen. xlix. 3, 4: therefore his birth 
right was taken from him. " Reuben w r as the first-born of 
Israel ; but, forasmuch as he defiled his father s bed, his birth 
right was given unto the sons of Joseph," 1 Chron. v. 1. That 
by Reuben was represented truth grounded in good, or faith 
grounded in charity, and afterwards truth separated from good, 
or faith separated from charity, will be seen in the explanation 
of chap. vii. 5. That by whoredoms are signified adulterations 
of good and falsifications of truth in the Word, may appear 
from the following passages : u When Joram saw Jehu, he said, 
Is it peace, Jehu ? and he answered, What peace, so long as the 
whoredoms of thy mother Jezebel, and her witchcrafts, are so 
many?" 2 Kings ix. 22. By the whoredoms of Jezebel are 
not meant any whoredoms of hers, but her actions, as stated 
above, n. 132. "And your children shall wander in the wil 
derness forty years, and bear your whoredoms" ISTumb. xiv 
33. " A.nd the soul that turneth after such as have familial 
111 



134: THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. 11. 

spirits, and after wizards, and all that go a whoring after them, 
Twill cut off," Levit. xx. 6. "Lest thou make a covenant, 
with the inhabitants of the land, and they go a whoring after 
their gods," Exod. xxxiv. 15, 16. " But thou didst trust [O 
Jerusalem] in thine own "beauty, and playedst the harlot be 
cause of thy renown, and pouredst out thy whoredoms on every 
one that passed by. Thou hast also committed whoredom with 
the Egyptians thy neighbours, great of flesh, and hast increased 
thy whoredoms. Thou hast played the whore also with the 
Assyrians, because thou wast insatiable in committing whore 
dom. Thou hast moreover multiplied thy whoredom in the land 
of Canaan unto Chaldea. But as a wife that committeth 
adultery, which taketh strangers instead of her husband. They 
give gifts to all whores ; but thou givest thy gifts to all thy 
lovers, that they may come unto thee on every side for thy 
whoredom. Wherefore, O harlot, hear the word of Jehovah," 
Ezek. xvi. 15, 16, 26, 28, 29, 32, 33, 35. Jerusalem in this 
passage is the Israelitish and Jewish church ; by her whore 
doms are meant adulterations and falsifications of the Word ; 
and because in the Word by Egypt is signified the science ot 
the natural man, by Asliur ratiocination thence derived, by 
Chaldea profanation of truth, and by Babylon profanation of 
good, therefore it is said that she committed whoredom with 
them. " There were two women, the daughters of one mother ; 
and they committed whoredoms in Egypt ; they committed 
whoredoms in their youth : one of them played the harlot when 
she was mine, and she doted on her lovers, on the Assyrians her 
neighbours. Thus she committed, her whoredoms with them : 
neither left she her whoredoms brought from Egypt. The other 
was more corrupt in her inordinate love than she, and in her 
whoredoms, more than her sister in her whoredoms. She in 
creased her whoredoms, and doted upon them, and sent mes 
sengers unto them into Chaldea. And the Babylonians came to 
her into the bed of love, and they defiled her with their whore 
dom," Ezek. xxiii. 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 14, 16, IT ^ here the two 
daughters of one mother are likewise the Israelitish and Jewish 
church, whose adulterations and falsifications of the Word are 
described as above by whoredoms. So in the following places : 
"Thou hast played the harlot with many lovers; and hast pol 
luted the land with thy whoredoms and with thy wickedness. 
Hast thou seen that which backsliding Israel hath done I she is 
gone lip upon every high mountain, and there hath played the 
liarlot. And her treacherous sister Judah feared not, but went 
and played the harlot also. And it came to pass through the 
lightness of her whoredom, that she defiled the land, and com 
mitted adultery with stones and with stocks," Jerem. iii. 1, 6. 
8, 9 : and in other places. " Bun ye to and fro through the 
streets of Jerusalem, and see now and know, if ye can find a 
112 



V. 20.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 134: 

man, if there be any that execnteth judgment, that seeketn the 
truth. When I had fed them to the full, they then committed 
whoredom, and assembled themselves by troops in the harlot s 
houses," Jerem. v. 1, 7. "I have seen thine adulteries, and 
thy neighings, and the lewdness of thy whoredoms, and thine 
abominations on the hills in the fields. Woe unto thee, O Jeru 
salem, wilt thou not be made clean?" Jerem. xiii. 27. "I 
have seen also in the prophets of Jerusalem a horrible thing, 
they commit adultery, and walk in lies," Jerem. xxiii. 14. " Be 
cause they have committed villany in Israel, and have com 
mitted adultery with their neighbours wives, and have spoken 
lying words in my name," Jerem. xxix. 23. u So they sinned 
against me, therefore will I change their glory into shame ; 
they shall commit whoredom, because they have left oif to take 
heed to Jehovah. Whoredom, and wine, and new wine take 
aw r ay the heart. Therefore your daughters shall commit whore- 
dom, and your spouses shall commit adultery" Hosea iv. 7, 13. 
" I know, Ephraim., thou comrnittest whoredom, and Israel is 
defiled," Hosea v. 3. "I have seen a horrible thing in the 
house of Israel ; there is the whoredom of Ephraim ; Israel is 
defiled," Hosea vi. 10. Israel here is the church, and Ephraim 
is the understanding of the Word, from which, and according 
to which, the church exists ; therefore it is said, Ephraim hath 
committed whoredom, and Israel is polluted. Because the 
church had falsified the Word, the prophet Hosea was com 
manded to take unto himself a harlot to wife, saying, " Go, take 
unto thee a wife of whoredoms, and children of whoredoms : for 
the land hath committed great whoredom, departing from Jeho 
vah," Hosea i. 2 ; and again : " Go yet, love a woman beloved 
of her friend, yet an adulteress," Hosea iii. 1. As the Jewish 
church was of such a nature, therefore the nation of the Jews 
was called by the Lord an adulterous generation, Matt. xii. 39 ; 
xvi. 4 ; Mark viii. 38 ; and in Isaiah, a seed of adulterers, Ivii. 
3 ; and in Nahum : " Woe to the bloody city ! it is all full of 
lies, and there is a multitude of slain. Because of the multitude 
of the whoredoms of the well favoured harlot, that selleth 
nations through her whoredoms," iii. 1, 3, 4. As Babylon 
adulterates and falsifies the Word above all others in the Chris 
tian world, she is therefore called the great whore, and the fol 
lowing is said of her in the Apocalypse : Babylon hath " made 
all nations to drink of the wine of the wrath of \\QYfornication," 
xiv. 8. " For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath 
of her whoredom, and the kings of the earth have committed 
whoredom with her," xviii. 3. The angel said, "I will show 
unto thee the judgment of the great whore, with whom the 
kings of the earth have committed whoredom" xvii. 1,2. " He 
hath judged the great ivhore, which did corrupt the earth with 
her whoredom" xix. 2. From these passages it manifestly ap- 
313 H 



135 13T THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. H 

pears, that to corimit adultery and whoredom signify to adul 
terate and falsify the goods and truths of the Word. 

135. And to eat things sacrificed unto idols, signifies the 
defilement of divine worship and profanations, as is clear from 
the explanation given above, n. 114 ; for they who adulterate 
things good, appropriate to themselves such as are unclean, by 
which they defile and profane divine worship. 

136. And I gave her time to repent of her whoredom, and she 
repented not, signifies that they who have confirmed themselves 
in that doctrine, will not recede, although they see things con 
trary to it in the Word. By receding from whoredom, is here 
signified to recede from falsifying the Word : that they see 
things contrary to their doctrine, is evident from a thousand 
passages in the Word, where it is said that evils are to be 
shunned, and that good is to be done ; also that they who do 
good go to heaven, and they who do evil to hell, as also that 
faith without works is dead and diabolical. But it may be 
asked, what part of the Word have they falsified, or where have 
they spiritually committed whoredom with the Word ? It may 
be answered, that they have falsified the whole of the Word ; 
for the \vhole Word is nothing else but the doctrine of love 
towards the Lord, and of love towards the neighbour, for the 
Lord says, that on the commandments concerning those two 
loves hang all the law and the prophets, Matt. xxii. 40. There 
is also in the Word the doctrine of faith, yet not of such faith 
as theirs, but of the faith of love. 

137. Behold I will cast her into a bed, and them that commil 
adultery with her into great tribulation, signifies that therefore 
they will be left in their doctrine with falsifications, and that 
they will be grievously infested by falses. That by bed is signi 
fied doctrine, will be seen presently ; that by committing adul 
tery falsifications of truth are signified, may be seen above, n. 
134, 136 ; and that by tribulation is signified infestation from 
falses, n. 33, 95, 100 ; and hence by great tribulation is signi 
fied grievous infestation. That a bed signifies doctrine, is from 
correspondence, for as the body rests in its bed, so does the 
mind rest in its doctrine : but by bed is signified the doctrine 
which every one acquires to himself either from the Word, or 
from his proper intelligence, for therein the mind reposes and, 
as it were, sleeps. The beds that are lain in, in the spiritual 
world, are of no other origin ; for there every one s bed is con 
formable to the quality of his science and intelligence, the wise 
have such as are magnificent, the foolish have mean ones, and 
those of false-speakers are filthy. This is the signification of 
bed in Luke : " I tell you, in that night there shall be two men 
:n one bed: the one shall be taken and the other left," xvii. 
34 ; speaking of the last judgment ; two in one bed, means two 
in one doctrine, but lot in similar life. In John : Jesus saitb 

114 






V. 20 23.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 138 140 

unto the sick man, " Rise, take up thy bed, and walk ; and he 
took up his bed, and walked," v. 8, 9 ; and in Mark : " Jesus 
said unto the sick of the palsy, Son, thy sins be forgiven thee; 
and lie said unto the Scribes, "Whether is it easier to say, Thy 
sins be forgiven thee, or to say, Arise, take up thy bed, and 
walk ?" then he said, " Arise, take up thy bed, and walk ; and he 
took up the bed, and went forth before them all," ii. 5, 9, 11, 
32 ; that here something is signified by bed, is evident, because 
Jesus said, Whether is it easier to say, Thy sins be forgiven 
thee, or to say, Take up thy bed and walk ? by carrying his bed 
and walking, is signified to meditate in doctrine : it is so under 
stood in heaven. Doctrine is also signified by bed in Amos : 
"As the shepherd taketh out of the mouth of the lion so shall 
the children of Israel be taken out that dwell in Samaria, in the 
corner of a bed, and in Damascus in a couch" iii. 12 : in the 
corner of a bed, and in a couch, means what is more remote 
from the truths and goods of doctrine. Bed and couch and 
bedchamber have a similar signification in other places, as in 
Isaiah xxviii. 20 ; Ivii. 2, 7, 8 ; Ezek. xxiii. 41 ; Amos vi. 4 ; 
Micali ii. 1 ; Psalm iv. 4 ; Psalm xxxvi. 4 ; Psalm xli. 3 ; Job 
vii. 13 ; Levit. xv. 4, 5. Since by Jacob, in the propheticals of 
the Word, is signified the church as to doctrine, therefore it is 
said of him, that he " bowed himself upon the bed s head," 
Gen. xlvii. 31 . That when Joseph came, he " sat upon the 
bed," Gen. xlviii. 2. That " he gathered up his feet into the 
bed, and yielded up the ghost," Gen. xlix. 33. The doctrine of 
the church being signified by Jacob, therefore sometimes, when 
I have thought of Jacob, there has appeared to me above, in 
front, a man lying in a bed. 

138 Except t/iey repent of their deeds, signifies, if they will 
not desist from separating faith from charity, and from falsify 
ing the Word, as may appear without further explanation. 

139. And I will kill her children with death, signifies that 
all the truths of the Word with them will be turned into falses. 
By children, in the Word, are signified truths, and in an oppo 
site sense, falses ; therefore to kill children, signifies to turn 
truths into falses, for by that means they perish ; neither is any 
thin^ else understood by the slain and wounded of Jehovah : 
by killing her children with death, is also signified to condemn 
their falses. That children signify truths, and in an opposite 
sense falses, is, because in the spiritual sense of the Word by 
generations are meant spiritual generations, and in like manner 
by consanguinities and affinities ; thus by their names, as by 
father, mother, sons, daughters, brethren, sisters, sons-in-law, 
daughters-in-law, and others ; neither does spiritual generation 
give birth to any other sons and daughters, than truths and 
goods. See n. 512, 546, below. 

140. And all tlie churches shall knoic that I am He which 
115 



141 14:3 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. U 

searchcth the reins and hearts, signifies that the church shall 
know that the Lord sees the quality of every one s truth and 
the quality of every one s good. By the seven churches is sig 
nified the church universal, as before ; and by searching the 
reins and hearts, is signified to see all the things which a man 
believes and loves, thus the quality of his truth and of his good 
that this is the signification of searching the reins and hearts, 
is from correspondence, for the Word inlts literal sense consists 
of mere correspondences ; the correspondence here is grounded 
in this circumstance, that as the reins [or kidneys] cleanse the 
blood from such impurities as are called urinous, and as the 
heart purifies the blood from such unclean things as are loath 
some, so the truth of faith purifies man from falses, and the 
good of love from evils. From this cause the ancients placed 
love and its affections in the heart, and intelligence and its per 
ceptions in the reins ; as may appear from the following pas 
sages in the Word : u Behold, thou desirest truth in the reins, 
and in the hidden part thou shalt make me to know wisdom," 
Psalm li. 6. "Thou hast possessed my reins my substance 
was not hid from thee when I was made in secret," Psalm 
cxxxix. 13, 15. "My lieart was grieved, and I was pricked in 
my reins / so foolish was I and ignorant," Psalm Ixxiii. 21, 22. 
" I Jehovah search the heart, I try the reins, even to give every 
man according to his ways," Jerem. xvii. 10. " Thou art near, 
in their mouth, and far from their reins ; thou, O Jehovah, 
hast seen me, and tried my heart" Jerem. xii. 2, 3. Jehovah 
is a judge of righteousness, trying the reins and the heart, 
Jerem. xi. 20 ; xx. 12. " Establish the just, for the righteous 
God trietli the hearts and reins," Psalm vii. 9. " Examine me, 
Jehovah, and prove me, try my reins and my heart," Psalm 
xxvi. 2 ; by reins in these places are signified truths of intelli 
gence and faith, and by heart, the good of love and charity. 
That heart signifies the love and its affections, may be seen 
in The Angelic Wisdom concernina the Divine Providence, n, 
371, 393. 

141. And I will give unto every one according to your works, 
signifies that he gives unto every one according to the charity 
and its faith which are in his works. That works are the con 
tinents of charity and faith, and that charity and faith without 
works are only like airy phantoms, which vanish as soon as they 
have appeared, may be seen above, n. 76. 

142. But unto you I say, and unto the rest in Thyatira, as 
many as have not this doctrine, signifies, both to those with 
whom the doctrine of faith is separated from charity, and to 
those with whom the doctrine of faith is joined with charity, aa 
is evident from what is said above, without further explanation. 

143. And who have not known the depths of Satan, as they 
speak,, signifies they who do not understand their interiors, 

116 



V. 23 27.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED 14:4 

which are mere falses. That by Satan is understood the hell of 
those who are in falses, and, abstractedly, falses, may be seen 
above, n. 97 ; therefore by its depths are signified the interiors 
of doctrine separated from charity, which are mere falses. The 
depths and interiors of that doctrine are what are delivered in 
their books and lectures in universities, and thence in their 
sermons, the nature of which is pointed out in what is prefixed 
to the first chapter, where their doctrines are set forth ; and 
particularly in what is adduced concerning Justification by 
Faith and concerning Good Works ; where it may be seen 
asserted that the clergy alone are acquainted with the mysteries 
of that doctrine, but not the laity, therefore the latter princi 
pally are meant by those who have not known the depths of 
Satan. 

144. I will put upon you none other burthen, signifies, only 
that they should beware of them. The reason is, because they 
confirm their falses by reasonings from the natural man, and 
by some things from the Word, which they falsify, for by these 
means they can seduce ; they are like serpents in the grass who 
bite those that pass by ; or like concealed poison which kills 
the unwary. 

145. Nevertheless, that which ye have, hold fast till I come, 
signifies that they should retain the few things which they 
know concerning charity and thence concerning faith from the 
Word, and live according to them, until there be a new heaven 
and a new church, which are the Lord s coming ; for these and 
no others receive the things which the doctrine of the New 
Jerusalem teaches concerning the Lord and charity. 

146. And he that overcometh and keepeth my works unto th* 
end, signifies those who fight against evils and falses and are 
reformed, and are in charity, and thence actually in faith, and 
continue in them to the end of their lives. That to overcome 
is to fight against evils and falses, may be seen, above, n. 88 ; 
and that works are charity and thence faith in act, n. 76, 141 ; 
that tp keep them unto the end, is to be in them, and remain 
in them to the end of life, is evident. 

147. To him will I give power over the nations, signifies 
that they shall overcome evils in themselves which are from 
hell. That by nations in the Word are meant those who are in 
good, and, in an opposite sense, those who are in evil, thus, ab 
stractedly, goods and evils, may be seen below 5 n. 483 ; there 
fore here by giving power over the nations, is signified to give 
them to overcome the evils from hell in themselves. 

148. And he shall rule them with a rod of iron, signifies by 
truths from the literal sense of the Word, and at the same time 
by rational principles derived from natural light. It is said by 
a rod or staff of iron, because staff in the Word signifies power, 
and iron signifies natural truth, consequently the natural sense 



149 151 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. 11. 

of the Word, and at the same time the natural light of man; 
in these two consists the power of truth. That divine truth in 
the natural sense of the Word, which is its literal sense, is in 
its power, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem 
concerning the Sacred Swipture, n. 1 205 221 ; from this cause 
the literal sense is the "basis, continent, and firmament of its 
spiritual sense, n. 27 36. And that all power is in the ulti- 
mates which are called things natural, may be seen in The 
Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and the Diving 
Wisdom, n. 205 221 ; consequently in the natural sense of the 
letter of the Word, and in the natural light of man ; these 
therefore are the rod of iron by which he is to rule the nations, 
that is, to overcome the evils which are from hell. The same 
is signified by an iron rod in the following places : " Thou shalt 
break them with a rod of iron, thou shalt dash them in pieces 
like a potter s vessel," Psalm ii. 9. " And she brought forth 
a man-child who was to rule all nations with a rod of iron" 
Apoc. xii. 5. Out of the mouth of him that sat upon the white 
horse went " a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the 
nations ; and he shall rule them with a rod of iron" Apoc. 
xix. 15. Jehovah "shall smite the earth with the rod of his 
mouth," Isaiah xi. 4. 

149. As the vessels of a potter shall they ~be broken to shivers, 
signifies, as of little or no account. It is said the vessels of a 
potter, because by them are signified the things which are of 
self-derived intelligence, which are all falses, and in themselves 
of no account ; so in David : " Thou shalt break them with a 
rod of iron, thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter s vessel," 
Psalm ii. 9. 

150. Even as I received of my Father, signifies that they 
shall receive this power from the Lord, who, when he was in 
the world, procured to himself all power over the hells, from the 
divine principle which was within him. That the Lord, when 
ke was in the world, by admitting temptations in himself, and 
finally by the last of them, which was the passion of the cross, 
subdued the hells and glorified his Humanity, may be seen in 
The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord, n. 29 
36 ; as also above, n. 67 ; from which it may appear, that to 
receive from his Father, is to receive from the divine or divinity 
which was in him, for he said that the Father is in him and he 
in the Father ; that the Father and he are one ; as also the 
Father who is in me ; and many other things to the same 
purpose. 

151. And I will give him the morning star, signifies intelli 
gence and wisdom. That by stars are signified knowledges of 
good and truth, may be seen above, n. 51 ; and because by 
them comes intelligence and wisdom, therefore these are sig- 
ntfied by the morning star. It is called the morning star, 

118 



V. 2729.] THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. 152, 153 

because intelligence and wisdom will be given them from the 
Lord, when he conies to establish the New Church, which is the 
New Jerusalem, for he says, " That which ye have, hold fast 
till I come," verse 25, by which is signified, that they must 
retain the few truths which they know concerning charity and 
its faith from the Word, and live according to them, until the 
new heaven and new church are formed, which constitute the 
coming of the Lord, n. 145. The morning star is mentioned, 
because by morning is signified the coming of the Lord, when 
there is a new church. That this is meant by morning, in the 
Word, appears from the following places : " Until the evening 
and morning two thousand three hundred, then shall the sane 
tuary be justified," Dan. viii. 14. "He calleth to me out of 
Seir, Watchman, what of the night ? Watchman, what of the 
night ? The watchman said, The morning cometh, and also the 
night," Isaiah xxi. 11, 12 ; by the evening and the night is sig 
nined the last time of the old church, and by the morning the 
commencement of the New Church. " The end is come, the 
morning is come upon thee, O thou that dwellest in the land ; be 
hold the day it is come, the morning is gone forth," Ezek. vii. 6, 
7, 10. " Every morning doth he bring his judgment to light, 
he faileth not," Zeph. iii. 5. " God is in the midst of her God 
shall help her when the morning appeareth," Psalm xlvi. 5. 
"I wait for Jehovah my soul doth wait for the Lord more 
than they that watch for the morning, I say more than they 
that watch for the morning for with him is plenteous redemp 
tion, and he shall redeem Israel," Psalm cxxx. 5 8 ; and in 
other places. By morning in these passages is meant the Lord s 
coming, when he came into the world and established a new 
church ; in like manner now. And because the Lord alone 
gives those who are to be of his new church intelligence and 
wisdom, and all things which the Lord gives are himself 
because they are of himself, therefore the Lord says that he 
himself is the morning star : " I am the root and offspring of 
David, the bright and morning star" Apoc. xxii. 16 : he is 
called also the morning in 2 Samuel : " The God of Israel said, 
the Rock of Israel spake to me he is as the light of the morn 
ing a morning without clouds," xxiii. 3, 4. 

152. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith 
unto the churches, signifies that he who understands these 
things, ought to obey what the Divine Truth of the Word 
teaches those who are to be of the New Church, which is the 
New Jerusalem, as above, n. 87. 

153. To the above I will add a Memorable Relation, con 
cerning the lot of those after death, who have confirmed them 
selves in faith alone unto justification, both in doctrine and life, 
I. When they are dead and revive as to their spirit, which com 
monly happens on the third day after the heart has ceased to 

119 



153 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap, ii 

beat, they appear to themselves in a body like that which they 
had before in the world, so that they know no otherwise than 
that they are living in the former world ; yet they are not in 
a material body, but in a spiritual body, this appearing to their 
senses, which are also spiritual, as if it was material, although it 
is not so. II. After some days they see that they are in a 
world where there are various societies instituted, which world 
is called the world of spirits, and is intermediate between hea 
ven and hell : all the societies there, which are innumerable, 
are wonderfully arranged according to natural affections, good 
and evil ; the societies arranged according to good natural affec 
tions communicate with heaven, and the societies arranged ac 
cording to evil affections communicate with hell. III. The 
novitiate spirit, or the spiritual man, is conducted and intro 
duced to various societies, both good and evil, and examination 
is made to discover whether he is affected by truths, and in what 
manner: and whether, and in what manner, he is affected by 
falses. IV. If he is affected by truths, he is withdrawn from 
c vil societies, and introduced into good societies, and also into 
various ones, until he comes into a society corresponding 
vith his own natural affection, where he enjoys the good 

vhich accords with that affection ; and this until he has put 

- ff his natural affection and has put on a spiritual affection, 
and then he is elevated into heaven : but this takes place 
with those who in the world have lived a life of charity, and 
rhus also a life of faith, which consists in believing in the Lord, 
and shunning evils as sins. V. But they who have confirmed 
themselves in doctrine and life in faith alone unto justification, 
by reason of their not being affected by truths, but by falses, 
and because they have rejected the goods of charity, which are 
j^ood works, from the means of salvation, are withdrawn from 
good societies, and introduced into evil societies, and also into 
various ones, until they come into the society which corresponds 
to the concupiscences of their love ; for he who loves falses 
cannot but love evils. VI. But as in the world they had 
feigned good affections in externals, although in their internals 
there wa^ nothing but evil affections or concupiscences, they 
are at first kept by turns in externals ; and they who in the 
world presided over companies of men, are here and there set 
over societies in the world of spirits, in general or in part ac 
cording to the extent and importance of the offices they had 
formerly exercised : but as they neither love truth nor justice, 
nor are capable of being illuminated so as to know what truth 
and justice are in themselves, therefore after some days they 
are dismissed. I have seen such removed from one society to 
another, and some administration given them in each, but only 
to be as quickly and repeatedly dismissed. VII. After frequent 
.dismissals, some out of weariness will not, and others from the 



V. 29.] THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALFD. 153 

fear of losing reputation do not, venture to seek for offices any 
further, but withdraw, and become disheartened : they are next 
led away into a desert, where there are cottages, into which 
*hey enter, and work of some kind is given them to do, and as 
Uiey do it, they receive food, and if they do not do it, they are 
hungry and receive none, so that at length necessity compels 
them. Food there is similar to the food in this world, but it is 
from a spiritual origin, and is given from heaven from the Lord 
to all according to the uses they perform ; to the idle, nothing 
is given, because they are useless. "VIII. After a time they 
loathe work, and then they go out of the cottages ; and if they 
have been priests, they have an inclination to build ; and there 
appear then immediately heaps of hewn stones, bricks, rafters, 
and boards, also heaps of reeds and bulrushes, clay, lime, and 
bitumen, which when they see, the lust of building is kindled, 
and they begin to construct a house, taking now a stone, and 
then wood, now a reed, and then clay, and placing them irregu 
larly one upon another, but in order as it seems to themselves ; 
but what they build by day falls down by night ; and the next 
day they gather materials from among the rubbish, and build 
again, and this they continue to do, until they are tired of 
building. From this cause it is, they collect together falses to 
confirm salvation by faith alone, and such falses cannot serve to 
build up a church in any other manner. IX. Afterwards from 
weary feeling they go away, and sit solitary and idle ; and as 
the idle have no food given them from heaven, as was before 
observed, they begin to hunger, and think of nothing else but 
how they shall get food and satisfy their hunger. When they 
are in this state, there come to them some of whom they ask 
alms ; and they say, Why do ye thus sit idle ? come with us to 
our houses, and we will give you work to do, and food ; and 
then they rise up with joy, and go with them to their houses, 
and there each has his work given him, and food for his work : 
but as all who have confirmed themselves in falses of faith are 
unable to do works of good use, but only works of evil use, 
neither do they do these faithfully, but only so as to save ap 
pearances for the sake of honour or interest, therefore they leave 
their work, and only love to converse, talk, walk about, and 
sleep ; and then, because they cannot any longer be induced by 
their masters to work, they are cast out as useless. X. When 
they are cast out, their eyes are opened, and they see a way 
leading to a certain cavern ; to which when they are come, a 
door is opened, and they enter, and inquire whether there is 
any food there, and when they receive for answer that there is, 
they ask leave to remain, and are told that they may, and are 
introduced and the door shut after them ; and then comes the 
overseer of that cavern, and says to them, Ye cannot go out 
hence any more ; behold your companions, they all labour, and 
121 



153 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. lL 

as they labour food is given them from heaven ; I tell you this 
for your information. And their companions also say, Our 
overseer knows what work every one is fit for, and assigns it to 
every one daily ; on the day you finish it, food is given you, but 
if you do not, neither food nor clothing is granted ; and if any 
one does evil to another, he is cast into a corner of the cavern, 
upon a certain bed of accursed dust, where he is miserably tor 
mented, until such time as the overseer sees signs of repentance 
in him, and then he is released, and commanded to do his work. 
He is told also, that everyone after his task is done is permitted 
to walk about, to converse, and afterwards to sleep ; and he is 
carried into an interior part of the cavern, where there are har 
lots, from among whom each is permitted to take one to himself 
as a female companion, and promiscuous fornication is forbid 
under pain of chastisement. Of such caverns, which are no 
thing but eternal workhouses, the universal hell consists. It 
has been permitted me to enter into and have a view of some 
of them, to the end that I might make it known, and they all 
seemed vile, neither did any one of the inhabitants know who, 
or in what office he had been in the world ; but the angel who 
was with me, told me, that such a one had been a servant in 
the world, another a soldier, a third a governor, a fourth a 
priest, this one in dignity, and that in opulence, and yet that 
none of them knew otherwise than that they had always been 
servants and companions, for this reason, because they were all 
interiorly alike, although they had been unlike exteriorly, and 
interiors associate all in the spiritual world. Such is the lot of 
those who have removed the life of charity, and who thence 
have not lived that life in the world. 

With respect to the hells in general, they consist merely of 
such caverns and workhouses, but those inhabited by satans are 
of a different kind from those inhabited by devils ; satans are 
they who have been in falses and thence in evils, and devils are 
they who have been in evils and thence in falses. Satans ap 
pear in the light of heaven like dead corpses, and some of them 
black like mummies ; and devils appear in the light of heaven 
of a dark and fiery colour, and some of them black like soot; 
but they are all as to their faces and bodies, monstrous ; yet 
n their own light, which is like the light of a coal-fire, they 
ppear not as monsters, but men ; this is granted them for 
the sake of co sociation. 



122 



Chap, iii.j THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. 



CHAPTER III. 

1. AND unto the angel of the church in Sardis write ; These 
things saith He that hath the seven spirits of God, and the 
seven stars : I know thy works, that thou hast a name that 
thou livest and art dead. 

2. Be watchful, and strengthen the things which remain, 
that are ready to die : for I have not found thy works full be 
fore God. 

3. Remember therefore how thou hast received and heard ; 
and hold fast, and repent. If therefore thou shalt not watch, 
I will come on thee as a thief, and thou shalt not know what 
hour I will come upon thee. 

4. Thou hast a few names even in Sardis, which have not 
defiled their garments ; and they shall walk with me in white ; 
for they are worthy. 

5. lie that overcometh, the same shall be clothed in w r hite 
raiment ; and I will not blot out his name out of the book of 
life ; and I will confess his name before my Father, and before 
his angels. 

6. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith 
unto the churches. 

7. And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write ; 
These things saith He that is holy, He that is true, He that 
hath the key of David, He that openeth and no one shutteth, 
and shutteth and no one openeth. 

8. I know thy works : behold, I have set before thee an 
open door, and no one is able to shut it : for thou hast a little 
power, and hast kept my word, and hast not denied my name. 

9. Behold, I will make them of the synagogue of Satan, 
who say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie ; behold, I will 
make them to corne and worship before thy feet, and to know 
that I have loved thee. 

10. Because thou hast kept the word of my patience, I also 
will keep thee from the hour of temptation, which shall come 
upon all the world, to try them that dwell upon the earth. 

11. Behold, I come quickly ; hold fast that thou hast, that 
no one take thy crown. 

12. Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple 
of my God, and he shall go no more out ; and I will write upon 
him the name of my God ; and the name of the city of my 
God, the new Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven 
from my God ; and my new name. 

13. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith 
unto the churches. 

14. And unto the angel of the church of the Lacdiceang 
123 



THE APOCALYPSE .REVEALED. [Chap. 111. 

write ; These ^ things saith the Amen, the faithful and true Wit 
ness, the beginning of the creation of God. 

15. 1 know thy works, that thou art neither cold nor hot: 
I would thou wert cold or hot. 

16. So, then, because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold 
nor hot, I will vomit thee out of my mouth. 

17. Because thou sayest, I am rich, and increased with 
goods, and have need of nothing ; and knowest not that thou 
art wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked. 

18. I counsel thee to buy of me gold tried in the fire, that 
thou mayest be rich ; and white raiment that thou mayest be 
clothed^ and that the shame of thy nakedness do not appear; 
and anoint thine eyes with eye-salve that thou mayest see. 

19. As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten; be zealous, 
therefore, and repent. 

20. Behold, I stand at the door arid knock : If any man 
hear my voice, and open the door, I will come in to him, and 
will sup with him, and he with me. 

21. To him that overcometh will I give to sit with me in 
my throne, even as I also overcame, and am set down with my 
Father in his throne. 

22. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saitli 
unto the churches. 



THE SPIRITUAL SENSE. 

THE CONTENTS OF THE WHOLE CHAPTER. This chapter treats 
of those in the Christian church who are in dead worship, which 
is without charity and faith ; who are described by the church 
in Sardis, n. 154- 171 : of those who are in truths from good 
from the Lord ; who are described by the church in Philadel 
phia, n. 172 197 : of those who believe alternately, sometimes 
from themselves, and sometimes from the Word, and thus pro 
fane holy things ; who are described by the church in Laodicea, 
n. 198223. All these being likewise called to the New 
Church of the Lord. 

THE CONTENTS OF EACH YEKSE. v. 1, "And unto the angel 
of the church ir. Sardis write," signifies to those and concerning 
those, who are n dead worship, or in worship which is without 
the good of charity, and without the truths of faith : " These 
things saith He that hath the seven spirits of God, and the 
seven stars," signifies the Lord, from whom are all truths, and 
all the knowledges of good and truth : " I know thy works," 



Chap, iii.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 

signifies that the Lord sees all their interiors and exteriors, at 
once: "That thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead," 
signifies that it may be seen and believed by themselves and 
by others, that they are spiritually alive, when yet they are 
spiritually dead: v. 2, "Be watchful," signifies to be in truths 
and in a life according to them: "And strengthen the things 
which remain, that are ready to die," signifies that the things 
which pertain to their worship may receive life : "For I have 
not found thy works full before God," signifies that the inte 
riors of their worship are not in conjunction with the Lord : 
v. 3, "Remember therefore how thou hast received and heard," 
signifies that they should consider that all worship at first is 
natural, and afterwards by truths becomes spiritual, besides 
many other things: "And hold fast, and repent," signifies that 
they should attend to these things, and give life to their dead 
worship : " If therefore thou shalt not watch," signifies here 
the same as above : " I will come on thee as a thief, and thou 
shalt not know what hour I will come upon thee," signifies 
that the things which are of worship shall be taken from them, 
and that they shall not know when and how this is done : v. 4, 
"Thou hast a few names even in Sardis," signifies that among 
them there are also some who have life in their worship : 
" Which have not defiled their garments," signifies who are in 
truths, and have not defiled worship by evils of life and falses 
thence derived: "And they shall walk with me in white, for 
they are worthy," signifies that they shall live with the Lord, 
because they are in truths from him : v. 5, " He that over- 
cometh, the same shall be clothed in white raiment," signifies 
that he who is reformed becomes spiritual: "And I will not 
blot out his name out of the book of life," signifies that he shall 
be saved : " And I will confess his name before my Father, and 
before his angels," signifies that they will be received who are 
in divine good and in divine truths from the Lord : v. 6, " He 
that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the 
churches," signifies here, as before. 

v. 7, "And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia 
write," signifies to those and concerning those, who are in 
truths originating in good from the Lord : " These things saith 
He that is holy, He that is true," signifies the Lord as to divine 
truth : " He that hath the key of David, He that openeth and 
no one shutteth, and shutteth and no one openeth," signifies 
who alone is omnipotent to save : v. 8, " I know thy works," 
signifies here, as above : " Behold, I have set before thee an 
open door," signifies that heaven is open to those who are in 
truths from good from the L:>rd: "And no one is able to shut 
it," signifies that hell cannot prevail against them : " For thou 
hast a little power," signifies because they know that they can 
do nothing from themselves. "And hast kept rnv word " si<r- 
125 



THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. Hi. 

nifies because they live according to the Lord s commandments 
in his Word: "And hast not denied my name," signifies that 
they are in the worship of the Lord : v. 9, " Behold, I will 
make them of the synagogue of Satan," signifies those who are 
in falses as to doctrine : "Who say they are Jews, and are not, 
but do lie," signifies who say that the church is among them, 
and yet it is not: "Behold, I will make them to come and 
worship before thy feet," signifies that many who are in falses 
as to doctrine, will receive the truths of the New Church : 
"And to know that I have loved thee," signifies that they shall 
see that they are loved and received into heaven by the Lord : 
v. 10, " Because thou hast kept the Word of my patience," 
signifies because they have fought against evils : " I also will 
keep thee from the hour of temptation, which shall come upon 
all the world, to try them that dwell upon the earth," signifies 
that they will be protected and preserved in the day of the last 
judgment: v. 11, "Behold I come quickly," signifies the Lord s 
coming : " Hold fast that thou hast," signifies that in the mean 
time they should remain in their truths and goods : " That no 
one take thy crown," signifies lest wisdom should perish, from 
which is eternal felicity : v. 12, " Him that overcometh," sig 
nifies they who persist in truths from good : " Will I make a 
pillar in the temple of my God," signifies that truths from good 
from the Lord, with those in whom they abide, sustain the 
church : " And he shall go no more out," signifies that they 
shall remain there to eternity : " And I will write upon him the 
name of my God," signifies that divine truth shall be written 
in their hearts: "And the name of the city of my God, the 
New Jerusalem," signifies that the doctrine of the New Church 
shall be written in their hearts : " Which cometh down out of 
heaven from my God," signifies which will be from the divine 
truth of the Lord such as it is in heaven : "And my new name," 
signifies the worship of the Lord alone, with other new things 
which were not in the former church : v. 13, " He that hath an 
ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches," sig 
nifies here, as before. 

v. 14, "And unto the angel of the church of the Laodiceans 
write," signifies to those and concerning those, in the church, 
who alternately believe, sometimes from themselves, and some 
times from the Word, and thus profane things holy: "These 
things saith the Amen, the faithful and true Witness," signifies 
the Lord as to the Word, which is divine truth from him : 
" The beginning of the creation of God," signifies the Word : 
v. 15, "I know thy works," signifies here, as before: "That 
thou art neither cold nor hot," signifies that they who are 
such, sometimes deny that the Word is divine and holy, and at 
other times acknowledge it : "I would thou wert cold or hot," 
signifies that it is better for them either from the heart to deny 
126 



Chap. iii.J THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 

the holy things of the Word and of the church, or from the 
heart to acknowledge them : v. 16, " So then, because thou art 
lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will vomit thee out of 
my mouth," signifies profanation and separation from the Lord : 
v. 17, "Because thou sayest, I am rich, and increased with 
goods," signifies that they think they possess in all abundance 
the knowledges of what is good and true, which are of heaven 
and the church : " And have need of nothing," signifies that 
they have no need of more wisdom : "And knowest not that 
thou art wretched," signifies that all things w r hich they know 
do not at all cohere : " And miserable and poor," signifies that 
they are without truths and goods : " And blind and naked," 
signifies that they are without the understanding of truth, and 
without the will of good : v. 18, " I counsel thee to buy of me 
gold tried in the fire, that thou mayest be rich," signifies an. 
admonition to acquire to themselves the good of love from the 
Lord by means of the Word, that they may become wise : 
"And white raiment, that thou mayest be clothed," signifies 
that they should acquire to themselves genuine truths of wis 
dom: "And that the shame of thy nakedness may not appear," 
signifies lest the good of celestial love should be profaned and 
adulterated: "And anoint thine eyes with eye-salve, that thou 
mayest see," signifies that their understandings may be healed : 
v. 19, "As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten," signifies 
that because they are now beloved, they cannot but be ad 
mitted to temptations : " Be zealous, therefore, and repent," 
signifies that this should be done from the affection of truth : 
v. 20, " Behold I stand at the door, and knock," signifies that 
the Lord is present to every one in the Word, and is there 
pressing to be received, and teaches how : " If any man hear 
my voice, and open the door," signifies he who believes in the 
Word and lives according to it : "I will come in to him, and 
will sup with him, and he with me," signifies that the Lord 
joins himself with them and they with him: v. 21, "To him 
that overcometh," signifies such as are in conjunction with the 
Lord by a life conformable to his precepts in the Word : " Will 
I give to sit with me in my throne," signifies that they will 
have conjunction with the Lord in heaven: "Even as I also 
overcame, and am set down with my Father in his throne," 
signifies as he and the Father are one and are heaven : v. 22, 
" He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto 
the churches," signifies here, as before. 



127 



154 157 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. ill. 



THE EXPLANATION. 

154:. And unto the angel of the church in Sardis write , sig 
nifies to those and concerning those, who are in dead worship, 
or in worship which is without the good of charity and without 
the truths of faith. That they who are in such worship are 
meant by the church in Sardis, is evident from what is written 
to it when understood in the spiritual sense. By dead worship 
is meant worship alone, which consists in going to church, hear 
ing sermons, receiving the sacrament, reading the Word and 
pious books, talking about God, and about heaven and hell, 
and a life after death, and especially about piety, praying morn 
ing and evening, and yet not desiring to know the truths of 
faith, nor willing to do the good things of charity, believing 
that they shall have salvation by means of mere worship ; when 
yet such worship without truths, and without a life conformable 
to them, is only the external sign of charity and faith, within 
which there may lie concealed "all sorts of evils and falses, if 
charity and faith do not reside within ; for of these genuine 
worship consists ; otherwise worship is like the skin or surface 
of any kind of fruit, in which there lies concealed nothing but a 
rotten and w r orm-eaten substance, and therefore is dead. That 
such worship prevails in the church at this day, is well known. 

155. These things saith He that hath the seven spirits of God, 
and the seven stars, signifies the Lord, from whom are all truths, 
and all the knowledges of good and truth. That by the seven 
spirits of God is understood the divine truth proceeding from 
the Lord, or divine verity, may be seen above, n. 14 ; and that 
by the seven stars are understood all the knowledges of what is 
good and true from the Word, n. 51, from which exists the 
church in heaven, n. 65. These things are now said by the 
Lord, because the subject treated of is concerning dead worship 
and concerning living worship, and worship derives its life from 
truths, and from a life according to them. 

156. I know thy works, signifies that the Lord sees all their 
interiors and exteriors at once, as above, n. 76. 

157. That thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead, 
signifies that it may be seen and believed by themselves and 
others, that they are spiritually alive, when yet they are spirit 
ually dead. By having a name, is signified to seem and to be 
thought to be such ; in this instance, that they are living, when 
yet they are dead ; for spiritual life, which is properly life, does 
not consist in worship alone, but is inwardly in worship, and 
inwardly there ought to be divine truths from the Word, and 
when man lives according to them, life is in the worship ; the 
reason is, because the external derives its quality from internals, 
and the internals of worship are truths of life. These are they 

128 



V. 1, 2.J THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 158 

who are meant by these words of the Lord : "And ye begin to 
stand without, and to knock at the door, saying, Lord, Lord, 
open unto us ; and he shall answer and say unto you, I know 
you not whence you are. Then shall ye begin to say, We have 
eaten and drunk in thy presence, and thou hast taught in our 
streets ; but he shall say, I tell you, I know you not whence ye 
are ; depart from me, all ye workers of iniquity," Luke xiii. 25, 
26, 27. I have also been permitted to hear many in the spirit 
ual world say, that they have frequently received the sacrament, 
and thus have eaten and drunk w^hat is holy, and have as often 
been absolved from their sins ; that every sabbath day they Have 
hearkened to their teachers ; and have devoutly prayed at home 
morning and evening, besides other things : but when the inte 
riors of their worship were laid open, they appeared full of iniqui 
ties, and infernal ; therefore they were rejected ; and when they 
asked the reason of it, they had for answer, that they were not at 
all solicitous about divine truths. And yet a life not according to 
divine truths, is not life such as they enjoy who are in heaven, 
and they Avho are not in the life of heaven, cannot bear the light 
of heaven, which is divine truth proceeding from the Lord as the 
sun there, much less can they beat* the heat of heaven, which is 
divine love. But although they heard and also understood these 
things, yet when they were let into themselves, and their own 
worship, they said, What need is there of truths, and what arc 
truths? and as they were no longer able to receive truths, they 
were left to their concupiscences, which lay hid within their 
worship, and these at length drove away from them all their 
worship of God ; for the interiors accommodate the exteriors 
to themselves, and reject the things which are not in accord 
ance "with them ; and the exteriors of all after death are ren 
dered analogous with their interiors. 

158. Be watchful, signifies that they should be in truths and 
in a life according to them. By watching, in the Word, nothing 
else is signified ; for he who learns truths and lives according to 
them, is like one who is awakened out of sleep and becomes 
watchful ; and he who is not in truths, but only in worship, is 
like one who sleeps and dreams. Natural life, considered in 
itself, or without spiritual life, is nothing else but sleep ; but 
natural life, in which there is spiritual life, is watchfulness, and 
this cannot be acquired otherwise than by truths, which exist 
in their own light and in their own day, when man lives accord 
ing to them. Such is the signification of watching in the follow 
ing places : " Watch, for ye know not what hour your Lord doth 
come," Matt. xxiv. 42. " Blessed are those servants whom the 
Lord when he cometh shall find watching : -Be ye therefore 
ready, for the Son of Man cometh at an " hour when ye think 
not," Luke xii. 37, 40. " Watch ye, for ye know not when the 
master of the house cometh. lest coming suddenly he find you 
129 



159 161 THE APOCALYPSE BEVEALEE. [Chap. ill. 

deeping. What I say imto you, I say unto all, Watch" Mark xiii, 
35, 36, 37. " While the bridegroom tarried, the virgins slum* 
tiered and slept" and the five foolish came and said, " Lord, Lord, 
open to us ; but he answered and said, I know you riot ; watch 
therefore, for ye know neither the day nor the hour wherein 
the Son of Man cometh," Matt. xxv. 5, 11 13. Because tho 
Lord s coming is called morning, n. 151, and then truths are 
opened, and there is light, therefore that time is called the be 
ginning of the watches, in Lament, ii. 19, and the Lord is called 
a Watcher, Dan. iv. 13, and it is written in Isaiah, "Thy dead 
shall live, Awake, ye that dwell in the dust," xxvi. 19. But 
that the state of a man who is not in truths is called slumbering 
and sleeping, may be seen in Jerem. li. 39, 57 ; Psalm xiii. 3 ; 
Psalm Ixxvi. 5 ; Luke viii. 23 ; and in other places. 

159. And strengthen the things which remain, that are ready 
to die, signifies, that the things which pertain to their worship 
may receive life, and not be extinguished. How these things are 
to be understood, shall be explained. Dead worship is altogether 
similar to living worship in its external form, because they who 
are in truths do the same things, for they hear sermons, receive 
the holy supper, bow their knees in prayer morning and even 
ing, besides other things which are common and customary in 
worship ; therefore they who are in dead worship, have need of 
nothing more than to learn truths and bring them into life ; so 
that the things which remain, and are ready to die, may be con 
firmed. 

160. For I have not found thy works full before God, sig 
nifies that the interiors of their worship are not in conjunction 
with the Lord. That by works are understood the interiors and 
exteriors, and that by " I know thy works," is signified that the 
Lord sees all the interiors and exteriors of man at once, may 
appear above, n. 76 ; which are called full before God, when 
they are in conjunction with the Lord. It must be observed, 
that dead worship, or worship which is only external, causes the 
Lord s presence, but not conjunction with him ; but external 
worship, in which the interiors are alive, causes both presence 
and conjunction ; for the conjunction of the Lord is with the 
things in man which are from the Lord, which are truths from 
good, and unless these are in worship, works are not full before 
God, but are empty. A man is said to be empty in the Word, 
in whom there are nothing but falses and evils, as in Matt. xii. 
44, and in other places ; but a man is said to be full, in whom 
there aro truths and goods. 

161. Remember therefore how thou hast received and heard" 
signifies that they should consider that all worship at first^ is 
natural, and afterwards by truths out of the Word, and by a life 
according to them, becomes spiritual, besides many other things. 
These are the things that are to be understood by these words ; 

130 



r. 2 3.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 1 62 

as also, that every one may know from the Word, from the doc 
trine of the church drawn from the Word, and from sermons, 
that truths ought to be learned, and that by truths men have 
faith, charity, and all things of the church. That this is the case, 
is abundantly shown in The Arcana Ccdestia : as for instance, 
that by truths comes faith, n. 4353, 4997, 7178, 10,367. That 
by truths comes love towards our neighbour or charity, n. 4368, 
7623, 7624, 8034. That by truths comes love to the Lord, 
n. 10,143, 10,153, 10,310, 10,578, 10,648. That by truths come 
intelligence and wisdom, n. 3182, 3190, 3387, 10,064. That by 
truths regeneration is effected, n. 1553, 1904, 2046, 2189, 9088, 
9954, 10,028. That by truths comes power against evils and 
falses, and against hell, n. 3091, 4015, 10,485. That by truths 
there is purification from evils and falses, n. 2799, 5954, 7044, 
7918, 10,229, 10,237. That by truths the church exists, 11. 1798, 
1799, 3963, 4468, 4672. That by truths heaven exists, n. 1690, 
9832, 9931, 10,303. That by truths comes the innocence of 
wisdom, n. 3183, 3495, 6013. That by truths there is conscience, 
n. 1077, 2053, 9113. That by truths there is order, n. 3316, 
3417, 3570, 4704, 5339, 5343, 6028, 10,303. That by truths is 
the beauty of angels, and also of men as to the interiors which 
are their "spirits, n. 353, 3080, 4983, 5199. That by virtue of 
truths man is man, n. 3175, 3387, 8370, 10.298. But all this by 
truths derived from good, and not by truths without good, and 
by good from the Lord, n. 2434, 4070, 4736, 5147. That every 
good is from the Lord, n. 1614, 2016, 2904, 4151, 9981, 5147. 
But who thinks this ? Is it not at this day a matter of indiffer 
ence what truths a man knows, provided he is in worship ? And 
because few search the Word for the purpose of learning truths 
and living according to them, therefore nothing is known con 
cerning worship, whether it be dead or living, and yet accord 
ing to the quality of worship man himself is either dead or 
living ; otherwise of what use would the Word be, and doctrine 
derived from it, or what would be the use of sabbaths and ser 
mons, as well as of books of instruction, yea to what purpose 
would the church and religion be? That all worship in its be 
ginning is natural, and afterwards by truths from the Word, 
and a life according to them, becomes spiritual, is well known ; 
for man is born natural, but is educated in order that he may 
become civil and moral, and afterwards spiritual, being in this 
manner born again. These things therefore are signified by 
" Remember how thou hast received and heard." 

162. And hold fast and repent, signifies that they should 
attend to these things and give life to their dead worship. That 
to observe is to attend to those things, which are understood by 
" Remember how thou hast received and heard," is evident ; 
and that to repent is to give life to dead worship, by truths from 
the Word, and by a life according to them, follows of course. 
131 



163, 164 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. ill. 

163. If therefore thou shalt not watch, signifies, if they are 
not in truths and in a life according to them, as is evident from 
the explanation above, n. 158. 

164:. I will come on the e as a thief, and thou shalt not Jcnoio 
what hour I will come upon thee, signifies that the things which 
are of worship shall be taken from them, and that they shall not 
know when and how this is done. It is said that the Lord will 
come like a thief, because man, who is in dead worship, is de 
prived of the external good of worship : for there is something 
of good in dead worship, because the worshipper thinks of God 
and of eternal life ; still good without its truths is not good, but 
meritorious or hypocritical, evils and falses taking it away like a 
thief ; this is done successively in the world, and after death fully, 
man in the meantime not knowing when and how. It is attrib 
uted to the Lord that he will come like a thief, but, in the 
spiritual sense, it is understood that hell will take away and steal 
it. This is similar to its being said in the Word, that God does 
evil to man, vastates him, revenges, is wrathful, and leads into 
temptation ; when yet it is hell that does these things ; the ap 
pearance before man causing it to be so expressed. That the 
talent and pound given to man to trade w r ith, is taken away, if 
nothing is gained by it, may be seen in Matt. xxv. 26 30 ; Luke 
xix. 24 26 : to trade and to gain signifies to acquire to one s 
self things true and good. Since good and truth are taken away 
from those who are in dead worship, as if it were done by a thief 
in the dark, therefore in the Word the same is sometimes likened 
to a thief, as in the following passages : " Behold, I come as a 
thief. Blessed is he that watcheth and keepeth his garments, 
lest he walk naked," Apoc. xvi. 15. " Watch therefore, for ye 
know not what hour your Lord doth come. But know this, that 
if the good man of the house had known in what watch the thief 
would come, he would have watched, and would not have suf 
fered his house to be broken up," Matt. xxiv. 42, 43. " If 
thieves came to thee, if robbers by night, how art thou cut off, 
would they not have stolen till they had enough ?" Obad. verse 
5. " They shall run to and fro in the city, they shall run upon 
the wall, they shall climb up upon the houses, they shall enter 
in at the windows like a thief" Joel ii. 9. " They committed 
falsehood, and the thief cometh in, and the troop of robbers 
spoileth without," Hosea vii. 1. " Lay not up for yourselves 
treasures upon earth, but in heaven, where thieves do not 
break through nor steal," Matt. vi. 19, 20. The reason why 
man must watch, and be ignorant of the hour in which his Lord 
may come, is, that he may think and act as from himself, thus 
in freedom according to his reason, and that fear may not in 
trude, for every one, if he knew, would be in fear ; and what 
man does from himself in a state of liberty remains to eternity, 
but what he does from fear, does not. 
132 



V. 3, 4.] THE APOCALYPSE REPEALED. 165, 166 

165. Thou hast a few names even in Sardis, signifies that 
among them there are also some who have life in their worship. 
By a lew names are signified some who are such, as now follows : 
for name signifies the quality of any one ; the reason is, because 
every one in the spiritual world is named according to his qual- 
: ty, n. 81. The quality of those who are now treated of, is, that 
they have life in their worship. 

166. Which have not defiled their garments, signifies, who 
are in truths, and have not defiled worship by evils of life^and 
falses thence derived. By garments in the Word are signified 
truths which invest good, and, in an opposite sense, falses which 
invest evil ; for man is either his own good or his own evil, the 
truths or falses thence proceeding are his garments. All angels 
and spirits appear clothed according to the truths of their good, 
or according to the falses of their evil; on which subject see the 
work concerning Heaven and Hell, n. ITT 182 ; from which it 
is evident, that by not defiling their garments, is signified to be 
in truths, and not to render worship impure by evils of life and 
falses thence derived. That in the Word garments signify truths, 
and, in an opposite sense, falses, appears from the following 




I girded thee about with fine linen. I decked thee also with 
ornaments. Thus wast thou decked with gold and silver, and 
thy raiment was of fine linen, and silk, and broidered work, 
and thou wast exceeding beautiful. And of thy garments thou 
didst take, and deckedst thy high places with divers colours, 
and playedst the harlot thereupon ; and madest to thyself images 
of men, and didst commit whoredom with them ; and tookest 
thy broidered garments and coveredst them," Ezek. xvi. 10 18. 
The Jewish church is here described, in that truths were given to 
it by the Word, but that they falsified them : to commit whore 
dom is to falsify, n. 134. " The king s daughter is all glorious 
within ; her clothing is of wrought gold ; she shall be brought 
unto the king in raiment of needle-work," Psalm xlv. 13, 14. 
The king s daughter is the church as to the affection of truth. 
"Ye daughters of Israel, weep over Saul, who clothed you in 
scarlet with other delights, who put on ornaments of gold upon 
your apparel" 2 Sam. i. 24. These things are said of Saul, 
because by him, as king, is signified divine truth, n. 20. " I will 
punish the princes, and the king s children, and all such as are 
clothed with strange apparel" Zeph. i. 8. The enemy " shall 
strip thee of thy clothes, and take away thy fair jewels," Ezek. 
xxiii. 26. " Joshua was clothed with filthy garments, and stood 
before the angel," who said, " Take the filthy garments from off 
him, and they clothed him with other garments" Zech. iii. 
3 5. " And when the king came in to see the guests, he saw 
133 



166 THE APOCALYPSE KEYEALED. [Chap. ill. 

there a man which had not on a wedding garment, and he saith 
unto him, Friend, how earnest thou in hither not having a 
wedding garment?" Matt. xxii. 11 13. A wedding garment is 
divine truth from the Word. " Beware of false prophets, which 
come to you in sheep s* clothing" Matt. vii. 15. " No man 
putteth a piece of a new garment upon an old ; otherwise the new 
inaketh a rent in the old, and the piece of the new agreeth not 
with the old," Luke v. 36. As garment signifies truth, there 
fore the Lord compares the truths of the former church, which 
were external and representative of things spiritual, to a piece of 
an old garment, and the truths of the new church, which were 
internal and spiritual, to a piece of a new garment. " Upon the 
seats I saw four and twenty elders sitting, clothed in white 
raiment" Apoc. iv. 4. They who stood "before the throne and 
before the Lamb, were " clothed in white robes, these are they 
which have washed their robes, and made them white in the 
blood of the Lamb," Apoc. vii. 9, 13, 14. " White robes were 
given unto every one of them" which were under the altar, 
Apoc. vi. 11. " The armies in heaven followed upon white 
horses, clothed in fine linen white and clean," Apoc. xix. 14. 
Because angels signify divine truths, therefore the angels which 
were seen in the Lord s sepulchre, appeared in white and shining 
raiment, Matt, xxviii. 3 ; Luke xxiv. 4. Since the Lord is divine 
good and divine truth, and truths are understood by garments, 
therefore when he was transfigured, " His face did shine as the 
sun, and his raiment was white as the light," Matt. xvii. 2 : and 
* white and glistering," Luke ix. 29 ; and " shining, exceeding 
white as snow, so as no fuller on earth can white them," Mark 
ix. 3. Concerning the Ancient of Days, who also is the Lord, 
it is said, that his " garment was white as snow," Dan. vii. 9 ; 
and also of the Lord, "All thy garments smell of myrrh, aloes, 
and cassia," Psalm xlv. 8. "He washed his garments in wine, 
and his clothes in the blood of grapes," Gen. xlix. 11. " Who is 
this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah ? 
this that is glorious in his apparel : wherefore art thou red in 
thine apparel / and thy garments like him that treadeth in the 
wine-fat ? And their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments, 
and I will stain all my raiment" Isaiah Ixiii. 1 3. This also 
refers to the Lord; his garments there are the truths of the 
Word. He that sat upon the white horse, " was clothed witli a 
vesture dipped in blood, and his name is called the Word of God," 
Apoc. xix. 13, 16. From the signification of garments it may 
be seen, w T hy the Lord s disciples laid their clothes upon the ass 
and the colt, when the Lord entered into Jerusalem, and why 
the people then spread their garments in the way, Matt. xxi. 
7 9 ; Mark xi. 7, 8 ; Luke xix. 35, 39 ; and what is signified 
by the soldiers dividing the Lord s garments into four parts, 
John xix. 23, 24 ; and consequently what is signified by theso 
134 



7. 4.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 167 

words in David : " They part my garments among them, and 
cast lots upon my vesture" Psalm xxii. 18. From the signifi 
cation of garments it also appears why they rent their garments, 
when any one spake against the divine truth of the Word, Isaiah 
xxxvii. 1, and in other places : also why they washed their gar 
ments that they might be purified, Exod. xix. 14 ; Levit. xi. 24, 
40 ; xiv. 8, 9 ; Numb. xix. 11, to the end : and why, on account 
of their trangressions against divine truths, they put off their 
garments and put on sackcloth, Isaiah xv. 3 ; xxii. 12 ; xxxvii. 
1, 2 ; Jerem. iv. 8 ; vi. 26 ; xlviii. 37 ; xlix. 3 ; Lament, ii. 10 ; 
Ezek. xxvii. 31 ; Amos viii. 10 ; Jonah iii. 5, 6, 8. He who 
knows what garments signify in general and in particular, may 
know what was signified by the garments of Aaron and his sons, 
which were the ephod, the robe, the coat with embroidery of 
chequer-work, the girdle, the breeches, and the mitre. Because 
light signifies divine truth, and garment has the same significa 
tion, therefore it is said in David, Jehovah covereth himself 
" with light as with a garment" Psalm civ. 2. 

167. And they shall walk with me in white, for they are 
worthy, signifies that they shall live with the Lord in his spir 
itual kingdom, because they are in truths from him. That this 
is the meaning of these words, is because to walk, in the Word, 
signifies to live, and to walk with God signifies to live with him ; 
and because in white signifies in truths ; for in the Word, white 
is predicated of truths, by reason of its deriving its origin from 
the light of the sun ; and red is predicated of goods, in conse 
quence of its deriving its origin from the fire of the sun ; and 
black is predicated of falses, from its deriving its origin from the 
darkness of hell. They who are in truths from the Lord, are, 
by virtue of their being conjoined with him, called worthy, for 
all worth in the spiritual world is from conjunction with the 
Lord ; from these considerations it is evident^ that " they shall 
walk with me in white, for they are worthy," signifies that they 
shall live with the Lord, because they are in truths from him. 
It is said that they shall live with the Lord in his spiritual 
kingdom, because the universal heaven is divided into two 
kingdoms, the celestial and the spiritual, and they are in the 
celestial kingdom who are in the good of love from the Lord, 
and they are in the spiritual kingdom who are in the truths of 
wisdom from the Lord ; and the latter are said to walk with the 
Lord in white ; and they are also clothed in white garments. 
That to walk signifies to live, and that to walk with God signi 
fies to live with him, because from him, appears from the fol 
lowing places : " Let us walk in the light of Jehovah," Isaiah 
ii. 5. " Thou hast delivered my feet from falling, that I may 
walk before God in the light of the living," Psalm Ivi. 13. 
" Thou hast not been as my servant David who kept my com 
mandments, and who walked after me with all his heart," 1 Kings 
135 



166 170 THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. [Cliap. Hi. 

8. " Remember, O Jehovah, how I have walked before theo 
in truth," Isaiah xxxviii. 3. If ye "will walk contrary unto me, 
and if ye will not hearken unto me, then I will walk contrary 
unto you," Levit. xxvi. 23, 24, 27. They would not walk in the 
ways of Jehovah," Isaiah xlii. 24 ; Deut. xi. 22 ; xix. 9 ; xxvi. 
17. " All people will walk, every one in the name of his God, 
and we will walk in the name of Jehovah, Micah iv. 5. " Yet 
a little while is the light with you ; walk while ye have the light, 
believe in the light," John xii. 35, 36 ; viii. 12. "The Pha 
risees and scribes asked him, Why walk not thy disciples accord 
ing to the tradition of the elders?" Mark vii. 5. It is also said 
of Jehovah, that he walketh amongst them, that is, lives in 
them and with them : " I will set my tabernacle in the midst of 
them and I will walk in the midst of you, and will be your 
God," Levit. xxvi. 11, 12. Hence it is evident, what is meant 
above by " These things saith He who walketh in the midst of 
the seven golden candlesticks," Apoc. ii. 1. 

168. lie that overcometh, the same shall be clothed in white 
raiment, signifies that he who is reformed becomes spiritual. 
That he that overcometh, signifies he who is reformed, may be 
seen above, n. 88 ; and that to be clothed in white raiment, sig 
nifies to be made spiritual by means of truths, n. 166, 167. All 
those become spiritual who are in truths, and in a life according 
to them. 

169. And I will not blot out his name out of the ~book of 
life, signifies that he shall be saved. What the signification of 
name is, has been shown before, and what the book of life is, 
will be explained below. That not to blot out his name out of 
the book of life, is to be saved, is plain to every one. 

170. And I will confess his name before my Father , and be 
fore his angels, signifies that they will be received who are in 
divine good and in divine truths from the Lord, thus who have 
the life of heaven in themselves. That to confess the name is 
to acknowledge the quality of any one, or that it is such, is evi 
dent from the signification of name, as given above, n. 81, 122 ; 
by Father, is meant divine good, and by angels divine truths, 
both from the Lord. In the Word of the evangelists the Father 
is often mentioned by the Lord, by whom is everywhere rnant 
Jehovah, from whom and in whom he was, and who was in him, 
and nowhere any divine principle separated from him : this is 
abundantly proved indeed in The Doctrine of the New Jeru 
salem concerning the Lord ; and also in The Angelic Wisdom 
concerning the Divine Providence, n. 262, 263 : that the Lord 
himself is the Father, may be seen, n. 21, 960. The Lord made 
mention of the Father, because by Father in the spiritual sense 
is signified good, and by God the Father the divine good o+ 
divine love ; the angels never understand any thing else by 
Father when it is read in the Word, nor can thej understand 

136 



r. 5 7.1 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 171 173 

any thing else, because no one in the heavens knows any Father, 
of whom they are said to be born, and whose children and heirs 
they are called, except the Lord : this is understood by the 
Lord s words in Matt, xxxii. 9. Hence it is evident that by 
confessing his name before the Father, is signified that they 
will be received among those who are in divine good from him. 
The reason why by angels are understood those who are in di 
vine truths from the Lord, and, abstractedly, divine truths, is 
because angels are the recipients of divine good in the divine 
truths which they have from the Lord. 

171. 11$ that hath an ear,, let him hear what the Spirit saith 
unto the churches, signifies that he who understands these 
things, ought to obey what the divine truth of the Word teaches 
those who are to be of the JSTew Church, which is the New Je 
rusalem, as above, n. 87. 

172. And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write^ 
signifies to those and concerning those who are in truths origin 
ating in good from the Lord. That these are meant by the 
church in Philadelphia, is clear from what is written to it, when 
understood in the spiritual sense. 

173. These things saith He that is holy, He that is true, signi 
fies the Lord as to divine truth. That it is the Lord, is evident ; 
the reason why He that is holy, He that is true, is the Lord as 
to divine truth, is because the Lord is called holy from his di 
vine truth, and righteous from his divine good ; hence it is, 
that his proceeding divine, which is divine truth, is called the 
Holy Spirit, and the Holy Spirit here is He that is holy, He 
that is true. Holy often occurs in the Word, and everywhere 
relates to truth, and as all truth, which is true in itself, is 
grounded in good, and is from the Lord, it is that truth which 
is called holy ; but good from which truth originates, is called 
righteous ; hence it is, that the angels who are in the truths of 
wisdom, and are called spiritual, are named holy, and the angels 
who are in the good of love, and are called celestial, are named 
righteous ; in like manner men in the church. It is also from this 
circumstance, that the prophets and apostles are called holy, 
for by the prophets and apostles are signified the doctrinal 
truths of the church. For the same reason also the Word is 
called holy, for the Word is divine truth ; the law in the ark 
of the tabernacle was also called the holy of holies, and the 
sanctuary. In like manner Jerusalem is called holy, for by 
Jerusalem is signified the church, which is in divine truths. So 
likewise the altar, the tabernacle, and the garments of Aaron and 
his sons were called holy, after they were anointed with oil, for 
oil signifies the good of love which sanctifies, and every thing 
that is sanctified has relation to truth. That the Lord alone is 
holy, because he is divine truth itself, appears from the follow 
ing passages: "Who shall not glorify thy name, O Lord, for 

137 



174 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. lil 

thou only art holy," Apoc. xv. 4. "Thj Redeemer is the Holy 

One of Israel, the God of the whole earth shall he be called," 
Isaiah liv. 5. "Thus saith Jehovah the Redeemer of Israel, and 
his Holy One" Isaiah xlix. 7. " As for our Redeemer, Jehovah 
of Hosts is his name, the Holy One of Israel" Isaiah xlvii. 4. 
"Thus saith Jehovah your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel" 
Isaiah xliii. 1, 3. "In that day they shall stay upon Jehovah 
the Holy One of Israel in truth," Isaiah x. 20 ; besides other 
places ; as Isaiah i. 4; v. 19 ; xii. 6 ; xvii. 7 ; xxix. 19 ; xxx. 11, 12 ; 
xli. 16; xlv. 11,15; xlviii. 17; lv. 5; Ix. 9; Jerem.i. 29; Dan. iv. 
10, 20 ; Psalm Ixxviii. 41. As the Lord is holiness itself, therefore 
the angel said unto Mary, "That holy thing which shall be born 
of thee shall be called the Son of God," Luke i. 35 ; and the 
Lord said of himself, Father, " sanctify them through the truth, 
thy Word is truth ; for their sakes I sanctify myself; that they 
also might be sanctified through the truth," John xvii. 17, 19 ; 
hence it appears, that the truth, which is from the Lord, is ho 
liness itself, because he alone is holy ; on which subject the Lord 
says, " When He, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you 
into all truth ; for he shall not speak from himself for he shall 
receive of mine and shall show it unto you," John xvi. 13, 14, 
15. "The Comforter, the Holy Spirit, he shall teach you all 
things," John xiv. 26. That the Holy Spirit is the life of the 
Lord s wisdom, thus the divine truth, may be seen in the Doc 
trine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord, n. 51. From 
hence it may appear, that He that is holy, He that is true, is the 
Lord as to his divine truth. That holy refers to truth, and right 
eous to good, is evident from those places in the Word where 
both expressions occur ; as from the following : " He that is 
righteous let him be righteous still, and he that is holy let him 
be holy still," Apoc. xxii. 11. " Just and true are thy ways, 
thou King of saints," Apoc. xv. 3. To serve him " in holiness 
and righteousness" Luke i. 75. " Herod feared John, knowing 
that he was a just man and a holy," Mark vi. 20. " Fine linen 
is the righteousness of the saints," Apoc. xix. 8. 

174. He that hath the ~key of David, He that openeth and no 
one shutteth, and shutteth and no one openeth, signifies, who 
alone is omnipotent to save. By David is meant the Lord as to 
iivine truth ; by key is signified the Lord s omnipotence over 
eaven and hell ; and by opening that no one can shut, and by 
shutting that no one can open, is signified to lead forth out of 
hell and introduce into heaven, thus to save, in like manner as 
above, n. 62, where it is explained. That by David is meant 
the Lord as to divine truth, may be seen in The Doctrine of the 
New Jerusalem concerning the Lord, n. 43, 44. The same, 
which is here signified by the key of David, is also signified by 
the keys of Peter, Matt. xvi. 15 19, which may be seen ex 
plained below, n. 798, as also by these words to all the disciples, 
138 



7. 7, 8.] THE APOCALYPSE EEVEALED. 175 176 

" Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, 
and whatsoever ye shall loose 011 earth shall be loosed in hea 
ven," Matt, xviii. 18; for the twelve disciples represented all 
things of the church as to its goods and truths, and Peter rep 
resented it as to truth, and truths and goods save man, conse 
quently the Lord alone from whom they are derived. The same 
is also signified by the key of David which was given to Eliakim, 
concerning which it is thus written : " I will commit thy gov 
ernment into his hands, and he shall be a Father to the inhab 
itants of Jerusalem, and to the house of Judah, and the key of 
the house of David will I lay upon his shoulder, so he shall open 
and none shall shut, and he shall shut and none shall open," 
Isaiah xxii. 21, 22. He was over the king s house, and by the 
king s house is signified the church as to divine truth. 

175. I know thy worlcs^ signifies that the Lord sees all their 
interiors and exteriors at once, as above, n. 76. 

176. JSehold, I have set before thee an open door, signifies 
that heaven is open to those who are in truths from good from 
the Lord. That by an open door is signified admission, is very 
evident: the door is said to be open to those who are of the church 
in Philadelphia, because by that church are understood those who 
are in truths from good from the Lord, and to them the Lord 
opens heaven. But on this subject something not before known 
shall be declared. The Lord alone is the God of heaven and 
earth, Matt, xxviii. 18 ; they therefore who do not directly ap 
proach him, cannot see the way to heaven, nor can they find the 
door, and if haply they are permitted to approach it, it is shut, 
and if they knock it is not opened. In the spiritual world there 
are actually ways which lead to heaven, and there are here and 
there gates, and they who are led to heaven by the Lord, take 
the ways which lead thither, and enter in at the gates. That 
there are ways there, may be seen in the work concerning Pleaven 
and Hell, n. 479, 534, 590 ; and also gates, n. 429, 430, 583, 
584 ; for all things which are seen in the heavens are correspond 
ences, thus also ways and gates ; for ways correspond to truths, 
and thence signify them, and gates correspond to admission, and 
thence signify it. Since the Lord alone leads man to heaven, 
and opens the door, therefore he calls himself the way and also 
me door : the way in John : "/am the way, and the truth, and 
the life," xiv. 6 ; the door in the same evangelist : " I am the 
dooi^^i the sheep by me, if any man enter in, he shall be saved," 
x. 7, 9. Since there are both ways and doors in the spiritual 
world, and angelic spirits actually go those ways, and enter into 
heaven by doors, therefore inner doors, outer doors, and gates 
are frequently mentioned in the Word, by which is signified en 
trance ; as in these places : " Lift up your heads, O ye gates, 
even lift them up, ye everlasting doors, and the King of Glory 
shall come in," Psalm xxiv. 7, 9. " Open ye the gates^ that th i 

139 



ITT 182 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Cliap. ill. 

righteous nation, which keepeth the truth, may enter in," Isaiah 
xxvi. 2. The five prudent virgins "went in with him to the 
marriage, and the door was shut ;" and the five foolish virgins 
came and knocked, but it was not opened, Matt. xxv. 10 12 
Jesus said, " Strive to enter in at the strait gate, for many will 
seek to enter in, and shall not be able," Luke xiii. 24 ; besides 
many others. Since a door signifies entrance, and the New Jeru 
salem signifies the church consisting of those who are in truths 
grounded in good from the Lord, therefore the New Jerusalem 
is described also as to its gates, upon which there were angels, 
and it is said, " They shall not be shut," Apoc. xxi. 12, 13, 25, 

ITT. And no one is able to shut it, signifies that hell cannot 
prevail against them ; for the Lord alone opens and shuts the 
doors to heaven, and the door, which he opens, is perpetually 
open to those who are in truths grounded in good from the 
Lord, and perpetually shut to those who are in falses grounded 
in evil ; and since the Lord alone opens and shuts, it follows 
that hell cannot prevail against them : more may be seen on this 
subject above, n. 1T4. 

ITS. For thou hast a little power, signifies because they 
know that they can do nothing from themselves. They who 
are in truths grounded in good from the Lord, know that they 
have not any power against evils and falses, thus against hell, 
from themselves, and they also know that they cannot, out of 
any power from themselves, do good and introduce themselves 
into heaven, but that all power is the Lord s, and thus is in 
them from the Lord, and in proportion as they are in truths 
grounded in good, in the same proportion they are in power 
from the Lord, which yet appears to them as their own : this 
then is what is meant by " For thou hast a little power." 

1T9. And hast kept my Word, signifies because they live 
according to the Lord s commandments in his Word, as is evi 
dent without any explanation. 

180. And hast not denied my name, signifies that they are 
in the worship of the Lord. That the name of Jehovah, or of 
the Lord, in the Word, signifies all by which he is worshipped, 
thus every doctrine of the church, and universally the whole 
of religion, may be seen above, n. 81 ; from which it is plain 
what is here signified by thou " hast not denied my name." 

181. Behold, I will make them of the synagogue of Satan, 
signifies those who are in falses as to doctrine, as may be seen 
above, n. 97. 

182. Who say they are Jews, and are not, hut do lie, signi 
fies who say that the church is among them, and yet it is not. 
By Jews here are meant they who are of the church, because 
the church was instituted among them, therefore also by their 
Jerusalem is still understood the church as to doctrine : but, 
specifically, by Jews are meant they who are in the good of 



V. 8 11.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 183 187 

love, as above, n. 96, thus also the church, for from the good 
of love the church exists ; that still there is no church among 
them, is signified by " and are not, but do lie." 

183. Behold, I will make them to come and worship before 
thy feet, signifies that many who are in falses as to doctrine, 
provided they be not in falses grounded in evil, will receive 
and acknowledge the truths of the New Church. This is said 
of those who are of the synagogue of Satan, and say they are 
Jews, and are not, but do lie, by whom are meant such as are 
in falses as to doctrine, yet not in falses derived from evil, but 
in falses as to doctrine and yet in good as to life ; the latter, 
and not the former, receive and acknowledge truths when they 
hear them ; the reason is, because good loves truth, and truth, 
grounded in good, rejects what is false ; to receive and acknow 
ledge truths is signified by coming and worshipping at thy 
feet ; not at their feet, but at the feet of the Lord, from whom 
truths are derived to them from good ; therefore the following 
passage in David has a like signification : " Exalt ye Jehovah 
our God, and worship at his footstool" Psalm xcix. 5. 

184. And to know that 2 have loved thee, signifies that they 
shall see that they who are in truths grounded in good, are be 
loved and received into heaven by the Lord : this follows in a 
series from the foregoing. 

185. Because thou hast ~kept the Word of my patience, sig 
nifies because they have fought against evils, and then rejected 
falses. That the word of patience signifies spiritual combat, 
which is called temptation, is plain from what next follows ; 
" I also will keep thee from the hour of temptation which shall 
come upon all the world," for he who is tempted in the Av.orld, 
is not tempted after death. Spiritual combat, which is tempt 
ation, is called the Word of the Lord s patience, because in 
temptations the Lord fights for man, and he fights by means of 
truths out of his Word. 

186. I also will keep thee from the hour of temptation which 
shall come upon all the world, to try them that dwell upon the 
earth, signifies that they will be protected and preserved in the 
day of the last judgment. That their protection and preserva 
tion in the day of judgment is understood by these words, may 
be seen from what is written and related concerning The Last 
Judgment in the work on that subject, and afterwards in The Con 
tinuation of the same, from which it is manifest, that they who 
underwent it were let into temptation, and explored as to their 
qualities, and that such as were interiorly evil were rejected, 
and such as were interiorly good were saved ; and they were in 
teriorly good who were in truths grounded in good from" the Lord. 

187. Behold, I come quickly, signifies the Lord s coming, 
and then a new church from them. The Lord says here, "Be 
hold, I come quickly," because by the foregoing words is under* 

14:1 



188, 189 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. itt. 

Btood the last judgment, and the last judgment is also called the 
Lord s coming, as in Matthew: The disciples said unto Jesus, 
" What shall be the sign of thy conning and of the consummation 
of the age?" xxiv. 3. The consummation of the age is the 
last time of the church, when the last judgment is at hand. The 
reason why by these words, " Behold, I come quickly," a new 
church is also understood, is, because after a last judgment a 
church is established by the Lord ; that church now is the New 
Jerusalem, into which will enter those who are in truths grounded 
in good from the Lord, to whom this is addressed. 

188. Hold fast that thou hast, signifies that in the mean 
time they should remain in their truths and in their good, as 
is manifest without explanation. 

189. That no one take thy crown, signifies lest wisdom should 
perish, from which comes eternal felicity. Wisdom in man is to 
be traced to no other source than good by truths from the Lord. 
The reason why man procures wisdom by truths, is, because the 
Lord joins or connects himself to man, and man to himself by 
them, and the Lord is wisdom itself; therefore wisdom perishes 
in man when he ceases to do truths, that is, to live according to 
them, for then he ceases to love wisdom, and thus to love the 
Lord. By wisdom is meant wisdom in things spiritual, from 
which, as from its source, is derived wisdom in other things, 
which is called intelligence, and by intelligence, science, which 
exists from the affection of knowing truths. A crown signifies 
wisdom, because wisdom holds the supreme place in man, and 
thus crowns him ; neither does a king s crown signify any thing 
else, for king, in a spiritual sense, is divine truth, n. 20, and 
from divine truth comes all wisdom. Wisdom is also signified 
by crown in the following places : "There will I make the horn 
of David to bud but upon himself shall his crown flourish," 
Psalm cxxxii. 17, 18. "And I will put a jewel in thy forehead, 
and ear-rings in thine ears, and a beautiful crown upon thy 
head," Ezek. xvi. 12 ; speaking of Jerusalem, by which is signi 
fied the church as to doctrine, therefore a crown of ornament 
denotes wisdom derived from divine truth or the Word. "In 
that day shall Jehovah of Hosts be for a crown of glory, and for 
a diadem of beauty unto the residue of his people," Isaiah 
xxviii. 5 ; speaking of the Lord, because it is said in that day ; 
the crown of glory which he will be, is wisdom, and the diadem 
of beauty is intelligence ; the residue of the people are they 
among whom his church will be. The same is signified by crown 
and diadem in Isaiah Ixii. 1,3; as also by the plate of gold upon 
Aaron s mitre, Exod. xxviii. 36, 37, which was also called the 
coronet. Likewise in these places : " Say unto the king, and to 
the queen, Humble yourselves, sit down, for your principalities 
shall come down, even the crown of your glory, Jerem. xiii. 
18. " The ioy of our heart is ceased the crown is fallen from 

142 J * 



V. 11, 12. J THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. 190, 191 



bur head," Lament, v. 15, 16. " He hath stript me of my glory, 
and take^n the crown from my head," Job xix. 9. " Thou hast 
profaned his crown by casting it to the ground," Psalm Ixxxix. 
39. In these places, by crown is signified wisdom. 

190. Him that overcometh, signifies they who persist in 
truths from good from the Lord, as appears from the series, and 
thus without explanation. 

191. Will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, signifies 
that truths from good from the Lord, with those in whom they 
abide, sustain the Lord s church in heaven. By temple the 
church is signified, and by the temple of my God, the Lord a 
church in heaven ; hence it is evident, that by pillar is signified 
that which sustains and strengthens the church, or the divine 
truth of the Word. By temple, in a supreme sense, the Lord 
is signified as to his Divine Humanity, more particularly as to 
divine truth ; but, in a representative sense, by temple is signi 
fied the Lord s church in heaven, and likewise the Lord s church 
in the world. That temple, in a supreme sense, signifies the 
Lord as to his Divine Humanity, and more particularly as to 
divine truth, is evident from these places : " Jesus said unto the 
Jews, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up 
but he spake of the temple of his body," John ii. 19, 21. " I 
saw no temple in the New Jerusalem, for the Lord God Almighty 
and the Lamb are the temple of it," Apoc. xxi. 22. " Behold, 
the Lord whom ye seek shall suddenly come to his temple, even 
the messenger of the covenant," Malachi iii. 1. " I will bow 
down towards the temple of thine holiness," Psalm xxviii. 2 
"Yet I will again look to thy holy temple, and my prayer shall 
come in unto thee, into thy holy temple" Jonah ii. 4. 7. The 
holy temple of Jehovah, or the Lord, is his Divine Humanity, 
for that is bowed clown to, looked to, and prayed to, and not the 
temple only, for the temple in itself is not holy ; it is called the 
holy temple, because holiness is predicated of divine truth, n. 
123. Neither by " the temple which sanctifieth the gold," Matt, 
xxiii. 16, 17, is any thing else understood but the Lord s Divine 
Humanity. That by temple, in a representative sense, is signi 
fied the Lord s church in heaven, appears from these places : 
" A voice from the temple, a voice of Jehovah," Isaiah Ixvi. 6. 
" There came a great voice out of the temple of heaven," Apoc. 
xvi. 17. " The temple of God was opened in heaven, and there 
was seen in his temple the ark of his testament," Apoc. xi. 19. 
" The temple of the tabernacle of the testimony in heaven was 
opened ; and the seven angels came out of the temple: and the 
temple was filled with smoke from the glory of God," Apoc. xv. 
5, 6, 8. " I called upon Jehovah, and cried unto my God : he 
heard my voice out of his temple" Psalm xviii. 6. " I saw 
Jehovah sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and his train 
Billed the temple" Isaiah vi. 1. That temple signifies the church 

14:3 



192, 193 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap, ill, 

in the world, is clear from these places : "Our holy house is 
burnt up with fire," Isaiah Ixiv. 11. I will shake all nations, 
and I will fill tin s house with glory ; the glory of this latter 
house shall be greater than of the former," Hag. ii. 7, 8. The 
church about to be re-established by the Lord is described by 
the new temple in Ezek. xl. xlviii., and is understood by " the 
temple which the angel measured," Apoc. xi. 1, and also in 
Isaiah xliv. 28; Jerem. vii. 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11 ; Zech. viii. 9. The 
disciples came to Jesus, " to show him the buildings of the 
temple, and Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, there 
shall not be left one stone upon another that shall not be thrown 
clown," Matt. xxiv. 1, 2; Mark xiii. 1 5; Luke xxi. 5 7. By 
temple here is signified the church at this day, and by its disso 
lution even to there not being one stone left upon another, is 
signified the end of this church, in that no truth whatever would 
be left ; for when the disciples spoke to the Lord concerning the 
temple, the Lord foretold the successive states of this church to 
the end of it, or the consummation of the age, and by the con 
summation of the age is meant its last period, which is at this 
day : this was represented by that temple being utterly de 
stroyed. Temple signifies these three, namely, the Lord, the 
church in heaven, and the church in the world, because these 
three make one, and cannot be separated, consequently one of 
them cannot be understood without the other; therefore who 
soever separates the church in the world from the church in 
heaven, and these from the Lord, is not in the truth. The 
reason why the church in hpaven is here understood, is, be 
cause the church in the world i* treated of afterwards, n. 194. 

192. And lie zhall go no more cut, signifies that they shall 
remain there to eternity, as is evident without explanation. 

193. And I will write upon him the name of my God, sig 
nifies that divine truth shall be written in their hearts. To write 
in or upon any one, signifies to inscribe, so that it may be in 
him as nis own ; and the name of my God signifies divine truth. 
Here it may be expedient to speak more particularly concerning 
the signification 01 " my God" as referring to divine truth. In 
the Word of the Old Testament, in innumerable places, " Jeho 
vah God" occurs, as also separately, sometimes "Jehovah," and 
sometimes " God," and by Jehovah is meant the Lord as to 
divine good, and by God is meant the Lord as to divine truth ; 
or what is the same, by Jehovah is meant the Lord as to divine 
love, and by God is meant the Lord as to divine wisdom ; both 
terms are used for the sake of the celestial marriage in all the 
particulars of the Word, which is the marriage of love and wis 
dom, or the marriage of goodness and truth, concerning which 
marriage see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the 
Sacred Scripture, n. 80 90. But in the Word of the New Tes 
tament it is not said Jehovah God, but the Lord God ; for Lo-rd, 



V. 12.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 

in like manner as Jehovah, signifies divine good or divine love. 
From these considerations it may appear, that by the name of 
my God is signified the divine truth of the Lord. That name, 
when spoken of the Lord, denotes the all by which he is wor 
shipped, may be seen above, n. 81 ; and the all by which he is 
worshipped, has relation to divine good and divine truth. As it 
is not known what is meant by these words of the Lord, " Father, 

florify thy name; then came there a voice from heaven, saying, 
have both glorified it, and will glorify it again," John xii. 28, 
therefore it shall be explained. The Lord, when he was in the 
world, made his Humanity divine truth, and when he went out 
of the world, he fully united divine truth to divine good, which 
was in him from conception ; for the Lord glorified his Human 
ity, that is, made it divine, as he makes man spiritual ; for he 
first introduces into man truths from the Word, and afterwards 
unites them to good, and by that union man is made spiritual. 
194. And the name of the city of my God, the New Jerusa 
lem^ signifies that the doctrine of the New Church shall be 
written in their hearts. By the ISTew Jerusalem is signified the 
New Church, and by the same, when it is called city, is signi 
fied the New Church as to doctrine;, therefore by writing upon 
him the name of the city of my God, the New Jerusalem, is 
signified that the doctrine of the New Church shall be written 
in their hearts. That by the New Jerusalem is signified the 
church, and by the same, as a city, the church as to doctrine, 
may be seen below, n. 880, 881. A city signifies doctrine, 
because land, and in particular the land of Canaan, signifies 
the church in the aggregate, and thence by the inheritances 
into which the land of Canaan was divided, are signified the 
various things of the church, and, by the cities in them, doc- 
trinals ; so that the angels understand nothing else by cities 
when they are named in the Word; which has also been proved 
to me by much experience. Similar is the signification of 
mountains, hills, valleys, fountains, rivers, all which signify 
such things as belong to the church. That cities signify doc- 
trinals, may in some measure appear from the following places : 
" The land shall be utterly emptied, and utterly spoiled ; the 
earth mourneth and fadeth away : the city of confusion is 
broken down; in the city is left desolation, and the gate is 
smitten with destruction," Isaiah xxiv. 3, 4, 10 12 . " The lion 
is come up from his thicket to make thy land desolate, and thy 
cities shall be laid waste. I beheld, and lo, the fruitful place 
t^as a wilderness, and all the cities thereof were broken down : 
the earth shall mourn, the whole city shall flee," Jerem. iv. 
7, 26 29. The land here is the church, and city is its doc 
trine ; thus the devastation of the church by falses of doctrine 
is described. "The spoiler shall come upon every city, and no 
city shall escape ; the valley shall perish, and the plain shall bo 
145 K ^ 



195 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap, ill. 

destroyed," Jerern. xlviii. 8 : the same here. " Behold, I have 
made thee a defenced city against the whole land," Jerein. 
i. 18: this to the prophet, because prophet signifies doctrine of 
the church, n. 8. " In that day shall this song be sung in the 
land of Jndah, We have a strong city, salvation will God ap 
point for walls and bulwarks," Isaiah xxvi. 1. "The great city 
was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell," 
Apoc. xvi. 19. The prophet saw on a high mountain the struc 
ture of a city on the south, and an angel measured the wall, the 
gates, the chambers, the porch of the gate, and the name of 
the tity was Jehovah there, Ezek. xl. 1, and following verses. 
"There is a river, the streams whereof shall make glad the city 
of God" Psalm xlvi. 4. " I will set the Egyptians against the 
Egyptians, and city against city, and kingdom against king 
dom," Isaiah xix. 2. " Every kingdom divided against itself is 
brought to desolation, and every city divided against itself 
shall not stand," Matt. xii. 25. In these places by cities, in the 
spiritual sense, are meant doctrines; as also in Isaiah vi. 11; 
xiv. 12, 17, 21; xix. 18, 19; xxv. 13; xxxiii. 8, 9; liv. 3; Ixiv. 
10; Jerem. vii. 17, 34 ; xiv. 18, 19 ; xxxii. 42, 44 ; xxxiii. 4 ; 
Zeph. iii. 6 ; Psalm xlviii. 2 ; Iv. 9 ; cvii. 4, 7 ; Matt. v. 14, 15; 
and elsewhere. From the signification of city it may appear, 
what is meant by cities in this parable of the Lord : A certain 
nobleman, when he went into a far country to receive for him 
self a kingdom, gave unto his servants money to trade with ; 
and when he was returned, he called his servants ; " then came 
the first, saying, Lord, thy pound hath gained ten pounds ; and 
he said unto him, Well, thoti good servant, have thou authority 
over ten cities : and the second came, saying, Lord, thy pound 
hath gained five pounds ; and he said likewise to him, Be thou 
also over five cities" Luke xix. 12 19. By cities here, also, 
doctrinals or truths of doctrine are signified, and by being over 
them is meant to be intelligent and wise, thus to give authority 
over them is to give intelligence and wisdom ; ten signifies 
much, and five, something f that by trading and gaining is 
meant to acquire intelligence by the exercise of one s faculties, 
is evident, That the holy city Jerusalem signifies the doctrine 
of the New Church, is plain from the description of it, Apoc. 
xxi. ; for it is described as to its dimensions, also as to its gates, 
its wall, and its foundations, which, when Jerusalem signifies 
the church, cannot signify any other than things belonging to 
its doctrines ; neither is the church a church from any other 
cause, Since by the city Jerusalem is meant the church as to 
doctrine, therefore it is called the " city of truth," Zech. viii. 
3, 4, and in many places the "holy city," and that because 
holy is predicated of truths from the Lord, n. 173. 

195. Which cometh down out of heaven from my God, signi 
fies which will be from the divine truth of the Lord, such as it 
146 



V. 12 14] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 196-199 

is in heaven. As by my God is signified divine truth, n. 193, it 
follows, that by coming clown out of heaven from my God, when 
it is said of the Lord, and of the doctrine of the New Church, is 
signified divine truth from the Lord, such as exists in heaven. 

196. And my new name, signifies the worship of the Lord 
alone, with other new things which were not in the former 
church. That by the name of the Lord is signified every thing 
by which he is worshipped, may be seen above, n. 81, therefore 
here the worship of the Lord alone, with things new which were 
not in the former church. That in the New Church the Lord 
alone is worshipped, is evident from chap. xxi. 8, 9, where that 
church is called the " Lamb s Wife." That there are things new 
in that church, appears from chap. xxi. 5, where it is said, 
" Behold, I make all things new" Such therefore is the signi- 
ti cation of my new name, which was to be written upon them. 

19T. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit 
saith unto the churches, signifies that he who understands, ought 
to obey what the divine truth of the Word teaches those who 
are to be of the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem, as 
above, n. 87. 

198. And unto the angel of the church, of the Laodiceans 
write, signifies to those and concerning those, in the church, 
who alternately believe, sometimes from themselves, and some 
times from the Word, and thus profane things holy. But con 
cerning these something must be premised : there are to be 
found in the church those who believe and yet do not believe ; 
thus they believe that there is a God, that the Word is holy, 
that there is eternal life, and many other things connected with 
the church and its doctrine ; and still they do not believe them : 
they believe them when in their sensual natural [state], but 
they do not believe them when they are in their rational natural 
[state] ; thus they believe them when they are in externals, 
therefore when they are in society and discourse with others ; 
but they do not believe them when they are in internals, conse 
quently when they are not in society with others, but are dis 
coursing with themselves ; concerning these it is said that they 
are neither cold nor hot, and that they shall be vomited out. 

199. These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true 
witness, signifies the Lord as to the Word, which is divine truth 
from him. That amen is divine confirmation from truth itself, 
which is the Lord, so from the Lord, may be seen above, n. 23 ; 
and that a faithful and true witness, when spoken of the Lord, 
is the divine truth which is from him in the Word, n. 6, 16. 
Whether you say that the Lord testifies of himself, or that the 
Word testifies of him, it amounts to the same, because the Son 
of Man, who here speaks to the churches, is the Lord as to the 
Word, n. 44. These things are premised to this church, because 
those persons in the church are here treated of who both believe 

147 



200 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. Hi. 

from themselves and from the Word; and they who believe 
from the Word, believe from the Lord. 

200. The beginning of the creation of God, signifies the 
Word. That the Word is the beginning of the creation of God, 
is not yet known in the church, because these w^rds in John are 
not understood : " In the beginning was the Word, and the Word 
was with God, and the Word was God : all things were made by 
him, and without him was not any thing made that was made. 
In him was life, and the life was the light of men. He was in 
the world, and the world was made by him, but the world knew 
him not. And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, 
and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only-begotten of the 
Father," i. 1, 3, 4, 10, 14. He who understands these words 
in their interior sense, and at the same time compares them with 
w r hat is written in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning 
the Sacred Scripture, as also with some things in The Doctrine 
of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord, may see that the 
divine truth itself in the Word which was formerly in this world, 
as mentioned in n. 11, which likewise is in our Word at this day, 
is meant by the Word which was in the beginning with God, and 
which was God ; but not the Word regarded merely as to the 
words and letters of the languages in which it is written, but as 
seen in its essence and life, which is from within in the senses or 
meaning of its words and letters; from this life does the Word 
vivify the affections of that man s will who reads it devoutly ; and 
from the light of its life it illuminates the thoughts of his under 
standing, therefore it is said in John : "In him \the Word] was 
life, and the life was the light of men" verse 4; this constitutes 
the Word, because the Word is from the Lord, and concerning 
the Lord, and thus the Lord. All thought, speech, and writing, 
derives its essence and life from him who thinks, speaks, and 
writes ; the man, with all that he is, being therein ; but in the 
Word, the Lord alone is. No one however feels and perceives 
the divine life in the Word but he w r ho is in the spiritual affection 
of truth when he reads it, for he is in conjunction with the Lord 
through the Word ; there being something intimately affecting 
the heart and spirit, which flows with light into the understand 
ing and bears witness. The signification of what is said in John 
is similar to that conveyed by these words in the first chapter 
of Genesis : " In the beginning God created the heaven and the 
earth, and the spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters ; 
and God said. Let there be light, and there was light," verse 1 
3. The spirit of God is divine truth, and also light; divine 
truth is the Word, therefore when the Lord calls himself the 
Word, he also calls himself the light, John i. 4, 8, 9. The same 
is also understood by this passage in David : " By the Word of 
Jehovah were the heavens made, and all the host of them by the 
breath [spirit] of his mouth," Psalm xxxiii. 6. In short, with- 
148 



V . 14 16.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 201 204 

out the divine truth of the Word, which in its essence is the 
divine good of the Lord s divine love, and the divine truth of his 
divine wisdom, man could not have life ; by means of the Word 
there is a conjunction of the Lord with man, and of man with 
the Lord, and by that conjunction there is lite: there must be 
something from the Lord, which it is in the power of man to re 
ceive, and by w r hich there can be conjunction and thence life 
everlasting. From these considerations it may appear, that by 
the " Beginning of the creation of God," is understood the Word, 
and if you will believe it, the Word such as it is in its literal 
sense, for this sense is the aggregate of its interior sanctities, as 
is abundantly shown in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem con 
cerning the Sacred Scripture. And what is wonderful, the 
Word is so written, that it communicates with the universal 
heaven, and severally with each society there, which it has been 
given me to know by lively experience, as has been advanced 
elsewhere. That the Word in its essence is such, is moreover 
evident from these words of the Lord : " The words that I speak 
to you, they are spirit, and they are life," John vi. 63. 

201. I know thy works, signifies that the Lord sees all their 
interiors and exteriors at once, as above, n. 76. 

202. That thou art neither cold nor hot, signifies that they 
who are such, sometimes deny that the Word is divine and holy, 
and at other times acknowledge it. At one time to deny in 
heart the sanctity of the Word, and at another time to acknow 
ledge it, is to be neither cold nor hot, for such persons are both 
for the Word and against it: they are also just the same with 
respect to God, at one time they deny, and at another time 
acknowledge him ; in like manner as to every thing relating to 
the church; for which reason they are sometimes with those who 
are in hell, and at other times with those who are in heaven, and 
ily as it were between both, up and down, and wherever they 
fly, thither their countenances are turned. They become so, 
who have confirmed themselves in a belief of the existence of a 
God, of heaven and hell, and of life eternal, and afterwards 
recede from it; when the first confirmation returns, they ac 
knowledge, but when it does not return, they deny : they recede 
because they afterwards think only of themselves and the world, 
continually aspiring to pre-eminence, and thereby immersing 
themselves in their selfhood ; and thus hell swallows them up. 

203. I would thou wert cold or hot, signifies that it is better 
for them either from the heart to deny the holy things of the 
Word and of the church, or from the heart to acknowledge them. 
The reason will be explained in the next article. 

204. So then because thou art lukewarm., and neither cold 
nor hot, I will vomit thee out of my mouth, signifies profana 
tion and consequent separation from the Lord. " I will vomit 
;hee out of my mouth," signifies to be separated from the Lord 

149 



206 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Ctiap. ill, 

and such separation from the Lord consists in being neither in 
heaven nor in hell, but in a place apart, deprived of human life, 
where mere phantasies exist ; the reason is, because they have 
mixed truths with falses, and goods with evils, thus holy things 
with profane, in such a manner as that they cannot be separated ; 
and since man cannot then be prepared, either for heaven or hell, 
the whole of his rational life is destroyed, and the ultimates of 
life alone remain, which, when separated from the interiors of 
life, are mere phantasies. Concerning their state and lot more 
may be seen in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine 
Providence, n. 226 228, 231, which will suffice to give an idea 
of them. It is said of them that they are vomited out, because 
the world of spirits, which is in the midst between heaven and 
hell, and into which every man first comes after death, and is 
there prepared, corresponds to the stomach, in which all the 
ingesta are prepared for being converted either into blood and 
flesh, or excrement and urine, the latter having a correspondence 
with hell, but the former with heaven ; but the substances that 
are vomited out of the stomach are such as have not undergone 
that separation, but remain commixed. By reason of this cor 
respondence, the expression vomited and vomit are used in the 
following passages : " Drink thou also, and let thy foreskin be 
uncovered ; and the cup of the Lord s right hand shall be turned 
unto thee, and the shameful vomiting shall be on thy glory," 
Habak. ii. 15, 16. " Make ye him drunken, Moab also shall 
wallow in his vomit" Jerem. xlviii. 26. "All tables are full of 
vomit and fithiness," Isaiah xxviii. 8 ; besides other places, as 
Jerem. xxv. 27; Levit. xviii. 24, 25, 28. That warm water 
excites vomiting, is also from correspondence. 

206. Because thou sayest, lam rich and increased with goods, 
signifies that they think they possess in all abundance the know 
ledges of what is good and true, which are of heaven and the 
church. To be rich and increased with goods, here signifies 
nothing else than to know and understand fully such things as 
belong to the church and to heaven, and are called spiritual and 
theological, because these are here considered ; spiritual riches 
and abundance consist in nothing else. They who believe from 
themselves, and not from the Lord through the Word, think 
also that they know and understand every thing; the reason is, 
because their spiritual mind is shut, and their natural mind alone 
open ; and this mind, devoid of spiritual light, sees no otherwise. 
That by riches and possessions in the Word are signified spiritual 
riches and possessions, which are knowledges of what is good and 
true, is evident from the following places: "With thy wisdom 
and with thy understanding thou hast gotten thee nches, and 
hast gotten gold and silver in thy treasures by thy great wis 
dom thou hast increased thy riches" Ezek. xxviii. 4, 5 ; this is 
spoken of Tyre, by which is signified the church as to the know- 
ISO 



V. 16 1T.J THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 207, 20 

ledges of what is good and true : in like manner, " The daughter 
of "tyre shall be there with a gift, even the rich among the people 
shall entreat thy favour," Psalm xlv. 12. "The Lord will cast 
her out and he will smite her wealth in the sea," Zech. ix. 4. 
" They shall make a spoil of thy riches" Ezek. xxvi. 12. Ashur 
hath said, " By the strength of my hand I have done it, and 
by my wisdom, for I am prudent; and I have robbed theii 
treasures, and my hand hath found the riches of the people, * 
Isaiah x. 13, 14. Here Ashur signifies the rational faculty per 
verting the goods and truths of the church, these constituting 
the treasures and riches of the people, which he takes away. 
" I will give thee the treasures of darkness, and hidden riches 
of secret places," Isaiah xlv. 3. " Blessed is the man that 
feareth Jehovah, wealth and riches shall be in his house, and 
his righteousness endureth for ever," Psalm cxii. 1, 3. God 
" hath filled the hungry with good things, and the rich he hath 
sent empty away," Luke i. 53. " Woe unto you that are rich, 
for ye have received your consolation ; woe unto you that are 
full, for ye shall hunger," Luke vi. 24, 25. By the rich here are 
understood those who were in possession of the knowledges of 
what is good and true, from their possessing the Word ; who 
were the Jews : the same is meant by the rich man, who was 
clothed in purple and fine linen, Luke xvi. 19 ; and in like 
manner by the rich and riches in other places ; as in Isaiah 
xxx. 6; Jerem. xvii. 11; Micah iv. 13; vi. 10; Zech. xiv. 14; 
Matt. xii. 35 ; xiii. 44 ; Luke xii. 21. 

207. And have need of nothing, signifies that they have no 
need of more wisdom, as is evident from what has been said 
above, because it follows of course. 

208. And knowest not that thou art wretched, signifies that 
they are not aware that all they know and think respecting the 
truths and goods of the church, is totally incoherent, and like 
uncemented walls. By being wretched is here signified a want 
of coherence, thus by those who are wretched, such as think 
incoherently concerning the things of the church ; the reason 
is, because they of whom this is said, at one time deny God, 
heaven, eternal life, and the sanctity of the Word, and at an 
other time acknowledge them ; therefore what they build with 
one hand they pull down with the other ; thus they are like 
those that build a house, and presently pull it down ; or that 
clothe themselves in handsome garments, and presently tear 
them ; their houses are therefore rubbish, and their garments 
rags: such is the nature of all their thoughts concerning the 
church and heaven, though they are not aware of it. This is also 
meant by wretchedness or misery in the following places : "Thy 
wisdom and thy knowledge it hath perverted thee, and thou hast 
said in thine heart, I am, and none else besides me ; therefore 
shall misery come upon thee," Isaiah xlvii. 10, 11. "Misery 

151 



209, 210 IflE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Cliap. lii. 

shall come upon misery, and the king shall mourn, and the prince 
shall be clothed with desolation," zek. vii. 26, 27. The king 
who shall mourn, and the prince who shall be clothed with deso 
lation, are they who are in truths of the church. " There is no 
faithfulness in their mouth, misery is in the midst of them," 
Psalm v. 9. Such also is the signification of the uncemented 
walls spoken of in Jerem. xlix. 27 ; Ezek. xiii. 11, 12 ; Hosea ii. 6. 

209. And miserable and poor, signifies that they are without 
truths and goods. By the miserable and poor, in the spiritual 
sense of the Word, are meant they who are without the know 
ledges of things true and good, for they are spiritually miserable 
and poor ; the same are understood hereby in the following places : 
" I am miserable and poor, yet the Lord thinketh upon me," 
Psalm xl. 17 ; Ixx. 5. " Bow down thine ear, O Jehovah, hear 
me, for I am miserable and poor" Psalm Ixxxvi. 1. "The 
wicked have drawn out their sword and have bent their bow, 
to cast down the miserable and poor " Psalm xxxvii. 14. The 
wicked hath " persecuted the miserable and poor, that he might 
even slay the broken in heart," Psalm cix. 16. God will "judge 
the miserable of the people, he shall save the children of the 
poor : he shall deliver the poor when he crieth, the miserable 
also, and him that hath no helper," Psalm Ixxii. 4, 12. Jehovah 
delivereth " the miserable from him that is too strong for him, 
yea the poor and the needy from him that spoileth him," Psalm 
xx"xv. 10. The wicked " deviseth wicked devices to destroy the 
miserable with lying words, even when the poor speaketh right," 
Isaiah xxxii. 7. "The miserable also shall increase their joy i^ 
Jehovah, and the poor among men shall rejoice in the Holy One 
of Israel," Isaiah xxix. 19. " Blessed are the poor in spirit, for 
theirs is the kingdom of heaven," Matt. v. 3. Not to mention 
other passages, as Isaiah x. 2; Jerem. xxii. 16; Ezek. xvi. 49; 
xviii. 12 ; xxii. 29 ; Amos viii. 4 ; Psalm ix. 18 ; Ixix. 32, 33 ; 
Ixxiv. 21 ; cix. 22 ; cxl. 12 ; Dent. xv. 11 ; xxiv. 14; Luke xiv. 
13, 21, 23. By the poor and the needy are chiefly understood 
those who are not in the knowledges of what is good and true, 
ind yet desire them, for by the rich are understood such as are 
uoseessed of the knowledges of things good and true, n. 206. 

210. And Hind and naked, signifies that they are without 
the understanding of truth, and the will of good. By the blind, 
in the Word, are meant those who are without truths, either 
from a defect thereof in the church and so from ignorance, or 
from the want of understanding them ; and by the naked are 
meant those who are without good; for all spiritual good is 
acquired by means of truth. No others are understood by the 
blind in the following places : " In that day shall the deaf hear 
the words of the Book, and the eyes of the blind shall see out 
o f darkness," Isaiah xxix. 18. " Behold, your God will come, 
then the eyes of the blind shall be opened," Isaiah xxxv. 4, 5. 

152 



7. 17, 18.] THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. 211, 212 

"I will give thee for a light of the Gentiles, to open the Hind 
eyes," Isaiah xlii. 6, 7. " I will bring the Wind by a way that 
they knew not, I will make their darkness light," Isaiah xlii. 16. 
"Bring forth the Hind people that have eyes, and the deaf that 
have ears," Isaiah xliii. 8. " His watchmen are Hind, and 
cannot understand," Isaiah Ivi. 10, 11. " He hath Hinded their 
eyes, and hardened their heart, that they should not see with 
their eyes, nor understand with their heart," John xii. 40. 
"Jesus said, For judgment am I come into this world, that 
they which see not might see, and that they which see, might 
be made Hind" John ix. 39. Blind, foolish, infatuated guides, 
Matt, xxiii. 16, 17, 19, 24. "Blind, leaders of the llind? 
Matt. xv. 14 ; Luke vi. 39. By reason of the signification of 
blind and blindness, it was forbid to offer for sacrifice any 
thing that was Hind, Levit. xxi. 18; Deut. xv. 21. That they 
should not cast a stumbling-block before the Hind, Levit. xix. 14. 
That he was cursed who made the Hind to wander out of the 
WAV, Deut. xxvii. 18. Concerning the signification of naked 
ano! nakedness, see below, n. 213. 

211. I counsel thee to buy of me gold tried in the fire, that 
thou mayest be rich, signifies an admonition to acquire to them 
selves the good of love from the Lord by means of the "Word, 
that they may become wise. For to buy signifies to acquire 
to oneself ; of me, signifies of the Lord by the Word ; gold 
signifies good, and gold tried in the fire, the good of celestial 
love ; and to be enriched thereby, signifies to become intelli 
gent and wise. Gold signifies good, because metals in their 
order signify such things as are of good and truth, gold celestial 
and spiritual good, silver the truth of those goods, brass natural 
good, and iron natural truth. These are signified by the metals 
of which the statue of Nebuchadnezzar consisted, whose head 
was of gold, his breast and arms of silver, his belly and thighs 
of brass, his legs iron, his feet part iron and part clay, Dan. ii. 
32, 33 ; by which are represented the successive states of the 
church as to the good of love and the truth of wisdom. From 
this succession of the states of the church, the ancients gave 
similar names to times, calling them ages of gold, silver, brass, 
and iron, and by the golden age they understood the earliest 
times, when the good of celestial love prevailed ; celestial love 
is the love of the Lord from the Lord ; from this love they at 
that time possessed wisdom. That gold signifies the good of 
love may be seen below, n. 913. 

212. And white raiment, that thou mayest be clothed, sig 
nifies that they should acquire to themselves genuine truths of 
wisdom. That raiment or garments signify truths investing 
good, may be seen above, n. 166, and that white is spoken ot 
truths, n. 167, therefore white raiment signifies the genuine 
truths of wisdom, and this, because gold purified in the fire 

153 



213 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. ill. 

signifies the good of ceiestia. .ove, the truths of this Icve being 
genuine truths of wisdom. 

213. That the shame of thy nakedness may not appear, sig 
nifies lest the good of celestial love should be profaned and adul 
terated. ~No one can know what the shame of nakedness signifies, 
unless he knows that the members of generation in both sexes, 
which are also called the genitals, correspond to celestial love. 
That there is a correspondence of man and all his members with 
the heavens, may be seen in the work concerning Heaven and 
Hell, n. 87 102, and that the members of generation correspond 
to celestial love, in The Arcana Codestia, n. 5050 5062. As 
those members correspond to celestial love, which is the love of 
the third or inmost heaven^ and man is born from his parents to 
loves which are opposite to that love, it is evident, that if he does 
not acquire to himself the good of love and the truth of w r isdom 
from the Lord, signified by gold tried in the fire, and white rai 
ment, he will appear in the opposite love, which is profane. This 
is signified by uncovering nakedness and revealing shame, in the 
following places : " Blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his 
garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame, 77 Apoc. 
xvi. 15. "Sit in the dust, O virgin daughter of Babylon and 
of the Chaldeans, uncover thy locks, make bare the leg, uncover 
the thigh, pass over the rivers, thy nakedness shall be uncovered, 
yea thy shame shall be seen," Isaiah xlvii. 1, 2, 3. " Woe to 
the bloody city, because of the multitude of its whoredoms, I 
will discover thy skirts upon thy face, and I will show the nations 
thy nakedness, and the kingdoms thy shame," JSTahum iii. 1, 4, 5. 
" Plead with your mother lest I strip her naked," liosea ii. 2, 3. 
When I passed by thee, I covered thy nakedness / then I 
washed thee, and clothed thee, but thou didst commit whore 
dom, and hast not remembered thy youth,^\ 7 hen thou wast naked 
and bare, therefore is thy nakedness discovered, Ezek. xvi. 6, and 
following verses. "Jerusalem hath grievously sinned, therefore 
all despise her because they have seen her nakedness," Lament. 
i. 8. By Jerusalem, of w r hom these things are said, is understood 
the church, and committing whoredoms signifies to adulterate 
and falsify the Word, n. 134. " Woe unto him that giveth his 
neighbour drink, and maketh him drunken, that thou mayest 
ook on their nakedness ; drink thou also, and let thy foreskin 
De uncovered," Habak. ii. 15, 16. He who knows what naked 
ness signifies, may understand what is signified by Noah s lying 
drunken w r ith wine, and naked, in the midst of his tent, and 
that Ham saw and derided his nakedness / and that Sliern and 
Japhet covered his nakedness, turning away their faces that they 
might not see it, Gen. ix. 21, 22, 23 ; also, why it was commanded 
that Aaron and his sons should not ascend by steps upon the 
altar, lest their nakedness should be discovered, Exod. xx. ?Q ; 
and likewise, that they should " make them linen breeches, to 



V. 18, 19.J THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 214 216 

cover their nakedness," and that they should " be upon them 
when they came near unto the altar, arid that otherwise they 
would bear iniquity and die," Exod. xxviii. 42, 43. By naked 
ness, in these places, are signified the evils to which man is born, 
which, because they are opposite to the good of celestial love, 
are in themselves profane, and are not removed otherwise than 
by means of truths and a life conformable to them ; for linen 
signifies truth, n. 6T1. By nakedness is also signified innocence, 
and likewise ignorance of good and truth : innocence, in the 
following passage : " And they were both naked, the man and 
his wife, and -were not ashamed," Gen. ii. 25. Ignorance of good 
and truth in this : " Is not this the fast that I have chosen ? Is 
it not to deal thy bread to the hungry, and when thou seest 
the naked, that thou cover him ?" Isaiah Iviii. 6, 7. " Hath 
given his bread to the hungry, and hath covered the naked with 
a garment," Ezek. xviii. 7. " I was an hungered, and ye gave 
me meat ; I was naked, and ye clothed me. Matt. xxv. 35, 36. 

214. And anoint thine eyes with eye-salve, that thou mayest 
see, signifies, that their understanding may be healed, lest the 
genuine truths of wisdom should be profaned and falsified. That 
by the eyes is signified the understanding, and by the eye-sight 
intelligence and wisdom, may be seen, n. 48 ; and since by eye- 
Balve a medicine for the same Is signified, it follows that by 
" anoint thine eyes with eye-salve." is signified to heal the un 
derstanding, that it may see and know truths and advance 
thereby in wisdom ; for unless* this is the case, the genuine 
truths of the Word are profaned and adulterated. 

215. As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten, signifies that 
such of them as do so are beloved by the Lord, and that then 
they cannot but be admitted to temptations that they may fight 
aga inst themselves. That this is the sense of these words, is 
evident, for it is said, " As many as I love," by whom are meant 
they who buy of the Lord gold purified in the fire, and who 
anoint their eyes with eye-salve that they may see : it is said, 
" I rebuke and chasten" them, by which is meant temptation 
us to falses and evils ; by rebuking, temptation as to falses, and 
by chastening, temptation as to evils. Such as are here treated 
of, could not but be led into temptations, because, without 
them, negations and confirmations against divine truths could 
not be extirpated. Temptations are spiritual combats against 
the falses and evils in one s self, thus against one s self: what 
temptations are, whence they proceed, and what good they pro 
duce, see the work concerning The New Jerusalem and its 
Heavenly Doctrine, n. 187201. 

216. Be zealous, therefore, and repent, signifies that this 
should be done from the affection of truth, and aversion of what 
is false. It is here said, " Be zealous," because it was said above, 
verse 15, "I would thou wert either cold or hot," here hot, for 

155 



217 219 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. ill. 

zeal is spiritual heat, and spiritual heat is the affection of love, 
in this case the affection of the love of truth, and he who acts 
from the affection of the love of truth, acts also from aversion to 
what is false ; therefore this is signified by repent. Zeal in the 
Word, when applied to the Lord, signifies love, and wrath ; love, 
in John ii. IT ; Psalm Ixix. 10 ; Isaiah xxxvii. 32 ; Ixiii. 15 ; Ezek. 
xxxix. 25 ; Zech. i. 14 ; viii. 2. Wrath, in Deut. xxxii. 16, 21 ; 
Psalm Ixxix. 5, 6 ; Ezek. viii. 18 ; xxiii. 25 ; Zeph. i. 18 ; iii. 8. 
But zeal in the Lord is not wrath, it only appears so in externals ; 
interiorly it is love. It appears so in externals, because the Lord 
seems to be angry when he rebukes man, especially when man s 
own evil punishes him. It is so permitted out of love, that his 
evil may be removed ; just like a parent, who, if he loves his 
children, suffers them to be chastised for the sake of removing 
their evils. Hence it is evident, why Jehovah calls himself 
jealous, Deut. iv. 24; v. 9, 10 ; vi. 14, 15. 

217. Behold, I stand at the door, and ~knock, signifies that 
the Lord is present to every one in the Word, and is there press 
ing to be received, and teaches how. Something similar to this 
is said by the Lord in Luke : " Be ye like unto men that wait 
for their Lord, when he will return from the wedding ; that 
when he cometh and knocketh, they may open unto him imme 
diately" xii. 36. That door signifies admission and entrance, 
may be seen above, n. 176. 

218. If any man hear my voice.) and open the door, signifies 
he who believes in the Word and lives according to it. To hear 
his voice is to believe in the Word, for the divine truth of the 
Word is the voice of Jehovah, n. 37, 50 ; and to open the door 
is to live according to it, because the door is not opened, and the 
Lord received, by barely hearing his voice, but by living accord 
ing to it, for the Lord says, " He that hath my commandments, 
and keepeth them, I will manifest myself to him, and we will 
come unto him, and make our abode with him," John xiv. 21 
24. That man ought to open the door as from himself, by 
shunning evils as sins, and doing good, is shown in The Doctrine 
of Life for the New Jerusalem ; and that this is the case, is also 
evident from the Lord s words here, " If any man open ;" as also 
from his words in Luke xii. 36. 

219. I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he 
with me, signifies that the Lord joins himself with them and 
them with himself. To come in and sup with him, signifies to 
join himself to him, and, since there must be reciprocation that 
there may be conjunction, it is also said, " and he with me." 
That to be conjoined is signified by coming in and supping, 
appears from the Holy Supper instituted by the Lord, by means 
of which the Lord s presence is effected with those who hear hia 
voice, that is, who believe in the Word, but his conjunction with 
those who live according to the Word : to live according to the 

156 






V. 19 21.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 220 222 

Word is to do the work of repentance, and to believe in the 
Lord. To sup, and the Lord s supper, are mentioned, because 
supper takes place in the evening, and by the evening is signi 
fied the last time of the church ; therefore when the Lord do 
parted out of the world, the last time of the church being then 
arrived, he supped with his disciples, and instituted the sacrament 
of the supper. That evening signifies the end of the old church, 
and morning the beginning of the new, may be seen above, n. 13 

220. To him that overcometh, signifies such as are in con 
junction with the Lord by a life conformable to his precepts in 
the Word, as is evident from what has been said above. 

221. Will I give to sit with me in my throne, signifies that 
they will have conjunction with the Lord in heaven. That 
the Lord s throne is heaven, may be seen above, n. 14, there 
fore to sit with the Lord in his throne, signifies conjunction 
with him in heaven. 

222. Even as 1 also overcame, and am set down with my 
Father in his throne, signifies in like manner as he and the 
Father are one, and are heaven. That the Father and the Lord 
are one, is fully shown in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem 
concerning the Lord, and elsewhere. That heaven is not heaven 
from any property of the angels, but from the divine [principle] 
of the Lord, which is in the angels and about them, therefore by 
these words, in like manner as I " am set down with iny Father 
in his throne," is signified like as he and the Father are one, and 
are heaven ; throne signifies heaven, n. 14, 221. " Even as I 
also overcame," signifies that by temptations admitted into his 
human nature, and by the last of them, which was the passion 
of the cross, as also by the fulfilling of every thing in the Word, he 
overcame the hells and glorified his Humanity, that is, he united 
it to the Divinity which was in him by conception, and is called 
Jehovah the Father, on which subject see the above mentioned 
Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord, n. 8 11 ; 
n. 12 14; n. 29 36, and also above, n. 67. The reason why 
the Lord says, " To him that overcometh will I give to sit with 
me in my throne, even as I also overcame, and am set down with 
my Father in his throne," is, because the union of the Lord with 
the Father, that is, with the divinity within himself, took place, 
to the end that it might be possible for man to be joined to the 
divinity which is called the Father in the Lord ; because it is 
impossible for man to have conjunction with the divinity of the 
Father immediately, but only mediately through his Divine 
Humanity, which is the divine natural [principle] ; therefore the 
Lord says : " No man hath seen God at any time ; the only-be 
gotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath mani 
fested him" John i. 18 ; and in another place : " I am the way, 
the truth, and the life, no one cometh to the Father, but by me" 
John xiv. 6. The Lord s conjunction with man is by means 

157 



223, 224 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. iii. 

of his divine truth, and this in man is of the Lord, thus the 
Lord, ani by no means man s, consequently is not man: man, 
indeed, feels it as his own, but still it is not his, for it is not 
united to him, but adjoined ; not so the Father s divinity, this 
is not adjoined but united! to the Lord s Humanity, as the soul 
is to its body. He who understands these things, may under 
stand the following words of the Lord : " He that abideth in 
me and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit, for with 
out me ye can do nothing," John xv. 5. " At that day ye shall 
know that I am in my Father, and you in me, and I in you" 
John xiv. 20; and these: "Sanctify them through thy truth; 
thy Word is truth ; for their sakes 1 sanctify myself, that they 
also might be sanctified through the truth : that they all may 
be one, as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also 
may be one in us I in them and thou in me" John xvii. 17, 
19, 21, 23. 

223. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith 
unto the churches, signifies that he who understands, ought to 
obey what the divine truth of the Word teaches those who are 
to be of the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem, as above, 
n. 87. 

224. To this I shall add the following Memorable Relation. 
I saw a number of spirits assembled, all upon their knees, pray 
ing to God to send his angels, that they might converse with 
them face to face, and open to them the thoughts of their hearts. 
And when they arose, there appeared three angels in white linen 

garments, standing before them, and they said, The Lord Jesus 
hrist has heard your prayers, and has therefore sent us to you ; 
open unto us the thoughts of your hearts. And they answered, We 
have been told by our priests, that in matters of a theological 
nature the understanding avails nothing, but only faith, and that 
in such things intellectual faith is of no service to any one, be 
cause it is derived from man. We are Englishmen, and have 
heard many things from our holy priesthood, which we believed ; 
but when we have conversed with others, who also called them 
selves the reformed, and with others who called themselves Ro 
man Catholics, and likewise with sectaries, they all appeared to 
us learned, and yet, in many things, one did not agree with an 
other, and still they all said, " Believe us ;" and some of them, 
" We are God s ministers, and know." But as we know that 
the divine truths, which are called truths of faith, and which 
appertain to the church, are not derived to any one from his 
native soil, nor by inheritance, but out of heaven from God; 
and as these show the way to heaven, and enter into the life 
together with the good of charity, and so lead to eternal life, we 
became anxious, and prayed to God upon our knees. Then an 
swered the angels, Read the Word, and believe in the Lord, and 
you will see the truths which should constitute your faith and 
.158 



V. 21, 22.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALFD. . 224 

life ; for all in the Christian world draw their doctrinals from the 
Word as the only fountain. But two of the company said, We 
have read, but did not understand ; and the angels replied, You 
did not approach the Lord, and you have besides confirmed your 
selves in falses ; and added, What is faith without light, and what 
signifies thinking without understanding ? there is nothing hu 
man in it ; even magpies and ravens can learn to speak without 
understanding. We can affirm to you, that every man, whose 
eoul desires it, is capable of seeing the truths of the Word in 
the light ; there does not exist an animal that does not know 
the food proper to its life when it sees it, and man is a rational 
and spiritual animal, who sees the food of his life, not that of 
his body, but of his soul, which is the truth of faith, provided 
indeed he hungers after it, and seeks it of the Lord ; whatsoever 
is not received also in the understanding, is not fixed in the 
memory in reality, but only verbally ; therefore, when we have 
looked down out of heaven in the world, we have not seen any 
thing, but have only heard sounds, that are for the most part 
dissonant. But we will enumerate some things which the 
learned among the clergy have removed from the understand 
ing, not knowing that there are two ways to the understanding, 
one from the world, and the other from heaven, and that the 
Lord withdraws the understanding from the world when he 
illuminates it ; but if the understanding be closed by religion, 
the way into it from heaven is closed^ and then man sees no 
more in the Word than a blind person : we have seen many 
such fall into pits, out of which they have never risen again. 
Examples must serve for illustration : are you not able to un 
derstand what charity is, and what faith is ; that charity consists 
in doing well by your neighbour, and that faith consists in 
thinking well of God and of the essentials of the church, and 
therefore that he who does well and thinks well, that is, who 
lives well and believes well, will be saved ? They replied, that 
these things they did understand. Then said the angels, Do 
you not understand, that repentance from sins is to be per 
formed, in order that man maybe saved, and that, unless a man 
actually repents, he abides in the sins into which he was born, 
and that the work of repentance consists in not willing evils 
because they are against God, and in examining himself once 
or twice a year, in seeing his evils, in confessing them before 
the Lord, imploring assistance, desisting from them, and leading 
a new life, and as far as he does this, and believes in the Lord, 
so far his sins are remitted ? Then some of the company re 
plied, This we understand, and thence also what remission of 
sins is. And then they solicited the angels to give them fur 
ther information, and especially concerning God, the immor 
tality of the soul, regeneration, and baptism. To this tho 
angels replied, We will not say any thing but what you can 
159 



224 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Cliap. ill. 

understand, else our discourse will fall like rain upon sand, and 
upon the seed therein, which, notwithstanding its being watered 
from heaven, would pine and perish. Concerning GOD they 
said, All who come into heaven have their place allotted them 
there, and thence everlasting joy, according to their idea of 
God, because this idea reigns universally in every particular of 
r worship ; the idea of an invisible God is not determined to any 
god, nor does it terminate in any, therefore it ceases and per 
ishes ; the idea of God as a spirit, when a spirit is thought of as 
ether or air, is an empty idea ; but the idea of God as a man is 
a Just idea, for God is divine love and divine wisdom, with 
every quality belonging thereto, and the subject of these is 
man, and not ether or wind. The idea of God in heaven is the 
idea of the Lord, he being the God of heaven and earth, as he 
himself taught ; let your idea of God be like unto ours, and we 
shall be consociated together. On saying these words, their 
faces became resplendent. Concerning the IMMORTALITY OF THE 
SOUL, they said, Man lives to eternity, because he is capable of 
being conjoined with God by love and faith, this indeed is pos 
sible with every one ; that this possibility constitutes the im 
mortality of the soul you may understand, provided you think 
of it with a little elevation of mind. Concerning REGENERA 
TION ; who d oes not see that every one is at liberty to think of 
God, or not to think of him, provided he be instructed that 
there is a God ; so that every one has liberty in spiritual things, 
equally as in things civil and moral ; the Lord gives this liberty 
to all continually ; for which reason he becomes guilty, if he 
does not think of God ; man is man by virtue of this possibility ; 
but a beast is a beast from not having this possibility ; there 
fore man is capable of reforming and regenerating himself as 
from himself, provided lie acknowledges in his heart that he 
does it from the Lord : every one who does the work of repent 
ance, and believes in the Lord, is reformed and regenerated ; 
man must do both as from himself, but as from himself is from 
the Lord. It is true that man cannot contribute any thing 
thereto, no not in the least, nevertheless you were not created 
Btatues, but you were created men, that you might do that from 
the Lord as from yourselves ; this is the only reciprocation of 
love and faith, that it is altogether the Lord s will that it should 
be done by man unto him: in a word, do it from yourselves, 
and believe that you do it from the Lord, thus do it as from 
yourselves. But then the English inquired, Whether to act as 
from oneself, is a faculty implanted in man from creation ? 
The angel answered, It is not implanted or inherent, because to 
act from himself is of the Lord alone, but it is communicated 
continually, that is, adjoined continually, and then so far as 
man does good and believes what is true, as from himself, so far 
he is an angel of heaven ; but so far as he does evil and thence 
160 









Chap, ill.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 22i 

believes what is false, which is done also as from himself, so far 
lie is an angel of hell : that this also is as from himself sur 
prises you, but still you see that it is so, when you pray that yon 
may be preserved from the devil, lest he should seduce you., and 
enter into you, as he did into Judas, fill you with all iniquity, 
and destroy you, soul and body. But every one incurs guilt 
who believes that he acts from himself, whether it be good, or 
whether it be evil; but he does not incur guilt, who believes 
that he acts as from himself. Concerning BAPTISM, they said, 
That it is spiritual washing, which is reformation and regenera 
tion, and that an infant is reformed and regenerated, when, on 
becoming an adult, he does the things which his sponsors prom 
ised for him, which are two, repentance and faith in God ; 
for in the first place they promise that he shall renounce the 
devil and all his works ; aud secondly, that he shall believe in 
God. All infants in heaven are initiated into these two things, 
but with them the devil is hell, and God is the Lord : moreover 
baptism is a sign before tho angels that a man is of the church. 
On hearing these things, s^ine of the assembly said, This we 
understand. But a voice wns heard from one side, exclaiming, 
"We do not understand ; and another voice, We will not under 
stand ; and inquiry was made from whence these voices pro 
ceeded, and it was found that they came from those who had 
confirmed themselves in falses of faith, and who wanted to be 
believed as oracles, and thus to be adored. Upon which the 
angels said, Be not surprised : there are a great many such at 
this day ; they appear to us from heaven like images, made 
w r ith so much art as to be able to move their lips, and uttei 
sounds like organs, but without knowing whether the breath, by 
means of which they utter these sounds, comes from hell or from 
heaven, because they do not know whether a thing be false or 
true ; they reason over and over p^ain ; they confirm over and 
over again without ever seeing whether it is so. But know, 
that human ingenuity can confirm whatsoever it pleases, so that 
it shall appear to be really true, therefore heretics and impious 
persons can do this, yea atheists can prove that there is no God, 
but only nature. Afterwards tho assembly of Englishmen, 
being warmed with the desire of acquiring wisdom, said to the 
angels, So many different sentiments are entertained of the 
Holy Supper, tell us what is the trutti ? The angels replied, 
The truth is that the man who looks vo the. Lord and performs 
repentance, is conjoined with the Lori? by means of that most 
holy rite, and introduced into heaven. Cut some of the com 
pany said, This is a mystery. To wh\:v the angels replied, 
It is a mystery, but nevertheless it is such a one as may be un 
derstood. The bread and wine do not produce this effect, for 
there is nothing holy in them, but material bread and heavenly 
bread correspond mutually to each other, and so do material 
161 L 



THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. IV, 

wine and heavenly wine, and heavenly bread is the holy [prin 
ciple] of love, and heavenly wine is the holy [principle] of 
faith, both from the Lord, and both the Lord ; thence there is a 
conjunction of the Lord with man, and of man with the Lord, 
not with the bread and wine, but with the love and faith of the 
man who had done the work of repentance; and conjunction 
with the Lord is also introduction into heaven. And after the 
angels had given them some instruction concerning corre 
spondence and its effects, some of the company said, Now for 
tne first time do we understand. And when they said, We 
understand, behold a flame-coloured band, descending with 
light from heaven, consociated them with the angels, and their 
love for one another was mutual. 



CHAPTER IY. 

1. AFTER this I looked, and behold a door opened in hea 
ven. And the first voice which I heard, as it were of a trum 
pet talking with me, said, Come up hither, and I will show 
thee things which must be hereafter. 

2. And immediately I w r as in the spirit. And, behold, a 
throne was set in heaven, and one sat on the throne. 

3. And he that sat was to look upon like a jasper and a 
sardine stone ; and there was a rainbow round about the throne 
in sight like unto an emerald. 

4. And round about the throne were four-and-twenty 
thrones; and upon the thrones I saw four-and-twenty elders 
sitting, clothed in white raiment ; and they had on their heads 
crowns of gold. 

5. And out of the throne proceeded lightnings, and thun- 
derings, and voices : and there were seven lamps of fire burn 
ing before the throne, which are the seven spirits of God. 

6. And before the throne there was a sea of glass like unto 
crystal : and in the midst of the throne and round about the 
throne, were four animals full of eyes before and behind. 

7. And the first animal was like a lion, and the second 
animal like a calf, and the third animal had a face as a man 
and the fourth animal was like a flying eagle. 

8. And the four animals had each of them six wings about 
him ; and they were full of eyes within ; and they rest not day 
and night, saying, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, who 
was, and who is, and who is to come. 

9. And when the animals give glory, and honour, and thanks 
to Him that sat on the throne, who liveth for ever and ever, 

10. The four-and-twentv elders fall down before Him thai 
162 



Chap, IV.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 

sat on the throne, and worship Him that liveth for ever and 
ever, and cast their crowns before the throne, saying, 

11. Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory, and honour, 
and power, for thou hast created all things, and by thy will 
they are an.d were created. 



THE SPIRITUAL SENSE. 

THE CONTENTS OF THE WHOLE CHAPTER. The subject treated 
of is concerning the ordination and preparation of all things in 
heaven for judgment, to be executed from, and according to, 
tha Word ; likewise concerning the acknowledgment, that the 
Lord is the only judge. 

THE CONTENTS OF EACH VERSE, v. 1, " After this I looked, 
and behold a door opened in heaven," signifies a manifestation 
of the ordination of the heavens preparatory to the last judg 
ment from the Lord, about to be performed according to his 
divine truths in the Word : "And the first voice which I heard, 
as it were of a trumpet talking with me, said, Come up 
hither," signifies divine influx, and thence an elevation of the 
mind, followed by manifest perception : " And I will show thee 
things which must be hereafter," signifies revelations of things 
to come before the last judgment, and at it, and after it : v. 2, 
u And immediately I was in the spirit," signifies that he was 
let into ct spiritual state, in which the things which exist in 
heaven manifestly appear: "And, behold, a throne was set in 
heaven," signifies a representation of judgment: "And one 
<at on the throne," signifies the Lord : v. 3, "And he that sat 
was to look upon like a jasper and a sardine stone," signifies 
the appearance of the Lord s divine wisdom and divine love in 
ultimates : " And there was a rainbow round about the throne 
in sight like unto an emerald," signifies the appearance of the 
same also round about the Lord : v. 4, " And round about the 
throne were four-and-twenty thrones, and upon the thrones 
I saw four-and-twenty elders sitting," signifies the ordination 
of all things in heaven preparatory to the judgment : " Clothed 
in white raiment," signifies from the divine truth of the Word : 
"And they had on their heads crowns of gold," signifies the 
things which are of wisdom derived from love: v. 5, " And out 
of the throne proceeded lightnings, and thunderings, and 
voices," signifies illumination, perception, and instruction from 
the Lord : " And there were seven lamps of fire burning before 
the throne, which are the seven spirits of God," signifies a new 
heaven from among Christians : v. 6, "And before the throne 
there was a sea of glass like unto crystal," signifies the new 
163 



225 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [CllUp. IV 

heaven composed of Christians, who are in general truths, 
derived from the literal sense of the Word : " And in the 
midst of the throne, and round about the throne, there were 
four animals," signifies the Word of God from its first princi 
ples to its ultimates, and its defences : "Full of eyes before and 
behind," signifies the divine wisdom therein: v. 7, "And the 
iirst animal was like a lion," signifies the divine truth of the 
Word as to its power: "And me second animal like a calf," 
signifies the divine truth of the Word as to affection : " And 
the third animal had a face as a man," signifies the divine truth 
of the Word as to its wisdom : " And the fourth animal was like 
a flying eagle," signifies the divine truth of the Word as to know 
ledge and thence understanding: v. 8, "And the four animals 
had each of them six wings about him," signifies the Word as 
to its powers and as to its defences : "And they were full of 
eyes within," signifies the divine wisdom in the Word in its 
natural sense, derived from its spiritual and celestial sense: 
" And they rest not day and night, saying, Holy, holy, holy, 
Lord God Almighty," signifies that the Word continually 
teaches of the Lord, and that lie is the only God, and thence 
that he alone is to be worshipped : "Who was, and who is, and 
who is to come," signifies the Lord : v. 9, " And when the 
animals give glory, and honour, and thanks to him that sat on 
the throne," signifies that the Word ascribes all truth, and all 
good, and all worship to the Lord the jndge : "Who liveth for 
ever and ever," signifies that the Lord alone is life, and that 
life eternal is from him alone : v. 10, " The four-and-twenty 
elders fall down before him that sat on the throne, and worship 
him that liveth for ever and ever," signifies the humiliation of 
all in heaven before the Lord : " And cast their crowns before 
the throne," signifies an acknowledgment that their wisdom is 
from him alone: v. 11, "Saying, Thou art worthy, O Lord, 
to receive glory, and honour, and power," signifies that the 
kingdom is the Lord s by merit and justice, because he is the 
divine truth and the divine good: "For thou hast created all 
things, and by thy will they are, and w r ere created," signifies 
that all things of heaven and the church were made and formed, 
and men reformed and regenerated from the Lord s divine love 
by his divine wisdom, or from his divine good by his divine 
truth, which also is the Word, 



THE EXPLANATION. 

225. After this I looked, and Behold a door opened in 
hmven, signifies a manifestation of the ordination of the hea 
vens preparatory to the last judgment from the Lord, about 

164: 



I, 2.J THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 226 228 

to be performed according to liis divine truths in the Word. 
By an open door, when it relates to heaven, is signified admis 
sion, as above, n. 176 ; here, also, manifestation, because he 
says, "I looked and behold ;" and because then were seen the 
things which are recorded in this chapter, which refer to the 
ordination of the heavens preparatory to the last judgment, 
about to be performed from the Lord according to his divine 
truths m the Word, therefore by " I looked, and behold a door 
opened in heaven," is signified a manifestation concerning them. 

226. And the first voice which I heard, as it were of a 
trumpet talking with me, said, Come up hither, signifies divine 
influx, and thence an elevation of the mind, followed by mani 
fest perception. That a voice, when heard from heaven, is 
influent divine truth, may be seen above, n. 37, 50, thus divine 
influx ; and that by a voice as it were of a trumpet, is signified 
manifest perception, may also be seen above, n. 37 ; and by 
u Come up hither," is signified elevation of the mind ; for in 
the spiritual world, the higher any one ascends so much the 
more does he come into purer light, by which the understand 
ing is gradually opened, that is, the mind is elevated ; therefore 
it also follows, that he was then in the spirit, by which is meant 
that he was let into a spiritual state, in which the things which 
are in the heavens manifestly appear. The voice was heard as 
it were a trumpet, because the subject treated of is the ordina 
tion of the heavens preparatory to the last judgment ; and voices 
as of a trumpet are heard in heaven, when convocations and 
ordinations take pjace ; therefore among the children of Israel 
with whom all things were representative of heaven and the 
church, it was also commanded, That they should make trum 
pets of silver, and that the sons of Aaron should blow with 
them for the calling of assemblies, and for the journeying of th* 
camps, in days of rejoicing, in festivals, in the beginnings of 
months, over burnt offerings, for a memorial, and going to war, 
Numb. x. 1 11. But we shall speak of trumpets, and of sound 
ing them, in the explanation of chap, viii., where the seven 
angels are mentioned, to whom were given seven trumpets. 

227. And I will show thee things which must be hereafter^ 
signifies revelations of things to come before the last judgment, 
and at it, and after it. These things are signified, because in 
the Apocalypse nothing else is treated of but the state of the 
church at its end, thus the things to come to pass before the 
last judgment, and at it, and after it, as above explained, n. 2. 

228. And immediately I was in the spirit, signifies that he 
was let into a spiritual state, in which the things which exist in 
heaven manifestly appear. That to be in the spirit is to be let 
into a spiritual state by divine influx, as also what the nature 
of a spiritual state is, and that a man in that state sees as mani 
festly the things which are in the spiritual world, as in the 

165 



229 231 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Ctuip. iv. 

natural state of the body he sees the things which are in this 
world, may be seen above, 11. 36. 

229. And, behold, a throne was set, signifies a representation 
of judgment. That a throne signifies heaven may be seen, 
u. 14 ; that a throne also signifies judgment, is evident from 
the following places : "When the Son of Man shall come in his 
glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit on the 
throne of his glory," Matt. xxv. 31, and following verses; 
where the last judgment is treated of. Jehovah, " thou hast 
maintained my cause, thou sattest in the throne judging right. 
Jehovah hath prepared his throne for judgment," Psalm ix. 4, 7. 
"I beheld, and the Ancient of Days did sit, his throne was 
like the fiery flame, thousand thousands ministered unto him, 
and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him ; the 
judgment was set, and the books were opened," Dan. vii. 9, 10. 
" Jerusalem is builded as a city, whither the tribes go up for 
there sit thrones of judgment," Psalm cxxii. 3 5. u lsaw 
thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto 
them," Apoc. xx. 4. The throne built by Solomon, of which 
mention is made, 1 Kings x. 18 20, signified both royalty 
and judgment, because kings, when they executed judgment, sat 
upon thrones. It is said that a throne signifies a representation 
of judgment, because the things which John saw were visions 
which represented ; they were seen as he has described them, 
but they were forms representative of things to come, as may 
appear from what follows ; as that there were seen animals, a 
dragon, a beast, a temple, a tabernacle, an ark, and many other 
things. Similar were the things seen by the prophets, which 
are mentioned above, n. 36. 

230. And one sat on the throne, signifies the Lord, as ap 
pears manifestly from what follows, and from passages in the 
Word where it is said that the Lord will execute judgment, as 
in Matt. xxv. 32, 33, and following verses ; John v. 22, 27 ; and 
elsewhere. 

231. And he that sat was to look upon like a jasper and 
sardine stone, signifies the appearance of the Lord s divine 
wisdom and divine love in ultirnates. A stone, in the Word, 
signifies truth in ultirnates, and a precious stone, truth trans 
parent from good, n. 915. There are two colours fundamental 
of the rest in the spiritual world, red and white; white derives 
its origin from the light of the sun in heaven, thus from spir 
itual light, which is white ; and red derives its origin from the 
fire of the sun there, thus from celestial light, which is flame- 
coloured. The spiritual angels, being in truths of wisdom from 
the Lord, are in that white light, therefore they are clothed in 
white ; and the celestial angels, being in the good of love from 
the Lord, are in that flame-coloured light, therefore they are 
clothed in red; thence those two colours obtain also in precious 

166 



V. 2 4.] THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. 232, 233 

stones in heaven, where they are in great abundance. This is 
the reason why precious stones, in the Word, signify such things 
as are of the truth of wisdom, or of the good of love, and that 
a jasper, because it is white, signifies the things which are of 
the truth of wisdom, and a sardine stone, because it is red, the 
things which are of the good of love. These stones signify the 
appearance of the divine wisdom and the divine love in ultimates, 
because all precious stones in heaven derive their origin from the 
ultimates of the Word, and their transparency from the spir 
itual sense within those ultimates : that this is the case, may 
be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the 
Sacred Scripture, n. 44, 45. The ultimates of the Word are 
the truths and goods of its literal sense. That this is the origin 
of precious stones in heaven is difficult to be believed by any 
one in our world, because he does not know that all the things 
which exist in the spiritual world are correspondences, and that 
from thence all the things which exist in the natural world 
derive their spiritual origin. That this is the origin of precious 
L:ones in heaven has been permitted me to know from discourse 
with angels, and also to see it with my eyes, but the formation 
of them is from the Lord alone. But black colours, which are 
also two in number, derive their origin from hell ; one in oppo 
sition to white, this blackness being with those who have falsi 
fied the truths of the Word ; the other in opposition to red, 
this blackness being with those who have adulterated the good 
of the Word ; the latter blackness is diabolical, but the former 
satanical. The signification of the jasper and sardine stone may 
be seen in the explanation of chap. xxi. 11, 18 20. 

232. And there was a rainbow round about the throne in 
sight like unto an emerald, signifies the appearance of the same 
also round about the Lord. In the spiritual world there appear 
rainbows of many kinds, some of various colours, as upon earth, 
and some of one colour only : here of one colour only, because 
it is said like unto an emerald. This appearance was round 
about the Lord, because it is said round about the throne ; 
round about him is also in the heaven of angels. The divine 
sphere which surrounds the Lord is from his divine love, and at 
the same time from his divine wisdom, which, when it is repre 
sented in the heavens, appears in the celestial kingdom red like 
a ruby, in the spiritual kingdom blue like the lazule stone, in 
the natural kingdom green like the emerald ; everywhere with 
ineffable splendour and effulgence. 

233. And round about the throne were four-and-twenty 
thrones, and upon the thrones Isawfour-and twenty elders sit 
ting, signifies the ordination of all things in heaven prepara 
tory to the last judgment. He who is ignorant of the spiritual 
sense of the Word, and at the same time of the genuine truths of 
the church, may suppose, that when the last judgment takes 

167 



234, 235 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. IV 

place, the Lord will sit upon a throne, and that there will be 
other judges also upon thrones around him ; but he who is ac 
quainted with the spiritual sense of the Word, and at the same 
time with the genuine truths of the church, knows that the 
Lord will not sit upon a throne, and that neither will there be 
other judges about him ; and further, that neither will the Lord 
judge any one to hell, but that the Word will judge every one, 
the Lord himself directing that all things shall be done accord 
ing to justice ; the Lord says, indeed, "The Father judgeth no 
man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son, and hath 
given him authority to execute judgment, because he is the Son 
of Man," John v. 22, 27; but in another place he says, "I 
came not to judge the w r orld, but to save the world ; the "Word 
that I have spoken, the same shall judge him in the last day," 
John xii. 47, 48 : these two passages agree, when it is known 
that the Son of Man is the Lord as to the Word, see above, n. 
44 ; therefore the Word will judge, under the Lord s direction. 
That by the twelve tribes of Israel and their elders are signified 
all who are of the Lord s church in the heavens and upon the 
earths, and, abstractedly, all the truths and goods therein, may 
be seen, n. 251, 349, 369, 808; and the same by the apostles, n. 
79, 790, 903 ; hence it is plain what is signified by these words 
of the Lord : " Jesus said unto his disciples, -ye which have 
followed me, when the Son of Man shall sit in the throne of 
his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones judging the 
twelve tribes of Israel," Matt. xix. 28 ; Luke xxii. 30. Twelve 
signifies all, and is predicated of the truths and goods of heaven 
and the church, n. 348; the same is signified by twenty-four; 
therefore the twelve apostles and the twenty-four elders signify 
all things of the church ; and twelve, as also four-and-twenty 
thrones, signify the all of judgment. Who cannot understand, 
that the apostles and elders will not judge ; and that neither 
are they able ? From these considerations it may appear why 
thrones and elders are mentioned when the judgment is treated 
of; as also in Isaiah : " Jehovah will enter into judgment with 
the ancients of his people," iii. 14. In David: "Jerusalem is 
builded as a city, whither the tribes go up, for there are set 
thrones tf judgment" Psalm cxxii. 3, 4, 5. And in the Apo 
calypse: U I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, &ud judg 
ment was given unto them," xx. 4. 

234. Clothed in white raiment, signifies from the divine 
truth of the Word. That white garments signify genuine truths 
of the Word, may be seen above, n. 166, 212. 

235. And they had on their heads crowns of gold, signifies 
such things as are of w r isdom derived from love. That a crown 
signifies wisdom, may be seen above, n. 189; and that gold sig 
nifies the good of love, n. 211, 913 ; hence a crown of gold sig 
nifies wisdom derived from love. As from this wisdom are 

168 



V. 4, O.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 236, 237 

derived all the things of heaven and the church, which are sig 
nified by the four-and-twenty elders, n. 233 ; therefore crowns 
of gold were seen upon their heads. It is to be observed, that 
the spiritual sense is here abstracted from persons, as well as 
above, n. 78, 79, 96. 

236. And out of the throne proceeded lightnings, and thun 
derings, and voices, signifies illumination, perception, and in 
struction from the Lord. Lightnings, by reason of the flash 
which strikes the eyes, signify illumination, and thunderings, by 
reason of the noise which affects the ears, signify perception, and 
when these two signify illumination and perception, then voices 
signify instruction. These were seen to proceed from the throne, 
because they proceed from the Son of Man, or the Lord as the 
Word, and from the Lord through the Word comes all illumi 
nation, perception, and instruction. Lightnings, thunderings, 
and voices, have a similar signification in other parts of the 
Word, as in these places : "Thou hast with thine arm redeemed 
thy people, the skies sent out a sound, the voice of thy thunder 
was in the heavens, the lightnings lightened the world," Psalm 
Ixxvii. 15, 17, 18. " The lightnings of Jehovah enlightened the 
world," Psalm xcvii. 3, 4. "Thou calledst in trouble, and I 
delivered thee, I answered thee in the secret place of thunder" 
Psalm Ixxxi. 7. " I heard as it were the voice of a great mul 
titude, and the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Halleluia; 
for the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth," Apoc. xix. 6. As by 
lightnings, and thunderings, and voices, are signified illumi 
nation, perception, and instruction, therefore when Jehovah 
descended upon Mount Sinai, and promulgated the law, there 
were lightnings and voices, Exod. xix. 16. And when there 
came to the Lord a voice out of heaven, it was heard as thunder, 
John xii. 28, 29. And because James and John represented 
charity and its works, and from these is derived all perception 
of what is true and good, they were called by the Lord, Boa 
nerges, that is, Sons of Thunder, Mark iii. 17. Hence it is evi 
dent, that lightnings, thunderings, and voices, have a similar 
signification in the following passages in the Apocalypse : I 
heard one of the four animals, u as it were a voice of thunder" 
vi. 1. "I heard a voice from heaven, as the voice of a great 
thunder" xiv. 2. When the angel cast the censer upon the 
earth, " there were voices, and thunderings, and lightnings" 
viii. 5. When the angel cried, " seven thunders uttered their 
voices," x. 3, 4. When the temple of God was opened in heaven, 
there were lightnings, and voices, and thunderings" xi. 19 : 
and the same in other places. 

237. And there were seven lamps of fire burning before tJu 
throne, which are the seven spirits of God, signifies a new heaven 
from the Lord through the divine truth proceeding from him. 
Here bv seven lamps the same is signified as by the seven 

169 



238 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap, iv 

candlesticks, and also by the seven stars above. That by the 
seven candlesticks is meant a new church upon earth, which 
will be in illumination from the Lord, may be seen above, n. 
43, and by the seven stars, a new church in the heavens, n. 
65 ; and whereas the church is a church from the divine [prin 
ciple] which proceeds from the Lord, which is divine truth, 
and is called the Holy Spirit, therefore it is said, which are the 
seven spirits of God. That by the seven spirits of God is signi 
fied that proceeding divine [principle], may be seen above, n. 
14, 155. 

238. And before the throne there was a sea of glass like, unto 
crystal, signifies the new heaven composed of Christians who 
are in general truths derived from the literal sense of the Word. 
In the spiritual world there appear atmospheres, and also waters, 
like as in our world ; the atmospheres, in which the angels of 
the supreme heaven dwell, are as it were ethereal ; the atmos 
pheres, in which the angels of the middle heaven dwell, are as 
it were aerial; and the atmospheres, in which the angels of the 
ultimate heaven dwell, are as it were aqueous or watery ; and 
these last are the seas which appear at the boundaries of heaven, 
where they dwell who are in the truths of a general kind de 
rived from the literal sense of the Word. That waters signify 
truths, may be seen above, n. 50 ; hence the sea, in which 
waters terminate and are collected, signifies divine truth in its 
boundaries. Since, therefore, by Him that sat on the throne is 
understood the Lord, n. 230, and by the seven lamps, which 
are the seven spirits of God before the throne, is understood 
the New Church, which will be in divine truth from the Lord, 
n. 237, it is evident that, by the sea of glass which was before 
the throne, is understood the church among those who are at 
the boundaries. It has also been permitted me to see the seas 
which bound the heavens, and to converse with those who were 
therein, and thus to know the truth of this matter from expe 
rience ; they seemed to me to be in the sea, but they said that 
they were not in the sea, but in an atmosphere ; from which it 
was manifest to me, that the sea is an appearance of the divine 
proceeding from the Lord in its boundaries. That there are 
seas in the spiritual world, is fully evident from their having 
been seen by John frequently, as well here as in chap. v. 13 ; 
vii. 13; viii. 8, 9; x. 2, 8 ; xii. 12 ; xiii. 1 ; xiv. 7; xv. 2 ; 
xvi. 3; xviii. 17, 19, 21; xx. 13. It is described as a sea of 
glass like unto crystal, from the lucidity of the divine truth pro 
ceeding from the Lord. Because divine truth at its boundaries 
causes the appearance of a sea in the spiritual world, therefore 
sea, in other parts of the Word, has a similar signification, as in 
these places : " And it shall be in that day, that living waters 
shall go out from Jerusalem, half of them toward the former 
sea, and half of them toward the hinder sea" Zech. xiv. 8. 
170 



V. 5, 6.] THE APOCALYPSE EEVEALED. 239 

Living waters from Jerusalem, are divine truths of the church 
from the Lord, therefore the sea is where they terminate. "Thy 
way, [O Jehovah,] is in the sea, and thy path in the great 
waters" Psalm Ixxvii. 19. "Thus saith Jehovah, which maketh 
a way in the sea, and a path in the mighty waters" Isaiah xliii. 
16. Jehovah hath laid the foundations of the world " upon 
the seas, and established it upon the floods" Psalm xxiv. 2. 
Jehovah hath " laid the foundations of the earth that it should 
not be removed for ever. Thou coveredst it with the deep [or 
fea] as with a garment," Psalm civ. 5, 6. The foundations of 
the earth being laid upon the sea, denotes that the church, 
which is meant by the earth, is founded upon common or gen 
eral truths ; for these are its bases and foundations. " And I 
will dry up the sea [of Babylon] and make her springs dry, 
she is covered with the multitude of the waves" Jerem. li. 36, 
42. Drying up the sea of Babylon and making her springs 
dry, signifies to extinguish every truth of its church from first 
principles to last. " They shall walk after Jehovah, then the 
children shall tremble from the sea" Hosea xi. 10. Children 
from the sea are they who are in general or ultimate truths. 
" Jehovah whobuildeth his stories in the heavens, and calleth 
for the waters of the sea, and poureth them out upon the face 
of the earth," Amos ix. 6. "By the Word of Jehovah were 
the heavens made, he gathereth the waters of the sea together 
as a heap, he layeth up the depths in storehouses," Psalm xxxiii. 
6, 7. " At my rebuke I dry up the sea, I make the rivers a 
wilderness," Isaiah 1. 2: besides other places. As by sea is 
signified divine truth with those who are in the borders of hea 
ven, therefore by Tyre and Zidon, from their being by the sea 
side, is signified the church as to the knowledges of things ffood 
and true ; and also by the isles of the sea are signified those 
who are in a more remote kind of divine worship, n. 34 : and 
therefore the sea, in the Hebrew language, is called the west, 
that is, where the light of the sun declines towards evening, or 
truth into obscurity. That sea also signifies the natural de 
gree of man separated from the spiritual, thus also hell, will 
be seen in what follows. 

239. And in the midst of the throne and round about the 
throne, there were four animals, signifies the Word of God 
from its first principles to its ultimates, and its defences. I am 
well aware it will be thought surprising, that it should be said, 
the four animals signify the Word; that this is their signification, 
will however be seen in what follows. These animals are the 
same as the cherubs in Ezekiel, where they are also called ani 
mals in chap, i., but cherubs in chap, x., and were, in like man 
ner as here, a lion, an ox, a man, and an eagle. In the Hebrew 
language they are there called chajoth, a word which indeed 4 
signifies animals, but is derived from chaja, which signifies life. 
171 



239 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Cliap. IV. 

whence also the wife of Adam was called Cha/ja, Gen. iii. 20 ; 
animal in the singular number is also called chaja in Ezekiel, 
therefore those animals may also be called living [creatures]. 
Neither is there any thing extraordinary in the Word s being 
described by animals, since the Lord himself in many parts of 
the Word is called a lion, and very often a lamb, and they who 
are in charity from the Lord are called sheep ; and the under 
standing also of the Word, in what follows, is called a horse. 
That the Word is signified by these animals or cherubs, is evi 
dent from this consideration, that they were seen in the midst 
of the throne and round about the throne, and in the midst of 
the throne was the Lord, and, as the Lord is the Word, they 
could not be seen anywhere else ; that they were round about 
the throne also, was, because this denotes the angelic heaven, 
where also the Word is. That by cherubs is signified the Word, 
and its defence or guard, is shown in The Doctrine of the New 
Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture, n. 97, where are the 
following words: "The literal sense of the Word serves as a 
defence for the genuine truths which lie within ; and the de 
fence consists in this, that the literal sense can be turned this 
way and that, or, in other words, can be explained according to 
<3very one s apprehension, without its internal being hurt or 
violated ; for no harm ensues from the literal sense being under 
stood differently by different people ; but the danger is, when 
the divine truths which are within are perverted, for it is by this 
that the Word suffers violence. To prevent this, the literal 
sense keeps guard as it were, and serves indeed as a protection 
with those who are in falses from religion, but yet do not con 
firm them, for from these the Word suffers no violence. This 
defence is signified by cherubs, and is also described by them in 
the Word. This defence is signified by the cherubs, which, 
after the expulsion of Adam and his wife from the gardon of 
Eden, were placed at its entrance ; concerning which we read, 
when Jehovah God had driven out the man, " he placed at the 
east of the garden of Eden cherubims, and a flaming sword, 
which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life," 
Gen. iii. 23, 24. By cherubims is signified defence ; by the 
way of the tree of life is signified admission to the Lord, which 
is given to men through the Word ; by a flaming sword which 
turned every way, is signified divine truth in ultimates, which is 
as the Word in its literal sense, that allows of being turned this 
way and that. The same is understood by the clienibims made 
of gold over the two extremities of the mercy-seat, which was 
above the ark in the tabernacle, Exod. xxv. 18 21 ; because 
this was signified by cherubims, therefore Jehovah talked from 
between them with Moses, Exod. xxv. 22 ; xxxvi. 9 ; Numb. vii. 
8, 9. Nor was any thing else understood by the cherubims over 
the curtains of the tabernacle, and over the vail, Exod. xxvi. 
172 



I 



T. 6.] THE APOCALYPSE REVKALED. 

31 ; for the curtains and vail of the tabernacle represented the 
ultimates of heaven and the church, thus also the ultimates of 
the "Word. The same is signified by the cherubims in the mid 
dle of the temple of Jerusalem, 1 Kings vi. 22, 28 ; and by the 
cherubims carved upon the walls and doors of the temple, 1 
Kings vi. 29, 32, 35 ; and also by the cherubims in the new 
temple, Ezek. xli. 18 20. Since by cherubims was signified 
defence, to secure the Lord, heaven, and the divine truth such 
as it is interiorly in the Word, from being approached imme 
diately, but only mediately by ultimates, therefore it is said 
of the king of Tyre, " Thou sealest up the sum, full of wisdom 
and perfect in beauty. Thou hast been in Eden, the garden of 
God ; every precious stone was thy covering ; thou art the 
anointed cherub that covereth ; and I will destroy thee, O cover 
ing cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire," Ezek. xxviii. 
12 14, 16. By Tyre is signified the church as to the know 
ledges of truth and good, and thence, by its king, the Word 
where those knowledges are, and from whence they are derived. 
That the Word in its ultimate, which is its literal sense, is here 
signified by the king of Tyre, and its defence, by the cherub, 
is evident, for it is said, " Thou sealest up the sum," " every 
precious stone was thy covering," and, " thou art the anointed 
cherub that covereth ;" by the precious stones which are also 
mentioned there, are signified the truths of the literal sense of 
the Word, n. 231. Because by cherubims is signified divine 
truth in its ultimates as a defence, therefore it is written in the 
Psalms of David, " Give ear, O Shepherd of Israel, -thou that 
dwellest between the cherubims, shine forth," Ixxx. 1. " Jeho 
vah sitteth between the cherubims" xcix. 1. " Jehovah bowed 
the heavens and came down, and rode upon a cherub" xviii. 
10, 11. To ride upon cherubs, to sit upon them, and sit be 
tween them, means upon the ultimate sense of the Word. The 
divine truth in the Word, and its quality, is described by the 
cherubims in Ezekiel, in chap. i. ix. x., and as no one can know 
what the particulars by which they are described signify, with 
out having the spiritual sense unfolded to him, therefore, as it 
has been discovered to me, I will explain, in a summary way, 
the signification of those things which are related concerning 
the four animals or cherubims in the first chapter of Ezekiel ; 
which is as follows : " The divine external sphere of the Word 
is described, verse 4. It is represented as a man, verse 5. 
Its conjunction with things spiritual and celestial, verse 6. 
The natural sense of the Word, its quality, verse Y. The con 
junction of the spiritual and celestial senses of the Word with 
the natural, its quality, verse 8, 9. The divine love of celestial, 
spiritual, and natural good and truth therein contained, jointly 
and severally, verse 10, 11. That they regard one end, verse 
12. The sphere of the Word from the Lord s divine good and 
173 



240, 241 THE APOCALYPSE EEVEALED. [Chap, iv. 

divine truth, from which the Word lives, verse 13, 1-4. The 
doctrine of goodness and truth in the Word and from the 
Word, verse 15 21. The divinity of the Lord above it and in 
it, verse 22, 23. And out of it, verse 24, 25. That the Lord is 
above the heavens, verse 26. That divine love and divine wis 
dom are his, verse 27, 28. This is a summary exposition of 
the above chapter." 

240. Full of eyes "before and behind, signifies the divine 
wisdom therein. By eyes, when spoken of man, is signified 
the understanding, and when of the Lord, the divine wisdom, 
n. 48, 125 ; the same when said of the Word, as in this instance, 
because the Word is from the Lord and concerning the Lord, 
and thus is the Lord. The like is said of the cherubims in 
Ezekiel, that they were full of eyes, x. 12. Before and behind, 
when it relates to the ~W~ord from the Lord, signifies the divine 
wisdom and divine love therein. 

241. And the first animal was like a lion, signifies the 
divine truth of the Word as to its power. That a lion signifies 
truth in its power, here the divine truth of the Word as to its 
power, may appear from the power of the lion above every 
other beast of the earth, as also from lions in the spiritual world, 
where they are images representative of the power of divine 
truth ; and likewise from the Word, where they signify divine 
truth in its power. What the power of the divine truth in the 
Word is, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem 
concerning the Sacred Scripture, n. 49, and in the work on 
Heaven and Hell, n. 228 233. Hence it is that Jehovah or 
the Lord is compared to a lion, and is also called a lion ; as for 
instance : " The Lion hath roared, who will not fear? the Lord 
Jehovah hath spoken, who can but prophesy?" Amos iii. 8. 
" I will not return to destroy Ephraim, they shall walk after 
Jehovah : he shall roar as a lion" Hosea xi. 9, 10. " Like as 
the lion and the young lion roaring, so shall Jehovah of Hosts 
come down to fight for Mount Zion," Isaiah xxxi. 4. " Behold, 
the Lion of the tribe of Judah hath prevailed, the Root of 
David," Apoc. v. 5. " Judah is a lion s whelp, he stooped 
down, he couched as an old lion, who shall rouse him up?" 
Gen. xlix. 9. In these places the power of divine truth, as 
derived from the Lord, is described as a lion. To roar signifies 
to speak and act from power against the hells, which are desi 
rous to carry man away, but from which the Lord snatches him, 
as a lion dc es his prey ; to stoop or bend himself, is to put him 
self in power ; Judah, in a supreme sense, signifies the Lord, 
n. 96, 266. The angel " cried with a loud voice as when a lion 
roareth," Apoc. x. 3. " He couched, he lay down as a great 
Zww^who shall stir him up?" Numb. xxiv. 9. "Behold, the 
people shall rise up as a great lion, and lift up himself as a 
young lion" Numb, xxiii. 23, 24 ; speaking of Israel, by which 

174 



V. 6, 7.] THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALFD. 242 

is signified the clmrcli, whose power, as consisting in divine 
truths, is thus described. In like manner : " And the remnant 
of Jacob shall be in the midst of many people as a lion among 
the beasts of the forest, as a young lion among the flocks of 
sheep," Micah v. 7, 8 : besides many other places ; as Isaiah xi. 
6; xxi. 6- -9; xxxv. 9; Jerem. ii. 15; iv. 7; v. 6; xii. 8; 1. 17; 
li. 38 ; Ezek. xix. 3, 5, 6 ; Hosea xiii. 7, 8 ; Joel i. 6, 7 ; Nahum 
i. 12; Psalm xvii. 12; Psalm xxii. 13; Psalm Ivii. 4; Psalm 
Iviii. 6 ; Psalm xci. 13 ; Psalm civ. 21, 22 ; Deut. xxxiii. 20. 

242. And the second animal like a calf, signifies the divine 
truth of the Word as to affection. By me beasts of the earth 
are signified the various natural affections, for such indeed they 
ire ; and by a calf is signified the affection of knowing ; in the 
spiritual world this affection is represented by a calf, therefore 
it is also signified by a calf in the Word, as in Hosea : We will 
render unto Jehovah the " calves of our lips" xiv. 2. Calves 
of the lips are confessions from the affection of truth. In 
Malachi : " But unto you that fear my name, shall the Sun of 
Righteousness arise, with healing in his wings, and ye shall go 
forth and grow up as calves of the stall," iv. 2. They are com 
pared to calves of the stall, or fatted calves, because by them 
are signified those who are filled with the knowledges of things 
true and good from the affection of knowing them. In David : 
The voice of Jehovah maketh the cedars of Lebanon " to skip 
like a calf" xxix. 6. By the cedars of Lebanon are signified 
the knowledges of truth ; hence it is said that the voice of Je 
hovah makes $iem to skip like a calf: the voice of Jehovah is 
divine truth, here affecting them. The Egyptians being fond 
of the sciences, they made to themselves calves as a sign of 
their affection for them ; but after they began to worship calves 
as gods, then they came to signify, in the Word, the affections 
of knowing falses ; as in Jerem. xlvi. 20, 21 ; Psalm Ixviii. 30; 
and in other places : therefore the same is signified by the calf 
which the children of Israel made in the wilderness, Exod. 
xxxii., as also by the calves of Samaria, 1 Kings xii. 28 32 ; 
Hosea viii. 5 ; x. 5 ; therefore it is said in Hosea : They make 
them a molten image of silver, sacrificing man, they " kiss the 
salves" xiii. 2. To make them a molten image of silver sig 
nifies to falsify truth, to sacrifice man signifies to destroy wis 
dom, and to kiss calves signifies to acknowledge falses from 
affection. In Isaiah : " There shall the calf feed, and there 
shall he- lie down and consume the branches thereof," xxvii. 
10. The same is signified by calf in Jerem. xxxiv. 18, 19. 
Since all divine worship is from the affections of truth and 
good, and thence from the knowledge of them, therefore sacri 
fices, in which the worship of the church among the children 
of Israel chiefly consisted, were made of various beasts, such as 
lambs, goats, kids, sheep, he-goats, calves, oxen ; calves were 
175 



243, 244 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. IV. 

offered, because they signified the affection of knowing things 
true and ^ood, which is the first natural affection. This is what 
was signified by sacrifices of calves, Exod. xxix. 11, 12 ; Levit. 
iv. 3, 13, and following verses; viii. 14, and following verses; ix. 
2 ; xvi. 3 ; xxiii. 18 ; Numb. vii. 15, and following verses ; xv. 
24 v xxviii. 19, 20 ; Judges vi. 2529 ; 1 Sam. i. 25 ; xvi. 2 ; 
1 Kings xviii. 23 26, 33. The second animal appeared like a 
calf!, because the divine truth of the Word, which is signified 
by it, affects men s minds, and thus instructs and imbues. 

243. And the third animal had a face as a man, signifies 
the divine truth of the Word as to its wisdom. By man, in 
the Word, is signified wisdom, because he is born that he may 
receive wisdom from the Lord, and become an angel ; therefore 
in proportion as any one is wise, in the same proportion he is a 
man. Wisdom, truly human, consists in knowing that there is 
a God, what God is, and what is of God ; this the divine truth 
of the Word teaches. That by man is signified wisdom, is plain 
from the following places : " I will make man more precious 
than fine gold ; even a man than the gold w r edge of Ophir," 
Isaiah xiii. 12. Man [vir homo] in the first instance, means 
intelligence, and man [homo] in the second means wisdom. 
" The inhabitants of the earth are burned, and few men left," 
Isaiah xxiv. 6. " I w r ill sow the house of Israel and the house 
of Judah with the seed of man and w ith the seed of beast," 
Jerera. xxxi. 27. " And ye, my flock, are men, and I am your 
God," Ezek. xxxiv. 31. " The waste cities shall be filled with 
the flocks of men " Ezek. xxxvi. 38. "I beheld the earth, and 
lo, it was without form and void ; and the heavens, and they 
had no light; I beheld, and lo, there was no man" Jerem. iv. 23, 
25. " Let the men that sacrifice kiss the calves," Hosea xiii. 2. 
The wall of the holy Jerusalem measured " one hundred and 
forty-four cubits, the measure of a man, that is of the angel" 
Apoc. xxi. 17 : besides many other places, in which by man is 
signified one that is wise, and, in an abstract sense, wisdom. 

244. A.nd the fourth animal was like a flying eagle, signifies 
the divine truth of the Word as to knowledge, and thence un 
derstanding. By eagles various things are signified, and by 
flying eagles are signified knowledges from which understand 
ing is derived, because when they fly they both see and have a 
cognizance of things; for they have sharp and penetrating eyes, 
and by eyes are signified the understanding, n. 48, 214: by fly 
ing is signified to perceive and instruct, and, in the supreme 
sense, in which it has relation to the Lord, it signifies to foresee 
and provide. That eagles, in the Word, have such a significa 
tion, appears from these places : "They that wait for Jehovah 
shall renew their strength ; they shall mount up with wings as 
eagles" Isaiah xl. 31. To mount up with wings as eagles, is to 
be elevated into knowledges of truth and goodness and thence 

176 



V. 7, 8.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 245 

into intelligence. " Doth the eagle mount up at thy command, 
and make her nest on high, from thence she seeketh the prey, 
and her eyes behold afar off," Job xxxix. 26, 29. The faculty 
of knowing, understanding, and providing, is here described by 
the eagle, and that this is not derived from man s own intelli 
gence. " Jehovah who satisfieth thy mouth with good things 
so that thy youth is renewed like the eagles" Psalm ciii. 5. To 
fill the mouth with good, is to give understanding by means of 
knowledges; hence a comparison is made with the eagle. "A 
great eagle, with great wings, long-winged, full of feathers 
came unto Lebanon, and took the highest branch of the cedar ; 
and it was planted in a fruitful field, and it grew ; and there 
was also another great eagle, to which the vine did bend its 
roots," Ezek. xvii. 1 8. Here by two eagles are described 
the Jewish and Israelitish churches, both as to the knowledges 
of truth and consequent intelligence. But eagles in an opposite 
sense signify knowledges of what is false, whereby the under 
standing is perverted, as in Matt. xxiv. 28 ; Jerem. iv. 13 ; 
Habak. i. 8, 9 ; and other places. 

2-15. And the four animals had each of them six wings about 
him, signifies the Word as to its powers and as to its defences. 
That by the four animals the Word is signified, was shown above ; 
that by wings are signified powers, and also defences, will be 
seen below. By six is signified all as to truth and good, for six 
is composed of three and two multiplied by each other, and by 
three is signified all as to truth, n. 505, and by two all as to 
good, n. 762. By wings are signified powers, because by them 
birds lift themselves up, and wings with birds are in the place of 
arms with men, and by arms are signified powers. Since by 
wings are signified powers, and each animal had six wings, it 
is evident, from what has been said above, what kind of power 
is signified by the wings of each, viz., that by the wings of the 
lion is signified the power of fighting against evils and falses 
from hell ; this power is of the divine truth of the Word from 
the Lord : that by the wings of the calf is signified the pow r er 
of affecting men s minds, for the divine truth of the Word 
affects those who read it devoutly : that by the six wings of the 
man is signified the power of acquiring wisdom by discovering 
what God is, and what is of God, for this is, strictly speaking, 
man s object in reading the Word : and that by the wings of the 
eagle is signified the power of discerning what is true and good, 
and thereby of acquiring intelligence. Concerning the wings 
of the cherubims in Ezekiel, if is written: That their wings 
kissed each other, and that they also covered their bodies, and 
that under them there was the appearance of the likeness of 
hands, i. 23, 24; iii. 13; x. 5, 21. By kissing each other, ia 
signified to act in conjunction and unanimously; by covering 
their bodies, is signified to defend the interior truths which be- 
177 M 



2d6, 24:7 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Gliap. IV. 

long to tlie spiritual sense of the Word from violation ; and by 
the hands under their wings are signified powers. Concerning 
the seraphim, it is also said: That they had "six wings; with 
twain he covered his face, with twain he coveied his feet, and 
with twain he did fly," Isaiah vi. 2. By seraphim in like man 
ner is signified the Word, properly doctrine from the Word, and 
by the wings with which they covered their faces and feet, in 
like manner are signified defences, and by the wings with which 
they flew, powers, as above. That by flying is signified to per 
ceive and instruct, and in a supreme sense to foresee and pro 
vide, is also evident from the following places : "And he rode 
on a cherub, and did fly, yea, he did fly upon the wings of the 
wind," Psalm xviii. 11 ; 2 Sam. xxii. 11. " And I saw another 
angel fly^ in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel," 
Apoc. xiv. 6. That by wings are signified defences, is plain 
from the following places : Jehovah shall cover thee under his 
wings, Psalm xci. 4. To be hid under the shadow of God s 
wings, Psalm xvii. 8. To confide under the shadow of his wings, 
Psalm xxxvi. 7 ; Psalm Ivii. 1 ; Psalm Ixii. 7. " I stretched 
out my wing over thee, and covered thy nakedness," Ezek. xvi. 
8. " Shall the Sun of Righteousness arise with healing in his 
wings" Malachi iv. 2. " As an eagle stirreth up her nest, flut- 
tereth over her young, spreadeth abroad her wings, beareth them 
on her wings, so the Lord alone did lead him," Deut. xxxii. 11, 
12. Jesus said, " O Jerusalem, how often would I have 
gathered thy children together, even as a lien gathereth her 
chickens under her wings," Matt, xxiii. 37 ; Luke xiii. 34. 

246. And they were full of eyes within, signifies the divine 
wisdom in the Word, in its natural sense derived from its spirit 
ual and celestial sense. That by the animals full of eyes before 
and behind is signified the divine wisdom in the Word, may be 
seen above, n. 240 ; in like manner here, by their wings being 
full of eyes. And whereas the divine wisdom of the Word in 
its natural sense is derived from its spiritual and celestial sense, 
which is concealed within, it is therefore said, that within they 
were full of eyes. Concerning the spiritual and celestial sense, 
which are contained in every particular of the Word, see The 
Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scrip 
ture, n. 5 26. 

247. And they rest not day and night, saying, Holy, holy, 
holy, Lord God Almighty, signifies that the Word continually 
teaches of the Lord, and that he is the only God, and thence 
that he alone is to be worshipped. The animals not resting day 
and night, signifies that the Word continually, and without in 
termission, teaches ; and that it teaches what the animals say, 
namely, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, that is, that the 
Lord is the only God, and thence that he alone is to be wor 
shipped ; this is what is signified by holy three times repeated, 

178 



r. 8 10.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 248, 249 

for triplication involves everything holy in him alone. That a 
divine trinity is in the Lord, is fully shown in The Doctrine of 
the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord ; as also that the Word 
treats of the Lord alone, and that thence is its sanctity. That 
the Lord alone is holy, may be seen above, n. 173. 

248. Who was, and who is, and who is to come, signifies 
the Lord. That it is the Lord is plain from chap. i. 4, 8, 11, 
17, where the Son of Man is treated of, which is the Lord as to 
the Word, and there it is expressly said, that " He is Alpha 
and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last, 
who is, and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty /" but 
what is signified by these words, is explained, n. 13, 29, 30, 31, 
38, 57 ; it is here shown that the Lord is understood by " Holy, 
holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, who was, and who is, and wlio 
is to come." 

249. And when these animals give glory, and honour, and 
thanks to Him that sat on the throne, signifies that the Word 
ascribes all truth, and all good, and all worship to the Lord the 
Jud^e. The animals are the Word, as has been shown ; glory 
and honour, when applied to the Lord, mean, that all truth and 
all good are his and from him ; thanks signify the all of wor 
ship ; he that sat on the throne signifies the Lord as to judg 
ment, as above : hence it is evident, that by the animals giving 
glory, and honour, and thanks to Him that sat on the throne, 
is -signified that the Word ascribes all truth, and all good, 
and all worship, to the Lord the Judge. By giving the Lord 
glory and honour, nothing else is meant in the Word but to 
acknowledge and confess that all truth and all good is from 
Him, thus that he is the God alone, for his glory is from divine 
truth, and his honour is from divine good. Such is the signifi 
cation of glory and honour in the following places : " Jehovah 
made the heavens, glory and honour are before him," Psalm 
xcvi. 5, 6. "Jehovah is a very great God, thou hast clothed 
thyself with glory and honour" Psalm civ. 1. " The works of 
Jehovah are great, glory a,nd honour are his work," Psalm cxi. 
2, 3. " Glory and honour hast thou laid upon him, for thou hast 
made him most blessed for ever," Psalm xxi. 5,6} speaking of 
the Lord. "Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, O most mighty, 
with thy glory and honour / and in thy majesty ride prosper 
ously because of truth," Psalm xlv. 4, 5. " Thou hast made him a 
little lower than the angels, thou hast crowned him with glory 
and Iwnour" Psalm viii. 6. " The glory of Lebanon is given 
unto it, the honour of Carmel and Sharon : they shall see the 
glory of Jehovah, and the honour of our God," Isaiah xxxv. 1, 2 ; 
these things refer to the Lord ; besides other places, as Psalm 
cxlv. 4, 5, 12 ; Apoc. xxi. 24, 26. Moreover, when divine 
truth is treated of in the Word, it is called glory, n. 629, and 
when divine good is treated of it is called honour. 

179 



250 254: THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. [Cliap. IV. 

250. Who liveth for ever and ever, signifies the Lord who 
alone is life, and from whom alone is life eternal, as seen above, 
n. 58, 60. 

251. The four-and-tiventy elders fall down before Him that 
sat on the throne, and worship Him that livethfor ever and ever, 
signifies the humiliation of all in heaven before the Lord. That 
by the fonr-and-twenty elders are meant all who are of the 
Lord s church, may be seen above, n. 233 ; here all who are of 
his church in heaven ; the elders, as heads, represented all. 
That humiliation before the Lord is denoted, and from that 
humiliation, adoration, is evident without explanation. 

252. And cast their crowns before the throne, signifies an 
acknowledgment that their wisdom is from Him alone. That 
crown signifies wisdom, maybe seen above, n. 189, 235 ; there 
fore by casting their crowns before the throne, is signified to 
acknowledge that wisdom is not their own, but of the Lord in 
them. 

253. Saying, Thou art worthy, Lord, to receive glory, and 
honour, and power, signifies a confession that the kingdom is 
the Lord s by merit and justice, because he is divine truth and 
divine good. Confession is signified by saying ; merit and 
justice are signified by thou art worthy, O Lord ; that He is, 
divine truth and divine good, is signified by glory and honour., 
as above, n. 249 ; that His is the kingdom, is signified by re 
ceiving power : these, therefore, collected into one sense, signify 
a confession that the kingdom is the Lord s by merit and jus 
tice, because He is divine truth and divine good. 

254. For thou hast created all things^ and ~by thy will they 
are, and were created, signifies that all things of heaven and the 
church were made and formed, and men reformed and regener 
ated from the divine love of the Lord by his divine wisdom, or 
from his divine good by his divine truth, which also is the* 
Word. Such is the spiritual sense of these words, because by 
creating, is signified to reform and regenerate by divine truth, 
and by the will of the Lord is signified the divine good : whethei 
you call it the divine good and divine truth, or the divine love 
and divine wisdom, it is the same, because all good is of love, 
and all truth is of wisdom. That from the divine love and 
divine wisdom all things of heaven and the church, yea and the 
world itself was created, is abundantly set forth in The Angelio 
Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom ; 
also that love and good is of the will, and wisdom and truth of 
the understanding ; hence it appears, that by the Lord s will is 
understood his divine good or divine love. That to create, in 
the Word, signifies to reform and regenerate, is plain from the 
following places : " Create in me a clean heart, O God, and 
renew a right spirit within me," Psalm li. 10. " Thou openest 
thine hand, they are filled with good ; thou sendest forth thy 

180 



V. 10, 11.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED 255 

Spirit, they are created? Psalm civ. 28, 30. "The people 
which shall be created^ shall praise Jehovah," Psalm cii. 10. 
" Behold, I create new heavens and a new earth, rejoice for ever 
.in that which I create : behold, I create Jerusalem a rejoicing," 
Isaiah Ixv. 17, 18. " Jehovah that created the heavens, he 
that spread out the earth, he that giveth breath unto the 
people upon it, and spirit to them that walk therein," Isaiah 
xlii. 5 ; xlv. 12, 18. u Thus saith Jehovah that created thee, O 
Jacob, and he that formed thee, O Israel ; I have redeemed 
thee, I have called thee by my name : every one that is called 
by my name, for I have created him for my glory," Isaiah xliii. 
1, 7. They were prepared " in the day that thou wast created ; 
thou w r ast perfect in thy ways in the day that thou wast created, 
till iniquity was found in thee," Ezek. xxviii. 13, 15 ; speaking 
of the king of Tyre, by whom are signified they who are in 
intelligence from divine truth. " That they may see, and know, 
and consider, and understand together that the hand of Jeho 
vah hath done this, and the Holy One of Israel hath created 
it," Isaiah xli. 19, 20. 

255. Here I shall add this Memorable Relation. Lest any 
one should enter into the spiritual sense of the Word, and per 
vert the genuine truth which pertains to that sense, there are 
placed guards by the Lord, which are understood by cherubims 
in the Word, which are the four animals here : that such a watch 
is placed, was thus represented to me. I was permitted to see 
certain large purses, which seemed like bags, containing in them 
a large quantity of silver ; and as they were open, it was per 
ceived as though any one might take the silver out of them, and 
even carry it. oif : but near to the purses there sat two angels 
as guards : the place where they were deposited appeared like 
a manger in a stable ; in the next apartment were seen some 
modest virgins with a chaste wife ; and near that apartment 
stood two little children, and it was said, that they were to be 
treated not as children but in wisdom : and afterwards there 
appeared a harlot, and also a dead horse. On seeing which I 
was instructed, that by these was represented the literal sense 
of the Word, in which is the spiritual sense. The large purses 
full of silver signified the knowledges of truth and good in 
great abundance: their being open, and yet guarded by angels, 
signified that any one might take from thence the knowledges 
of truth, but that care is taken lest any one should falsify the 
spiritual sense, in which were nothing but truths. The manger 
in the stable, in which the purses lay, signified spiritual instruc 
tion for the understanding ; this is the signification of a manger, 
and the same is signified by the manger in which the Lprdlay 
when an infant, because a horse, who eats out of it, signifies 
the understanding of the Word. The modest virgins, who were 
181 



255 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Cliap. V. 

seen in the adjoining apartment, signified affections of truth, 
and the chaste wife, the conjunction of good and truth. The 
children signified the innocence of wisdom in the Word ; they 
were angels from the third heaven, who all appear like little 
children. The harlot with the dead horse signified the falsifi 
cation of the Word by many at this day, by which all the un 
derstanding of truth perishes ; a harlot signifies falsification, 
and a dead horse no understanding of truth. 

It has been permitted me to converse with many after death, 
who thought they should shine like stars in heaven, because, 
as they said, they had held the Word as sacred, had read it 
frequently, and collected many things from it ; by which they 
had confirmed the tenets of their faith, and were therefore cele 
brated as men of learning in the world, for which reason they 
thought they should be Michaels or Raphaels : but many of 
them were explored, in order to ascertain from what love they 
had studied the Word, and it was found, that some had studied 
it from self-love, that they might appear great in the world, and 
be reverenced as heads of the church ; but others from the love 
of the world, that they might acquire riches. When they were 
examined as to what they knew of the Word, it was found, that 
they knew nothing of genuine truth therefrom, but only such 
as is called truth falsified, which in itself is false, and this, in 
the spiritual world, is perceived as a stench by the angels ; and 
it was told them that this befel them from their loving them 
selves and the world as ends, and not the Lord and heaven ; 
and when self-love and the world are ends, then, when they 
read the Word, their mind dwells upon self and the world, and 
therefore they think constantly from their own selfhood, which 
is in darkness as to all things of heaven ; in which state man 
cannot be abstracted from his own light, and so elevated into 
the light of heaven, nor thence receive any influx from the 
Lord through heaven. I also saw them admitted into heaven, 
and when they were found to be without truths, they were 
stripped of their garments and appeared in their nakedness 
and they who had falsified truths, were, by reason of their 
offensive smell, expelled, but still their pride remained with 
them, and a belief in their own merit. It was different with 
those who had studied the Word from the affection of knowing 
truth because it is truth, and is subservient to the uses of 
spiritual life, not only to a man s self, but also to his neighbour; 
these I saw taken up into heaven, and thus into the light, in 
which the divine truth is, and at the same time exalted to an 
gelic wisdom and its felicity, which is life eternal. 



182 



Chap. V.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 



CHAPTEE Y. 

1. AND 1 saw :n the right hand of Him that sat on the 
throne, a book written within and on the back-side, sealed with 
seven seals. 

2. And I saw a strong angel proclaiming with a loud voice, 
"Who is worthy to open the Book, and to loose the seals thereof? 

3. And no one in heaven, nor in earth, neither under the 
earth, was able to open the Book, neither to look thereon. 

4. And I wept much because no one was found worthy to 
open and to read the Book, neither to look thereon. 

5. And one of the elders saith unto me, Weep not ; behold, 
the Lion which is of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, 
hath prevailed to open the Book, and to loose the seven seals 
thereof. 

6. And I beheld, and, lo, in the midst of the throne and of 
the four animals, and in the midst of the elders, stood a LAMB, 
as it had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which 
are the seven spirits of God sent forth into all the earth. 

7. And he came and took the Book out of the right hand 
of Him that sat upon the throne. 

8. And when he had taken the Book, the four animals, and 
the four-and-twenty elders, fell down before the LAMB, having 
every one of them harps, and golden vials full of incense, which 
are the prayers of the saints. 

9. And they sung a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to 
take the Book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast 
slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood, out of every 
tribe, and tongue, and people, and nation ; 

10. And hast made us unto our God kings and priests: and 
we shall reign on the earth. 

11. And I beheld, and I heard the voice of many angels 
round about the throne, and the animals, and the elders : and 
the number of them was myriads of myriads, and thousands of 
thousands ; 

12. Saying with a loud voice, Worthy is the LAMB that was 
slain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and honour, 
and glory, and blessing. 

13. And every creature which is in heaven, and on the 
earth, and under the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all 
that are in them, heard I saying, Blessing, and honour, and 
glory, and power, be unto Him that sitteth upon the throne, 
and unto the Lamb, for ever and ever. 

14:. And the four animals said, Amen. And the four-and- 
twenty elders fell down, and worshipped Him that liveth for 
ever and ever. 
183 



THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. V. 



THE SPIRITUAL SENSE. 

THE CONTENTS OF THE WHOLE CHAPTER. That the Lord in 
his Divine Humanity will execute judgment out of the Word 
and according to it, because he is himself the Word ; and that 
this is acknowledged by all in the three heavens. 

THE CONTENTS OF EACH YERSE. Y. 1, "And I saw in the 
right hand of Him that sat on the throne, a Book written within 
and on the back-side," signifies the Lord as to his divinity from 
eternity, who is omnipotent and omniscient, and who is the 
Word : " Sealed with seven seals," signifies that it is entirely 
hid from angels and men : v. 2, " And I saw a strong angel 
proclaiming with a loud voice," signifies divine truth from the 
Lord most interiorly influencing both angels and men: " Who 
is worthy to open the Book, and to loose the seals thereof?" 
signifies, who has power to know the states of life of all in the 
heavens and on the earths, and to judge every one according 
thereto: v. 3, "And no one in heaven, nor in earth, neither 
under the earth, was able," signifies that no one in the superior 
heavens or inferior heavens was able : " To open the Book," 
signifies to know the states of the life of all, and to judge every 
one according thereto : "Neither to look thereon," signifies not 
in the least : v. 4, " And I wept much because no one was found 
worthy to open and read the Book, neither to look thereon," 
signifies grief of heart, because if no one could do it, all must 
perish : v. 5, "And one of the elders saith unto me, Weep not," 
signifies consolation : " Behold, the lion which is of the tribe 
of Judah, the Root of David, hath prevailed," signifies the 
Lord, who by his own power subdued the hells and reduced all 
things to order when he was in the world, by the divine good 
united to the divine truth in his Humanity : " To open the 
Book and to loose the seven seals thereof," signifies here as 
before : v. 6, "And I beheld, and, lo, in the midst of the throne, 
and of the four animals, and in the midst of the elders," signifies 
from the inmost and thence in all things of heaven, the Word, 
and the church : " Stood a LAMB, as it had been slain," signifies 
the Lord as to his Humanity, not acknowledged in the church 
to be divine: "Having seven horns," signifies his omnipotence: 
"And seven eyes," signifies his omniscience and divine wis 
dom : " Which are the seven spirits of God sent forth into all 
the earth," signifies that from divine wisdom is derived divine 
truth throughout the whole world, wheresoever there is any 
religion: v. 7, "And he came and took the Book out of the 
right hand of Him that sat upon the throne," signifies that the 
Lord as to his Divine Humanity is the Word, and this by 
virtue of the divinity within him, and that therefore he will 
execute judgment from his Divine Humanity: v. 8, "And when 
184 



(Jliap. V.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 

he had taken the Book," signifies when the Lord appointed to 
execute the judgment, and thereby to reduce all things in the 
heavens and upon the earths to order : " The four animals and 
the four-and- twenty elders fell down before the LAMB," signifies 
humiliation and adoration of the Lord from the superior heavens : 
" Having every one of them harps," signifies a confession of the 
Lord s Divine Humanity from spiritual truths: "And golden 
vials full of incense," signifies confession of the Lord s Divine 
Humanity from spiritual good : " Which are the prayers of 
saints," signifies thoughts which are of faith grounded in af 
fections which are of charity with those who worship the Lord 
from spiritual good and truth: v. 9, "And they sung a new 
song," signifies an acknowledgment and glorification of the 
Lord, that he alone is the Judge, Redeemer, and Saviour, thus 
the God of heaven and earth : " Saying, Thou art worthy to 
take the Book, and to open the seals thereof," signifies here as 
before : " For thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by 
thy blood," signifies deliverance from hell and salvation by 
conjunction with him: "Out of every tribe, and tongue, and 
people, and nation," signifies that they in the church, or in any 
religion, who are in truths as to doctrine, and in good as to life, 
are redeemed by the Lord : v. 10, "And hast made us unto our 
God kings and priests," signifies that from the Lord they are 
in wisdom from divine truths and in love from divine good: 
" And we shall reign on the earth," signifies, and will be in 
his kingdom, he in them and they in him: v. 11, "And I be 
held, and I heard the voice of many angels round about the 
throne, and the animals, and the elders," signifies a confession 
and glorification of the Lord by the angels of the inferior 
heavens : " And the number of them was myriads of myriads," 
signifies all in truths and good : v. 12, " Saying with a loud 
voice, Worthy is the LAMB that was slain to receive power, 
and riches, and wisdom, and honour, and glory," signifies con 
fession from the heart, that to the Lord as to his Divine Hu 
manity belong omnipotence, omniscience, divine good, and 
divine truth : " And blessing," signifies all these in him, and 
from him in them : v. 13, " And every creature which is in 
heaven, and on the earth, and under the earth, and such as 
are in the sea, and all that are in them, heard I saying," sig 
nifies confession and glorification of the Lord by the angels of 
the lowest heaven: "Blessing, and honour, and glory, and 
power, be unto Him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the 
Lamb for ever and ever," signifies that in the Lord from 
eternity, and thence in his Divine Humanity, is the All of 
heaven and the church, divine good, and divine truth, and 
divine power, and from him in tlem: v. 14, "And the four 
animals said, Amen," signifies divine confirmation from the 
Word : " And the four-and-twenty elders fell down and wor- 
185 



256 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. V 

shipped Him that liveth for ever and ever," signifies humilia 
tion before the Lord, and, from humiliation, adoration of him, 
by all in the heavens, from whom and in whom is everlasting 
life. 



THE EXPLANATION. 

256. And I saw in the right hand of Him that sat on the 
throne a Boole, written within and on the back-side, signifie9 
the Lord as to his divinity from eternity, who is omnipotent and 
omniscient, and who is the Word; who also knows from him 
self the state of the life of all in the heavens and on the earths, 
as well in general as in every particular. By Him that sat on 
the throne is meant the Lord as to his divinity, from which his 
Humanity was derived, for it follows that the Lamb took the 
right hand of him that sat on the throne, verse 7, and by the 
Lamb is meant the Lord as to the Divine Humanity ; by the 
Book written within and on the back-side is meant the Word 
in every particular and in every general respect ; by w r ithin, 
in every particular respect, and by on the back-side, in every 
general respect : by within and on the back-side is also meant 
the interior sense of the Word, which is its spiritual sense, and 
its exterior sense, which is its natural sense ; by right hand is 
himself as to his omnipotence and omniscience, because the 
exploration of all in the heavens and on the earths, upon whom 
judgment is to be executed, and their separation, is treated of. 
The Lord, as the Word, knows the states of life of all in the 
heavens and on the earths from himself, because he is divine 
truth itself, and divine truth itself knows all things from itself; 
but this is an arcanum, which is revealed in The Angelic Wis 
dom concerning the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom. 
That the Lord as to his divinity from eternity was the Word, 
that is, divine truth, is evident from these words in John : " In 
the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and 
God was the Word" i. 1 ; and that the Lord as to his Human 
ity also was made the Word, in the same evangelist : " And 
the Word was made flesh," i. 14. Hence it may appear what 
is meant by the Book being in the right hand of Him that sat 
on the throne, and by the Lamb taking it thence, verse 7. Since 
the Lord is the Word, and the Word is divine truth, which in 
common constitutes heaven and the church, and in particular 
eftch angel, that heaven may be in him, and man, that the 
church may be in him, and because the Word is here meant by 
the Book, out of which and according to which all were to be 
judged, therefore in many places occur these expressions, to 
"he written in the Book, to be judged out of the Book, to be 
blotted out of the Book, where the state of any one s eternal 
186 



V. 1, 2.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 257 259 

life is treated of, as in these places : The Ancient of Days did 
sit in judgment, " and the looks were opened," Dan. vii. 10. 
Every people shall be delivered that " shall be found written 
in the Book" Dan. xii. 1. " My substance was not hid from 
thee, and in thy book all my members are written," Psalm 
cxxxix. 15, 16. Moses said, "Blot me, I pray thee, out of thy 
book which thou hast written. And Jehovah said unto Moses, 
Whosoever hath sinned against me will I Mot out of my book," 
Exod. xxxii. 32, 33. " Let them be Plotted out of thy book of 
the living, and not be written with the righteous," Psalm Ixix. 
28. " I saw that the books were opened, and another book was 
opened, which is the book of life, and the dead were judged out 
of those things which were written in the book according to their 
works, and whosoever was not found written in the book of life, 
was cast into the lake of fire," Apoc. xx. 1214:. There shall 
none enter into the New Jerusalem, but such as are " written 
in the Lamb s book of life," Apoc. xxi. 27. All shall worship 
the beast " whose names are not written in the Lamb s book of 
life," Apoc. xiii. 8 ; xvii. 8. That by the Book is understood 
the Word, may be seen in David : " In the Volume of the Book 
it is written of me," Psalm xl. 7 ; and Ezekiel : "I looked, and 
behold a hand was put forth unto me, and in it was a roll of a 
Book, written within and without," ii. 9, 10. The Book of the 
Words of Isaiah, Luke iii. 4. The Book of Psalms, Luke xx. 42. 

257. Sealed with seven seals, signifies entirely hid from 
angels and men. That to be sealed with a seal signifies to be 
hid, is evident, hence to be sealed with seven seals signifies to be 
entirely or totally hid, for seven signifies all, n. 10, and therefore 
totally ; that it was entirely hid from angels and men, is presently 
said in these words : " And no one in heaven, nor on earth, nei 
ther under the earth, was able to open and read the Book, neither 
to look thereon," verse 3, 4. Such is the "Word to all to whom 
the Lamb, that is, the Lord, does not open it : but as the explo 
ration of all before the last judgment is here treated of, it means 
the states of life of all both in general and in particular, which 
are entirely hid. 

258. And I saw a strong angel proclaiming with a loud voice, 
signifies divine truth from the Lord most interiorly influencing 
the thoughts of angels and men, and searching them. By an 
angel proclaiming, is understood, in the spiritual sense, the 
Lord, because an angel does not preach and teach from himself, 
but from the Lord, but still as from himself. It is said a strong 
angel, to denote his acting with power, and that which is pro 
claimed with power penetrates deeply into the thought ; a loud 
or great voice signifies divine truth from the Lord in its power 
or virtue : it signifies, also, diligent searching, because he asks, 
" Who is worthy to open the Book ?" as now follows. 

259. Who is worthy to open the Book and to loose the seal* 
187 



260 THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. [Ciiap. V. 

thereof? signifies who lias power to know the states of life of all 
in the heavens and on the earths, and to judge every one accord 
ing thereto. " Who is worthy," signifies who is able or who has 
the power ; " to open the Book and to loose the seals thereof," 
signifies here to know the states of life of all in the heavens and 
on the earths, and also to judge every one according to his state ; 
for when the Book is opened, there is an examination into their 
quality, and then sentence or judgment is pronounced, com 
paratively as a judge does with a book of laws and acts from 
it. That by opening the Book, is signified a search into the 
quality of the states of life in all and every one, is evident from 
the following chapter, where is described what was seen, when 
the Lamb opened the seven seals in their order. 

260. And no one in heaven, nor in earth, neither under the 
earth, was able, signifies that no one in the superior heavens or 
inferior heavens was able. In heaven, in earth, neither under 
the earth, mean in the superior and inferior heavens, in like 
manner as in the 13th verse, where it is said, " And every crea 
ture which is in heaven, and on the earth, and under the earth, 
and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, heard I 
saying." Since he heard them all speaking, it is evident that 
they were angels and spirits who spake ; for John was in the 
spirit, as he himself says in the preceding chapter (iv. verse 2), 
in which state no other earth appeared to him but the earth of 
the spiritual world ; for there are earths there as well as in the 
natural world, as may appear from the description of that world 
in the work concerning Heaven and Hell ; as also in The Con 
tinuation concerning the Spiritual World, n. 32 38. The 
superior heavens appear there upon mountains and hills, the 
interior heavens in the earth beneath, and the ultimate heavens 
as it were under the earth ; for the heavens are expanses, one 
above another, and each expanse is like the earth under the 
feet of those who are there : the uppermost expanse is like the 
top of a mountain, the next expanse is under it, but extending 
itself further on all sides round about, and the lowest expanse 
is still more extensive ; and since this last is under the other, they 
who are there are under the earth. The three heavens also ap 
pear thus to the angels who are in the superior heavens, because 
to them there appear two heavens beneath them ; in like man 
ner they appeared to John, because he was with them, for he 
had ascended to them, as is evident from chap. iv. verse 1, where 
it is said, u Come up hither, and I will show thee things which 
must be hereafter." Such as are ignorant of the spiritual world 
and the earths there, can by no means know what is meant by 
under the earth, nor by the lower parts of the earth, in the Word, 
as in Isaiah : " Sing, O ye heavens, shout, ye lower parts of the 
earth, break forth into singing, ye mountains, for Jehovah hath 
redeemed Jacob," xliv. 23; and in other places. Who does 
188 



f. 3 5.J THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 201 265 

not see, that the earths of the spiritual world are here meant ? 
for no man lives under the earth in the natural world. 

261. To open the Book, signifies to know the states of the 
life of all, and to judge every one according thereto, as appears 
from the explanation above, n/259. 

262. Neither to look thereon, signifies not in the least. 
Since by opening the Book, is signified to know the states of the 
life of all, by looking on it is signified to see what the state of 
life of this or that person is, therefore by no one being able to 
open the Book nor to look thereon, is signified that they were 
not able in the least ; for the Lord alone sees the state of every 
one from inmost to outmost, as also what a man has been from 
infancy to old age, and what he will be to eternity, and like 
wise what place he will have either in heaven or in hell ; and 
this the Lord sees in an instant, and from himself, because he is 
the divine truth itself or the Word ; but angels and men do not 
see this in the least, because they are finite, and the finite see 
only a few things, and those only external, and not these indeed 
from themselves, but from the Lord. 

263. And I wept much because no one was found worthy to 
open and read the Book, neither to look thereon, signifies grief 
of heart, because if no one could do it, all must perish. That 
to weep much is to grieve at heart, is evident ; the reason why 
he grieved at heart, was, because if this could not have been 
done, all must have perished ; for if all things in the heavens 
and on the earths were not reduced to order by the last judg 
ment, it could not be otherwise; for the Apocalypse treats of 
the last state of the church, when it comes to its end, the nature 
of which state is described by the Lord in these words : " Foi 
then shall be great tribulation, such as was not from the begin 
ning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be ; and ex 
cept those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be 
saved," Matt. xxiv. 21, 22 ; speaking of the last time of the 
church, when judgment takes place. That such is the state of 
the church at this day, may be known solely from these con 
siderations, that the greatest part of the Christian world is occu 
pied by those who have transferred to themselves the , divine 
power of the Lord, and would fain be worshipped as gocte, and 
who invoke dead men, and scarce any of them the Lord ; and 
that the rest of the church make God three, and the Lord two, 
and place salvation, not in amendment of life, but in certain 
words breathed out in a devout tone of voice ; consequently 
not in repentance, but in a confidence that they are justified 
and sanctified, provided tWey do but fold their hands and look 
upwards, and utter some customary form of prayer. ..-. 

264. And one of the elders saith unto me, Weep not ; that 
this signifies consolation, is evident. 

265. Behold, the Lion hath prevailed, signifies the Lord, 
189 



266 268 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Cliap. V. 

who by his own power subdued the hells, and reduced all 
things to order when he was in the world. That a lion signi 
fies the divine truth of the Word as to its power, may be seen 
above, n. 241 ; and because the Lord is divine truth itself or 
the Word, he is called a Lion. That the Lord, when he was in 
the world, subdued the hells and reduced all things in the hea 
vens to order, and likewise glorified his Humanity, may be seen 
above, n. 67 ; and how he did this, may be seen in The "Doctrine 
of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord, n. 12 14 : hence it 
is evident, what is meant by " the Lion hath prevailed." 

266. Which is of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, sig 
nifies by the divine good united to the divine truth in his Hu 
manity. By Judah, in the Word, is meant the church which is 
in the good of love to the Lord, and in a supreme sense the Lord 
as to the divine good of divine love ; and by David is meant the 
Lord as to the divine truth of divine wisdom : that this is meant 
by David, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem 
concerning the Lord, n. 43, 48 ; and that the former is meant by 
Judah, may be seen, n. 96, 266, 350; hence it appears that by 
" Behold the Lion which is of the tribe of Judah, the Root of 
David, hath prevailed," is signified that the Lord overcame the 
hells and reduced all things to order by the divine good united 
to the divine truth in his Humanity. That this is the sense of 
these words, cannot be seen from the letter, but only that he it 
was who was born in the world of the tribe of Judah and line 
age of David; still, however, these words contain in them a 
spiritual sense, in which by the names of persons are understood 
things, as has frequently been observed above, thus by Judah is 
not meant Judah, nor by David, David ; but by Judah, the Lord 
as to divine good, and by David, the Lord as to divine truth ; 
on this account the sense of this passage is as has been stated. 
The reason why this sense is here explained, is, because the 
Apocalypse as to its spiritual sense is now unfolded. 

267. To open the Book, and loose the seven seals thereof, 
signifies to know the states of the life of all in the heavens and 
on the earths, and to judge every one according thereto, as 
above, n. 258, 259. 

268. And I beheld, and lo, in the midst of the throne, and 
of the four animals, and in the midst of the elders, signifies 
from the inmost and thence in all things of heaven, the Word, 
and the church. In the midst signifies in the inmost, and 
thence in all things, n. 44; a throne signifies heaven, n. 14; 
the four animals or cherubs signify the Word, n. 239; and the 
four-and-twenty elders signify the church as to all things be 
longing thereto, n. 233, 251 ; from which it follows, that, in 
the midst of the throne, and of the four animals, and in the 
midst of the elders, signifies from the inmost in all things of 
heaven, the Word, and the church. 

190 



f. 5, 6.J THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 269, 270 

269. Stood a Lamb standing as it had been slain, signifies 
the Lord as to his Humanity, not acknowledged in the church 
to be divine. By Lamb, in the Apocalypse, is meant the Lord 
as to the Divine Humanity, and by a Lamb slain, is denoted 
that his Humanity is not acknowledged in the church to be 
divine; in like manner as in chap. i. verse 18, where it is said, 
" I was made dead, and behold I am alive for ever and ever ;" 
by which is meant that the Lord is neglected in the church, and 
his Humanity not acknowledged to be divine, n. 59 : that this 
is the case, may be seen below, n. 294. Since, therefore, the 
Lord as to the Divine Humanity is meant by the Lamb, and it 
is said of him, that he tool: the Book out of the right hand of 
Him that sat upon the throne, and afterwards that he opened 
it, and loosed the seven seals thereof, and since no mortal could 
do this, but God alone, it follows, that by the Lamb is meant 
the Lord as to the Divine Humanity, and by his being slain, 
that he is not acknowledged to be God as to his Humanity. 

270. Having seven horns, signifies his omnipotence. A horn 
is frequently mentioned in the Word, and by it is everywhere 
signified power ; therefore when a horn is predicated of the Lord, 
it signifies omnipotence. The reason why seven horns are men 
tioned, is, because seven signifies all, n. 10, thus omnipotence. 
That a horn signifies power, and when applied to the Lord, om 
nipotence, may appear from the following passages : " Ye which 
rejoice in a thing of naught, which say, Have we not taken to 
us horns by our own strength?" Amos vi. 13. I said unto the 
wicked, " Lift not up the horn, lift not up your horn on high : 
All the horns of the wicked will I cut off; but the horns of the 
righteous shall be exalted," Psalm Ixxv. 4, 5, 10. Jehovah hath 
"set up the Jwrn of thine adversaries," Lament, ii. 1. "The 
horn of Moab is cut off, and his arm is broken," Jerem. xlviii. 
25. " Because ye have thrust with side and with shoulder, and 
push all the diseased [sheep] with your horns," Ezek. xxxiv. 21. 
Jehovah hath " exalted the horn of his people," Psalm cxlviii. 
14. Jehovah the God of hosts is " the glory of our strength, 
and in his favour our horn shall be exalted," Psalm Ixxxix. 17. 
The brightness of Jehovah God shall be as the light, " he had 
horns coming out of his hand, and there was the hiding of his 
power," Hab. iii. 4. " Mine arm also shall strengthen him 
and in my name shall his horn be exalted," Psalm Ixxxix. 21, 
22, 24. " Jehovah is my strength, my rock, my horn" Psalm 
xviii. 2, 3; 2 Sam. xxii. 3. "Arise, O daughter of Zion, for I 
will make thine horn iron, and thou shalt beat in pieces many 
people," Micah iv. 13. Jehovah hath destroyed in his wrath 
" the strongholds of the daughter of Judah, and hath cut off all 
the horn of Israel," Lament, ii. 3. Powers are also signified by 
the " horns of the dragon," Apoc. xii. 3 ; by the horns of " the 
beast which came up out of the sea," Apoc. xiii. 1 ; by the horn* 

191 



271273 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. V 

of the scarlet beast upon which the woman sat, Apoc. xvii. 3, 7. 
12 ; by the horns of the ram and the he-goat, Dan. viii. 3, 4, 5, 
7 12, 21, 25 ; by the horns of the beast which came up out of 
the sea, Dan. v ii. 3, 7, 8, 20, 21, 23, 24 ; by the four horns 
which scattered Judah and Israel, Zech. i. 18; by the horns of 
the altar of burnt-offerings, and the altar of incense, Exod. xxvii. 
- 2 ; xxx. 2, 3, 10 : by these last was signified the power of divine 
truth in the church ; and, on the other hand, that that power 
would perish, is signified by the horns of the altars in Bethel, 
Amos iii. 14: "I shall visit the transgressions of Israel, I will 
also visit the altars of Bethel, and the horns of the altar shall 
be cut off, arid fall to the ground." 

271. .And seven eyes, signifies his omniscience and divine 
wisdom. That eyes, when spoken of the Lord, signify his divine 
wisdom-, may be seen above, n. 48, 125, thus also his omnisci 
ence ; and that seven signifies all, and is predicated of any thing 
holy, n. 10 ; hence by the seven eyes of the Lamb, is signified 
the divine wisdom of the Lord, which is also omniscience. 

272. Which are the seven spirits of God sent forth into all 
the earth, signifies that from divine wisdom is derived divine 
truth throughout the whole world, wheresoever there is any 
religion. The seven spirits of God are the divine truth pro 
ceeding from the Lord as above, n. 14, 155. That being sent 
forth into all the earth, means throughout the whole world 
wheresoever there is any religion, is evident ; for where there 
is any religion, mankind is taught that there is a God, and that 
there is a devil, and that God is good itself, and that all good 
is from him, and that the devil is evil itself, and that all evil is 
from him ; and, as they are opposites, so evil, being from the devil, 
is to be shunned, and good, being from God, is to be done ; con 
sequently, in proportion as any one does evil, so far he loves the 
devil, and acts against God. Such divine truth exists through 
out the whole world where there is any religion ; so that it is 
only necessary to know what evil is, and this also is known by 
all who have any religion ; for the precepts of every religion 
are similar to those contained in the decalogue, viz., that it is 
not lawful to kill, nor to commit adultery, nor to steal, nor to 
bear false witness. These are in general divine truths sent forth 
from the Lord into all the earth, see The Doctrine of the New 
Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture, n. 101 il8 : there 
fore he who lives according to them on account of their being 
divine truths, or the commandments of God, and thence of re 
ligion, is saved ; but he who only lives according to them be 
cause they are civil and moral truths, is not saved, for lie that 
denies God may also so live, but not he that confesses God. 

273. And he came and took the Book out of the right hand 
of Him that sat upon the throne, signifies that the Lord as to 
his Divine Humanity is the Word, and this by virtue of the divin- 

192 






V. 7, 8.] THE APOCALYPSE KKVEALED. 274, 275 

ity within him, and that therefore he will execute judgment 
from his Divine Humanity. Here it manifestly appears, that 
He that sat upon the throne and the Lamb are one person, and 
that by Him that sat upon the throne is meant his divine prin 
ciple whence are all things, and by the Lamb, his Divine Hu 
manity; for it is said in the preceding verse, that he saw a Lamb 
standing in the midst of the throne, and in this, that he took 
the Book from Him that sat upon the throne. That the Lord 
will execute judgment from his Divine Humanity, because he 
is the Word, is evident from these passages: "And then shall 
appear the sign of the Son of Man ; and they shall see the Son 
of Man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and glory," 
Matt. xxiv. 30. "When the Son of Man shall sit on his throne 
judging the twelve tribes of Israel," Matt. xix. 28. " The Son 
of Man shall come in the glory of his Father, and then shall 
he reward every man according to his works," Matt. xvi. 27. 
" Watch ye, therefore, and pray always, that ye may be ac 
counted worthy to stand before the Son of Man" Luke xxi. 36. 
"In such an hour as ye think not, the Son of Man cometh," 
Matt. xxiv. 44. " For the Father judgeth no man, but hath 
committed all judgment unto the Son^ because he is the Son 
of Man" John v. 22, 27. The Son of Man is the Lord as to 
the Divine Humanity, and this is the Word, which was God, 
and was made flesh, John i. 1, 14. 

274. And when he had taken the Book, signifies when the 
Lord appointed to execute the judgment, and thereby to reduce 
all things in the heavens and in the earths to order. By taking 
the Book and opening it, is signified to explore the states of life 
of all, and to judge every one according thereto, as above ; there 
fore here by his taking the Book, is signified to be about to exe 
cute the last judgment; and as the last judgment is executed 
for the purpose of reducing all things to order in the heavens, 
and by the heavens, in the earths* this also is signified. 

275. The four animals and the four-and-twenty elders fell 
down before the Lamb, signifies humiliation, and from humilia 
tion, adoration of the Lord from the superior heavens. Now 
follows the glorification of the Lord on the above account, for, 
as was observed above, n. 263, did not the Lord accomplish the 
last judgment at this time, and thereby reduce all things in the 
heavens and in the earths to order, all would perish. The glo 
rification of the Lord, which now follows, takes place first in 
the superior heavens, afterwards in the inferior heavens, and 
lastly in the lowest heavens ; the glorification by the superior 
heavens, verses 8, 9, 10, by the inferior heavens, verses 11, 12, 
and by the lowest heavens, verse 13, and lastly confirmation and 
adoration by the superior heavens, verse 14. Therefore the 
superior heavens are signified by the four animals and the four- 
and-twenty elders; for by the cherubs, who are the four ani* 

193 * 



276, 277 THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. [Chap. V. 

mals " in the midst of the throne," is signified the Lord as to the 
Word, but by the cherubs, or four animals " round about the 
throne," is signified heaven as to the Word ; for it is said, "That 
in the midst of the throne, and round about the throne, were 
seen four animals, full of eyes before and behind," iv. 6 ; for 
the heavens are heavens by virtue of the reception of divino 
truth through the Word from the Lord. By the four-and- 
twenty elders are also signified the angels in the superior hea 
vens, because those elders were proximately about the throne, 
iv. 4. That to fall down before the Lamb denotes humiliation, 
and, from humiliation, adoration, is evident. 

276. Having every one of them harps, signifies a confession 
of the Lord s Divine Humanity from spiritual truths. It is well 
known that confessions of Jehovah were made in the temple at 
Jerusalem by singing, and at the same time by instruments of 
music, which corresponded ; the instruments were principally 
trumpets and timbrels, and psalteries and harps ; the trumpets 
and timbrels corresponded to celestial goods and truths, and the 
psalteries and harps to spiritual goods and truths ; the correspon 
dences were with their sounds. What celestial good and truth 
is, and what spiritual good and truth, may be seen in the work 
concerning Heaven and Hell, n. 13 19, and 20, 28. That harps 
signify confessions of the Lord from spiritual truths, may appear 
from these passages : " Praise Jehovah with the harp, sing unto 
him with the psaltery, and an instrument of ten strings," Psalm 
xxxiii. 2, 3. "I will praise thee on the harp, O God, my God," 
Psalm xliii. 3, 4. " I will also praise thee with the psaltery, I 
will sing unto thee with the harp, O thou Holy One of Israel," 
Psalm Ixxi. 22. "Awake psaltery and harp, I will sing unto 
thee among the nations, O Lord," Psalm Ivii. 8, 9 ; Psalm cviii. 
2, 3. " Sing unto Jehovah with thanksgiving, sing praise upon 
the harp unto our God," Psalm cxlvii. 7. " It is a good thing 
to give thanks to Jehovah upon the psaltery, and upon the harp 
with a solemn sound," Psalm xcii. 2 4. "Make a joyful 
noise unto Jehovah, all the earth, sing unto Jehovah with the 
harp, with the harp and the voice of a psalm," Psalm xcviii. 4 
6 : and in many other places ; as Psalm xliii. 4; Psalm cxxxvii. 
2 ; Job xxx. 31 ; Isaiah xxiv. 7 9; xxx. 31, 32 ; Apoc. xiv. 2 , 
xviii. 22. Because the harp corresponded to confession of the 
Lord, and evil spirits could not endure it, therefore David by the 
harp caused the evil spirit to depart from Saul, 1 Sam. xvi. 14 
16, 23. That they were not harps, but that confessions of the 
Lord were heard by John as harps, may be seen below, n. 661. 

277. And golden vials full of incense, signifies confession 
of the Lord s Divine Humanity from spiritual good. The reason 
why incense signifies worship from spiritual goods, but in this 
instance confession from such goods, is, because the principal 
worship in the Jewish and Israelitish church consisted in the 

194 



V. 8.J THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 279 

offering 01 sacrifices and incense ; wherefore there were two 
altars, one lor saciifiees and the other for incense; the latter 
altar was within the tabernacle, and was called the golden altar, 
but the former was withont the tabernacle, and was called the 
altar of burnt offerings ; the reason was, because there are t,vo 
kinds of good, from which all worship exists, celestial good arid 
spiritual good ; celestial good is the good of love to the Lord, 
and spiritual good is the good of love towards our neighbour ; 
worship by sacrifices was worship from celestial good, and wor 
ship by incense was worship from spiritual good. Whether you 
call it worship or confession, it amounts to the same thing, for 
ail worship is confession. What is signified by incense, is also 
signified by the vials in which the incense is contained, because 
the thing containing and the thing contained, like the instru 
mental and principal, act as one cause. Worship from spiritual 
good is signified by incense in the following places: " For from 
the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same, my 
name shall be great among the Gentiles, and in every place 
incense shall be offered unto my name," Malachi i. 11. "They 
shall teach Jacob thy judgments, and Israel thy law : they shall 
put incense before thee, and whole burnt sacrifice upon thine 
altar," Deut. xxxiii. 10. " I will offer unto thee burnt-sacri 
fices of fatlings, with the incense of rams," Psalm Ixvi. 13, 15. 
" And they shall come from the cities of Judah, bringing burnt- 
offerings, and sacrifices, and meat offerings, and incense" Jerem. 
xvii. 26. " All they from Sheba shall come ; they shall bring 
gold and incense, and they shall show forth the praises of Jeho 
vah," Isaiah Ix. 6. By frankincense the same is signified as by 
incense, because frankincense was the principal aromatic used in 
offering incense. Therefore it is said in Matthew, that the wise 
men from the east opened their treasures, and offered to the 
Lord, then an infant, " gold, frankincense, and myrrh," ii. 11. 
The reason why they offered these three, w^as, because gold 
signified celestial good, frankincense spiritual good, and myrrh 
natural good, and from those three goods all worship is derived. 
278. Which are the prayers of saints, signifies thoughts 
which are of faith, grounded in affections which are of charity, 
with those who worship the Lord from spiritual good and truth. 
By prayers are meant the things which are of faith, and at the 
same time the things which are of charity, w^ith those who pour 
forth prayers, because prayers without such things are not 
prayers, but empty sounds. That saints mean those who are in 
spiritual goods and truths, may be seen above, n. 173. The 
reason why incense is called the prayers of saints, is, because 
fragrant odours correspond to affections of good and truth ; 
hence it is, that " a grateful odour or sweet savour," and an 
" odour of rest to Jehovah," so often occur in the Word ; as in 
Exod. xxix. 10, 25, 41 ; Levit. i. 9, 13, 17 ; ii. 2, 9, 10; iii. 5; 
195 



279 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. V. 

iv. 31 ; vi. 8, 15 ; viii. 28 ; xxiii. 8, 13, 18 ; xxvi. 31 ; Numb, 
xv. 7 ; xxix. 2, 6, 8, 13, 36 ; Ezek. xx. 41 ; Hosea xiv. 7. 
Prayers which are called incense have a similar signification in 
the following places in the Apocalypse : An angel stood at the 
altar having a golden vial, u and there was given unto him 
much incense, that he should offer it with the payers of all 
saints upon the golden altar : And the smoke of the incense, 
with the prayers of the saints, ascended up before God out of 
the angel s hand," viii. 3 5 : and in the Psalms of David : 
" Give ear unto my voice ; let my prayer be set forth before 
thee as incense" cxli. 1, 2. 

279. And they sung a new song, signifies an acknowledg 
ment and glorification of the Lord, that he alone is the Judge, 
Redeemer, and Saviour, thus the God of heaven and earth. 
These things are contained in the song which they sung, and 
the things which are contained are also signified ; as an acknow 
ledgment that the Lord is the Judge in this : "Thou art worthy 
to take the Book, and to open the seals thereof:" that he is the 
Redeemer, in this : " Because thou wast slain, and hast re 
deemed us in thy blood :" that he is the Saviour, in this : "Thou 
hast made us unto our God kings and priests, and we shall reign 
upon the earth :" that he is the God of heaven and earth, ii. 
this : " They fell clown and worshipped him that liveth for ever 
and ever," verse 14. Since the acknowledgment of the Lord 
alone as the God of heaven and earth, and of the Divinity of 
his Humanity, and that in no other way could lie be called a 
Redeemer and Saviour, was not before in the church, it is 
therefore denominated a new song. The reason why a song also 
signifies glorification, which is confession from joy of heart, is, 
because singing exalts, and causes affection to break out from the 
heart into sound, and show itself intensely in its life. Nor are 
the Psalms of David any other than songs ; for they were set 
to music and sung, and therefore were also called songs in many 
places ; as in Psalm xviii. 1 ; Psalm xxxiii. 1, 2 ; Psalm xlv. 1; 
Psalm xlvi. 1 ; Psalm xlviii. 1; Psalm Ixv. 1; Psalm Ixvi. 1 ; 
Psalm Ixvii. 1; Psalm Ixviii. 1; Psalm Ixxv. 1; Psalm Ixxxi. 
1 ; Psalm Ixxxvii. 1 ; Psalm Ixxxviii. 1 ; Psalm xcii. 1 ; Psalm 
xcvi. 1 ; Psalm xcviii. 1 ; Psalm cviii. 1 ; Psalm cxx. 1 ; Psalm 
cxxi. 1 ; Psalm cxxii. 1 ; Psalm cxxiii. 1 ; Psalm cxxiv. 1 ; 
Psalm cxxv. 1 ; Psalm cxxvi. 1 ; Psalm cxxvii. 1 ; Psalm 
cxxviii. 1 ; Psalm cxxix. 1 ; Psalm cxxx. 1 ; Psalm cxxxii. 1 ; 
Psalm cxxxiii. 1 ; Psalm cxxxiv. 1. That songs were used for 
the sake of exalting the life of love, and the joy derived from 
it, is evident from the following passages : " O sing unto Jeho 
vah a new song, make a joyful noise unto Jehovah all the 
earth, make a loud noise and rejoice," Psalm xcviii. 1, 4 8. 
"Sing unto Jehovah a new song, let Israel rejoice in Him that 
made him, let them praise his name in the dance," Psalm cxlix 
106 



T. 9.J THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 280, 281 

1 3. " Sing unto Jehovah a new song, lift up the voice, 1 
Isaiah xlii. 10, 12. "Sing, O ye heavens, shout ye lower parts of 
the earth, break forth into singing, ye mountains," Isaiah xliv. 
23 ; xlix. 13. " Sing aloud unto God our strength, make a joy 
ful noise unto the God of Jacob. Take 2k psalm" Psalm lxxxi/2 
4, "Joy and gladness shall be found in Zion, thanksgiving 
and the voice of melody," Isaiah li. 3 ; lii. 8, 9. " Sing unto Je 
hovah, cry out and shout, thou inhabitant of Zion, for great is 
the Holy One of Israel in the midst of thee," Isaiah xii. 1 6. 
" My heart is fixed, I will sing and give praise. Awake up, 
my glory, I will praise thee, O Lord, among the nations, I will 
sing unto thee among the people," Psalrn Ivii. 8 10 : and in 
many other places. 

280. Saying, Thou art worthy to take the BooJc, and to open 
the seals thereof, signifies that he alone can know the states of 
life of all, and judge every man according to his own state 
respectively, as above, n. 256, 259, 261, 267, 273. 

281. For thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by 
thy Hood, signifies deliverance from hell, and salvation by con 
junction with him. It is not necessary to explain by the spir 
itual sense what is specifically signified by all the particulars 
here mentioned, as what by being slain, by redeeming us to 
God, and what by his blood, for they are arcana which do not 
appear in the literal sense ; suffice it to know that it is redemp 
tion which is thus described ; and since it is redemption it is 
deliverance from hell, and salvation by conjunction with the 
Lord, which, are signified. Here it shall only be confirmed 
from the Word, that Jehovah himself came into the world, was 
born a man, and became the Redeemer and Saviour of all, who 
by a life of charity and its faith are in conjunction with his 
Divine Humanity, and that Jehovah is the Lord from eternity, 
consequently that the Divine Humanity of the Lord, with which 
there must be conjunction, is the Divine Humanity of Jehovah 
himself. Now therefore some passages shall be adduced, which 
prove that Jehovah and the Lord are one ; and since they are 
one and not two, that the Lord from eternity, who is Jehovah 
himself, by the assumption of the Humanity, became the Re 
deemer and Saviour: this is evident from the following places: 
"Thou, O Jehovah, art our Father, our Redeemer thy name 
is from everlasting," Isaiah Ixiii. 16. "Thus saith the King of 
Israel and his Redeemer, Jehovah of Hosts, I am the First and I 
am the Last, and besides me there is no God," Isaiah xliv. 6. 
" Thus saitli Jehovah thy Redeemer, and he that formed thee ; 
I am Jehovah that maketh all things alone by myself," Isaiah 
xliv. 24.. "Thus saitli Jehovah thy Redeemer, the Holy One of 
Israel, I am Jehovah thy God," Isaiah xlviii. 17. " Jehovah 
my Rock and my Redeemer," Psalm xix. 14. "Their Re 
deemer is strong, Jehovah of Hosts is his name " Jerern. 1. 34. 

197 



282 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. Y 

"Jehovah of Hosts is his name, and thy Redeemer the Holy One 
of Israel, the God of the whole earth shall he be called," Isaiah 
liv. 5. "And all flesh shall know that I Jehovah am thy 
Saviour and thy Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob," Isaiah 
xlix. 26 ; Ix, 16. " As for our Redeemer, Jehovah of Hosts is 
his name," Isaiah xlvii. 4. " With everlasting kindness will I 
have mercy on thee, saith Jehovah thy Redeemer" Isaiah liv. 8. 
" Thns saith Jehovah your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel," 
Isaiah xliii. 14. " Thus saith Jehovah the Redeemer of Israel 
and his Holy One," Isaiah xlix. 7. " Thou hast redeemed me, 
Jehovah God of truth," Psalm xxxi. 5. " Let Israel hope in 
Jehovah, for with him there is plenteous redemption, and he 
shall redeem Israel from all his iniquities," Psalm cxxx. 7, 8, 
" Arise, [O Lord,] for our help, and redeem us for thy mercy s 
sake," Psalm xliv. 26. Thus saith Jehovah God, " I will ran 
som them from the power of the grave, I will redeem them from 
death," Hosea xiii. 4, 14. " Jehovah shall hear my voice, he 
shall redeem my soul," Psalrn Iv. 17, 18. Also in Psalm xlix. 
15; Psalm Ixix. 18; Psalm Ixxi. 23; Psalm ciii. 1, 4; Psalm 
cvii. 2 ; Jerem. xv. 20, 21. That the Lord as to his Hu 
manity is the Redeemer, is not denied in the church, because it 
is according to Scripture, and the following passages : " "Who is 
this that cometh from Edom, travelling in the greatness of his 
strength ? and the year of my redeemed is come. He redeemed 
them," Isaiah Ixiii. 1, 4, 9. u Say ye to the daughter of Zion, 
Behold, thy salvation cometh, behold, his reward is with him, 
and they shall call them, The Holy People, the Redeemed of 
Jehovah," Isaiah Ixii. 11, 12. " Blessed be the Lord God of 
Israel, for he hath visited and redeemed his people," Luke i. 
68 : besides other places. Many other passages, proving that 
the Lord from eternity, who is Jehovah himself, came into the 
world, and took upon him humanity, in order to redeem man 
kind, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem con 
cerning the Lord, n. 37 46. Moreover Jehovah is called the 
Saviour in many places, which cannot be adduced by reason of 
their abundance. 

282. Out of every tribe, and tongue, and people, and nation, 
signifies that they in the church or in any religion, who are in 
truths as to doctrine, and in good as to life, are redeemed by 
the Lord. By tribe is signified the church as to religion ; by 
tongue is signified its. doctrine, of which we shall speak pres 
ently ; by people are signified they who are in truths of doc 
trine, and, abstractedly, truths of doctrine, n. 483; and by 
nation are signified they w r ho are in the good of life, and, 
abstractedly, good of life, n. 483 ; from hence it appears that 
by these words, " Out of every tribe, and tongue, and people, 
and nation," such things are signified as were said above ; see 
also n. 627. It shall now be proved that tongue, in the spir 
198 



V. 9, 10.] T1IE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. 283, 284 

itnal sense, signifies the doctrine of the church, or of any reli 
gion ; this is evident from the following places : " My tongue 
also shall talk of thy righteousness all the day long," Psalm 
Ixxi. 24. " Then shall the lame leap as a hart, and the tongue 
of the dumb shall sing, for in the wilderness shall waters break 
out," Isaiah xxxv. 6. " The tongue of the stammerers shall be 
ready to speak plainly," Isaiah xxxii. 4. It appears as if, in 
these instances, by tongue was meant speech, but in the spir 
itual sense that which is spoken is understood, which is truth 
of doctrine, which they will have from the Lord. In like man 
ner, " I have sworn, That unto me every knee shall bow, and 
every tongue shall swear," Isaiah xlv. 23. "It shall come, 
that I will gather all nations and tongues, and they shall come 
and see my glory," Isaiah Ixvi. 18. " In those days it shall come 
to pass that ten men out of all languages of the nations, shall 
take hold of the skirt of him that is a Jew, saying, We will go 
with you, for we have heard that God is with you," Zech. viii. 
23 ; speaking of the conversion of the Gentiles by the Lord to 
the truth of doctrine. But by tongues, in an opposite sense, 
are signified false doctrines in the following places : "Let not 
an evil speaker be established in the earth," Psalm cxl. 1. 
" Thou shalt keep them secretly in a pavilion from the strife of 
tongues" Psalm xxxi. 20. "Lo, I will bring a nation upon 
you, whose language thou knowest not," Jerem. v. 15, 16. 
"To be sent to a people of a hard language" Ezek. iii. 5, 6. 
To a people of a " stammering tongue" Isaiah xxxiii. 19. It 
must be observed that tongue, as an organ, signifies doctrine, 
but, as speech, it also signifies religion. He who knows that 
a tongue signifies doctrine, may understand what is meant by 
those words which the rich man in hell addressed to Abraham, 
that he would seitd Lazarus that he might " dip the tip of his 
finger in water, and cool his tongue, and not be tormented with 
the flame," Luke xvi. 24. Water signifies truth, and tongue, 
doctrine ; by the falses of which doctrine he was tormented, 
and not by the flame; for no one in hell is in flames, but flames 
there are appearances of the love of falsity ; whilst fire is an 
appearance of the love of evil. 

283. And hast made us unto our God kings and priests, 
signifies that from the Lord they are in wisdom from divine 
truths and in love from divine good, and thus images of his 
divine wisdom, and of his divine love ; as above, n. 20, 21. 

284. And we shall reign on the earth, signifies, and will be 
in his kingdom, he in them and they in him. By reigning on 
the earth, nothing else is meant, than being in the Lord s king 
dom, and there one with him, according to these words of the 
Lord : "That all who believe in me, may be one / and may be 
one as thou Father art in me and I in thee, that they also may 
be one in us: And the glory which thou gavest me I have given 

199 



285 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Cliap. V, 

them, that they may be one even as we are one, I in them and 
thou in me, that where I am, they also may be with me," John 
xvii. 20 24. As, therefore, they are thus one with the Lord, 
and, together with the Lord, constitute a kingdom which is 
called the kingdom of God, it is evident that nothing else is 
signified by their reigning. The term reign is mentioned, 
because it was before said, "Thou hast made us kings and 
ji riests ; " and by kings are signified they who are in wisdom 
by means of divine truths from the Lord ; and by priests, they 
who are in love by means of divine good from him, n. 20; 
hence it is that the kingdom of the Lord is also called " the 
kingdom of the saints," Dan. vii. 18, 27 ; and it is said of the 
apostles, that together "with the Lord they should judge the 
twelve tribes of Israel," Matt. xix. 28; although the Lord 
alone judges and reigns ; for he judges and reigns from divine 
good by divine truth, which is also from him in them ; but who 
believes, that what is in them from the Lord is their own, is 
cast out of the kingdom, or, what is the same thing, out of 
heaven. The signification of reigning is the same in the fol 
lowing passages in the Apocalypse: "They shall be priests of 
God and of Christ, and shall reign with him a thousand years," 
xx. 6 : and concerning those who are to enter into the New 
Jerusalem, it is said: "The Lamb shall enlighten them, and 
they shall reign for ever and ever," xxii. 5. 

285. It is said, They shall reign on the earth, because by 
earth here and in other places is meant the Lord s church in 
the heavens and on the earths ; the church, wherever it may be, 
is the Lord s kingdom. Lest, therefore, any one should believe 
that all who are redeemed by the Lord become kings and 
priests, and that they will reign on the earth, it must be proved 
from the Word that the earth signifies the thurch ; this may 
appear from the following passages : " Behold, Jehovah maketh 
the earth empty, and maketh it waste, and turneth it upside 
down : the land shall be utterly emptied. The earth mourneth 
and fadeth away ; the earth also is defiled under the inhabi 
tants thereof. Therefore hath the curse devoured the earth, 
therefore the inhabitants of the earth are burned, and few men 
left. When this shall-be in the midst of the land these shall be 
as the shaking of an olive tree. The windows from on high are 
open, and the foundations of the earth do shake. The earth is 
utterly broken down ; the earth is clean dissolved ; the earth is 
moved exceedingly. The earth shall reel to and fro like a 
drunkard," Isaiah xxiv. 1 23. " The lion is come up from his 
thicket to make thy land desolate : I beheld the earth, and lo, 
it was without form and void; Thus saith Jehovah, The whole 
land shall be desolate, for this shall the earth mourn," Jerem. 
iv. 7, 23 28. "How long shall the land mourn? the whole 
land is made desolate, because no man layeth it to heart," 
200 



V. 10, 11.] THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALFD. 285 

Jerein. xij. 4, 11 13. "The earth mourneth and languished!, 
Lebanon is ashamed and hewn clown," Isaiah xxxiii. 9. 
"And the land shall become burning pitch, and shall lie 
waste, * Isaiah xxxiv. 9, 10. " I have heard from the Lord of 
Hosts a consumption even determined upon the whole earth" 
Isaiah xxviii. 2, 22. "Behold, the day of Jehovah cometh, to 
lay the land desolate, and the earth shall remove out of her 
place," Isaiali xiii. 9, 13. "Then the earth shook and trem 
bled, and the foundations also of the hills moved," Psalm xviii. 
7, 8. "Therefore will we not fear though the earth be re 
moved ; lie uttereth his voice, the earth melted," Psalm xlvi. 3 
7, 9. " Have ye not understood from the foundations of 
the earth?" Isaiah xl. 21, 23. " O God, thou hast cast us off, 
thou hast made the earth to tremble; heal the breaches 
thereof, for it shaketh," Psalm Ix. 2, 4. "The earth and all 
the inhabitants thereof are dissolved ; I bear up the pillars of 
it," Psalm Ixxv. 3, 4. " Woe to the land shadowing with 
win<js : Go ye swift messengers to a nation scattered and 
peeled, whose land the rivers have spoiled," Isaiah xviii. 1, 2. 
ik Through the wrath of Jehovah, the land is darkened," Isaiah 
ix. 19. "For ye shall be a delightsome land" Malachi iii. 12. 
"I will give thee for a covenant of the people, to establish the 
earth Sing, O heavens, and be joyful, O earth" Isaiah xlix. 8, 
13. "I shall not see the Lord in the land of the living," 
Isaiah xxxviii. 11. " Which caused terror in the land of the 
living," Ezek. xxxii. 23 27. " Unless I had believed to see 
the goodness of Jehovah in the land of the living," Psalm xxvii. 
13. " Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth" 
Matt. v. 5. " I am Jehovah that maketli all things, that 
stretcheth forth the heavens alone ; that spreadeth abroad the 
earth by myself," Isaiah xliv. 23, 24; Zech. xii. 1 ; Jerein. x. 
11 13; li. 15; Psalm cxxxvi. 6. "Let the earth open and 
bring forth salvation ; thus saith Jehovah, who created the 
heavens and formed the earth" Isaiah xlv. 8, 12, 18, 19. 
" Behold, I create new heavens and a new earth" Isaiah Ixv. 
17; Ixvi. 22: besides many other places, which, if they were 
adduced, would fill a volume. The reason why the earth sig 
nifies the church, is, because, in many instances, it means the 
land of Canaan, in which the church was planted ; the heavenly 
Canaan is no other ; as, also, because when the earth is named, 
the angels, who are spiritual, do not think of the earth, but of 
the human, race that inhabit it and of their spiritual state, and 
their spiritual state is the state of the church. The earth has 
also an opposite sense, and in that it signifies damnation, be 
cause when there is no church in man, there is damnation ; in 
this sense the earth is mentioned in Isaiah xiv. 12 ; xxi. 9 ; xxvi, 
19, 21 ; xxix. 4; xlvii. 1 ; Ixiii. 6 ; Lament, ii. 10 ; Ezek. xxvi. 
20 ; xxxii. 24 ; Numb. xvi. 29 33 ; xxvi. 10 ; and in other places. 
201 



86, 287 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. V 

286. And I beheld, and I heard the voice cf many angels 
round about the throne, and the animals and the ciders, signi 
fies a confession and glorification of the Lord by the angels of 
the inferior heavens. That there was a confession and glorifi 
cation of the Lord by the angels of the three heavens, may be 
seen above, n. 275 ; and by the angels of the superior heavens, 
from verse 8 to 10 ; and therefore now by the angels of the in 
ferior heavens, verses 11, 12 ; wherefore by the voice of the 
angels round abont the throne, is meant the confession and 
glorification of the Lord by the angels of the inferior heavens. 
On this occasion lie saw also the animals and elders together 
with them, because by the animals and elders are signified the 
angels of the superior heavens, n. 275, and the inferior heavens 
never act separately from the superior heavens, but in conjunc 
tion with them ; for the Lord influences all the heavens imme 
diately from himself; thus also the inferior heavens : and his 
influence is at the same time mediately through the superior 
heavens into the inferior. This is the reason, therefore, why he 
first saw and heard the animals by themselves, and afterwards in 
conjunction with the others. 

287. And the numler of them was myriads of myriads, and 
thousands of thousands , signifies all in truths and in good. By 
number, in the natural sense, is meant that which has relation 
to measure or weight, but by number, in the spiritual sense, that 
which has relation to quality : and here their quality is described 
by their being myriads of myriads, and thousands of thousands, 
for a myriad is predicated of truths, and a thousand of goods. 
The reason why a myriad is predicated of truths, and a thou 
sand of goods, is because a myriad is the greater number, and a 
thousand a less, and truths are manifold, but goods are simple ; 
and because where truths are treated of in the Word, goods are 
treated of also, on account of the marriage of good and truth 
existing in every particular, otherwise it would have been suffi 
cient to have said myriads of myriads. Since these two num 
bers have such a signification, they are mentioned also in other 
places, as in the following : " The chariots of God are two my 
riads, even thousands of angels, the Lord is amongst them as 
in Sinai in the holy place," rsalm Ixviii. 17. " I beheld, and 
the Ancient of Days did sit, thousand thousands ministered 
unto him, and myriads of myriads stood before him, "Dan. vii. 
9, 10. Moses saith of Joseph, " His horns are like the horns 
of unicorns, with them he shall push the people together to the 
ends of the earth ; and they are the myriads of Ephraim. and 
the thousands of Manasseh," Deut. xxxiii. 17. "Thou shalt 
not be afraid for the pestilence that walketh in darkness, nor 
for the destruction that wasteth at noon-day, a thousand shall 
fall at thy side, and a myriad at thy right hand," Psalm xci. 5 
7. " That our sheep may bring forth thousands and myriads 

202 



f, 



7. 11, 12.] THE APOCALYPSE BEVEALED. 288 

in our streets," Psalm cxliv. 13. "Will Jehovah, be pleased 
with thousands of rams, or with myriads of rivers of oil ?" 
Micah vi. 7. When the ark rested, Moses said, " Return, Je 
hovah, unto the myriads of the thousands of Israel," Numb. x. 
36. In all these places myriads are spoken of truths, and thou 
sands of goods. 

288. Saying with a loud voice, Worthy is the Lamb that was 
slain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and honour, and 
i/lory, signifies confession from the heart, that to the Lord as to 
lis Divine Humanity belong omnipotence, omniscience, divine 

good, and divine truth. To say with a loud voice, signifies con 
fession from the heart : thou art worthy, signifies that in him 
are the things which follow ; a Lamb signifies the Lord as to 
the Divine Humanity; power signifies divine power, which is 
omnipotence ; riches, and wisdom, signify divine knowledge 
and wisdom, which are omniscience ; honour and glory, signify 
divine good and divine truth. That riches signify knowledge s 
of what is good and true, and thus science, may be seen above, 
n. 206 ; therefore, when said of the Lord, they signify omnisci 
ence ; and that honour and glory, when spoken of the Lord, 
signify divine good and divine truth, see above, n. 249. 

289. And blessing, signifies all these things in him, and from 
him in them. By blessing is meant every good w T hich man re 
ceives from the Lord, or power and opulence, and all that is 
implied by them ; but especially every spiritual good, or love 
and wisdom, charity and faith, and the joy and felicity result 
ing from them, which constitute eternal life ; and since all these 
are from the Lord, it follows that they are in him, for if they 
were not in him, they could not be in others from him : hence it 
is, that, in the Word, the Lord is called the Blessed, and also 
Blessing, that is, Blessing Itself. That Jehovah, or the Lord, 
is called the Blessed, is evident from these places : u The high 
priest asked Jesus, Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed ?" 
Mark xiv. 61. Jesus said, " Ye shall not see me henceforth, 
till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the 
Lord," Matt, xxiii 39 ; Luke xiii. 35. Melchisedek blessed 
Abram, and said, u Blessed be the most high God, who hath 
delivered thine enemies into thy hand," Gen. xiv. 18 20. 
" Blessed be Jehovah, the God of Shem," Gen. ix. 26. " Bless 
ed be Jehovah, because he hath heard my voice," Psalm xxviii. 
6. " Blessed be Jehovah, for he hath showed me his marvel 
lous kindness," Psalm xxxi. 21. " Blessed be Jehovah, God of 
Israel, from everlasting to everlasting," Psalm xli. 13. In like 
manner, Psalm Ixvi. 20 ; Psalm Ixviii. 19, 35 ; Psalm Ixxii. 18, 
19 ; Psalm Ixxxix. 52 ; Psalm cxix. 12 ; Psalm cxxiv. 6 ; Psalm 
cxxxv. 21 ; Psalm cxliv. 1 ; Luke i. 68. This is the reason why 

^ blessing is here mentioned, as also verse 12, and vii. 12 ; and 
" likewise in the Psalms of David : " Glory and honour dost thou 
203 



290 THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. [CJiap. V. 

lay upon him, for thou hast made him Blessing for ever," Psalm 
xxi. 5, 6 : speaking of the Lord. Hence it may be seen what 
is meant in the Word by blessing God, namely, to ascribe to 
him all blessing ; also to pray that he would bless, and to give 
thanks for having blessed ; as may appear from the following 
passages : The mouth of Zacharias was opened, and he spake, 
blessing God, Luke i. 64, 68. Simeon took up the infant Jesus 
in his arms, and blessed God, Luke ii. 28, 30, 31. " I will bless 
Jehovah, who hath given me counsel, Psalm xvi. 7. O " bless 
the name of Jehovah, show forth his salvation from day to day," 
Psalm xcvi. 1 3. " Ulessed be the Lord from day to day, 
bless ye God in the congregations, even the Lord from the foun 
tain of Israel," Psalm Ixviii. 19, 26. 

290. And every creature which is in heaven, and on the earth, 
and under the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that are 
in them, heard I saying, signifies confession and glorification of 
the Lord by the angels of the lowest heaven. That this is a 
confession and glorification of the Lord by the angels of the 
lowest heaven, is evident from the series, because the confes 
sions and glorifications of the Lord before mentioned, were by 
the angels of the superior and inferior heavens, n. 275, and fol 
lowing numbers, 286, and following numbers ; for there are 
three heavens, and innumerable societies in each, and each of 
them is called a heaven. That by every creature which is in 
heaven, and on the earth, and under the earth, and in the sea, 
are meant angels, is evident, for it says, " heard I saying," and 
they said, " Blessing, and honour, and glory, and power, be 
unto Him that sitteth upon the throne and unto the Lamb for 
ever and ever." Their being called creatures is conformable 
to the style of the Word, in which, by all created things, as well 
those which belong to the animal kingdom as those which be 
long to the vegetable kingdom, are signified various things in 
man, in general such things as belong to his will or affection, 
and such as pertain to his understanding or thought ; for they 
signify such things, because they correspond ; and since the 
Word is written by mere correspondences, similar things are 
said of the angels of heaven and men of the church ; in proof 
of which a few passages only shall be adduced, which are as 
follows : Jesus said unto his disciples, " Go ye into all the world, 
and preach the gospel to every creature" Mark xvi. 15. " Ask 
now the beasts, and they shall teach thee ; and the fowls of the 
air, and they shall tell thee ; or speak to the earth, and it shall 
teach thee, and the fishes of the sea shall declare unto thee ; 
who knoweth not in all these, that the hand of Jehovah hath 
wrought this?" Job xii. 7, 10. "Let the heaven and earth 
praise Jehovah, the seas, and every thing that creepeth therein, 
for God will save Zion," Psalm. Ixix. 34, 35. " Praise Jehovah 
from the earth, ye dragons and all deeps," Psalm cxlviii. 7. "J 
204 



V. 13."] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 291 

will utterly consume all things from off the land, I will con 
sume man and beast, I will consume the fowls of the heaven, 
and the fishes of the sea," Zeph. i. 2, 3. The same in Isaiah 
1. 2, 3 ; Ezek. xxxviii. 19, 20; Hosea iv. 2, 3 ; Apoc. viii. 79. 
" Let the heavens rejoice, and the earth be glad ; let the sea 
roar, and the fulness thereof; let the field be joyful, and all that 
is therein ; then shall all the trees of the wood rejoice before 
Jehovah; for he cometh, for he cometh to judge the earth" 
Psalm xcvi. 11 13: and in many other places. It is said 
every created thing, \>y which is meant every reformed thing, 
or all the reformed, for to create signifies to reform and regen 
erate, n. 254. What is meant by " in heaven, in the earth, and 
under the earth," may be seen above, n. 260 ; and what by the 
sea, n. 238 ; -hence it is evident what is signified by such things 
as are in the sea, and all that are in them ; these things are 
meant in the Word by fishes of the sea, which are the sensual 
affections, these being the lowest affections of the natural man, 
for in the spiritual world such affections appear at a distance 
like fishes, and as if they were in the eea, because the atmosphere 
in which they are, appears watery, and therefore to those who 
are in the heavens and on the earth there, seems like a sea, as 
may be seen above, n. 238, and concerning fishes, n. 405. 

291. Blessing, and hortour, and glory, and power, be unto 
Him that sitteth upon the throne and unto the Lamb for ever 
and ever, signifies that in the Lord from eternity, and thence 
in his Divine Humanity, is the all of heaven and the church, 
divine good, and divine truth, and divine power, and from him 
in those who are in heaven and in the church. That the Lord 
from eternity is Jehovah, who took upon him the human nature 
in time, that he might redeem and save mankind, may be seen 
above, n. 281 ; therefore by Him that sat upon the throne, is 
meant the Lord from eternity, who is called the Father, and by 
the Lamb, the Lord as to the Divine Humanity, which is the 
Son ; and because the Father is in the Son, and the Son in the 
Father, and they are one, it is evident that by both, or by Him 
that sat upon the throne and the Lamb, the Lord is meant ; 
and because they are one, it is said that the Lamb also was in 
the midst of the throne, verse 6 ; also vii. 17. That blessing, 
when spoken of the Lord, is the all of heaven and of the 
church in him and from him, in those who are in heaven and in 
the church, may be seen above, n. 289. That honour and glory 
are divine good and divine truth, may also be seen above, n. 
249 : and that strength, when spoken of the Lord, is divine 
power, is evident. That all these are the Lord s, may appear 
from what is said in Daniel : " Behold, one like the Son of Man 
came to the Ancient of Days / and there was given him domm- 
ion, and glory, and the kingdom, that all people, nations, and 
languages, should serve him : his dominion is an everlasting 
2O5 



292 294 THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. [Chap. v. 

dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that 
which shall not be destroyed.," vii. 13, 14. That the Ancient 
of Days is the Lord from eternity, appears from these words in 
Micah : " But them, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little 
among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall He come 
forth unto me, that is to be ruler in Israel ; and whose goings 
forth have been, from of old, from the days of everlasting" v. 
2 : as also from these in Isaiah : " For unto us a Child is born, 
unto us a Son is given, and the government shall be upon his 
shoulder : and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, 
the Mighty God, the Everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace," 
ix. 6. 

292. And the four animals said, Amen, signifies divine 
confirmation from the Word. That the four animals or cherubs 
signify the Word, may be seen above, n. 239 ; and that amen 
signifies divine confirmation from truth itself, n. 23, 28, 61, thus 
from the Word. 

293. And the four-and-twenty elders fell down and wor 
shipped Him that liveth for ever and ever, signifies humili 
ation before the Lord, and from humiliation, adoration of him 
by all in the heavens, in whom and from whom is everlasting 
life, as above, n. 251, and n. 58, 60 

294. To the above I will add this Memorable Eelation. In 
the natural world the speech of man is twofold, because his 
thought is twofold, exterior and interior ; for a man can speak 
from interior thought and at the same time from exterior 
thought, and he can speak from exterior thought and not from 
interior, yea, contrary to interior thought, whence come dis 
simulation, flattery, and hypocrisy. But in the spiritual world 
man s speech is not twofold, but single ; a man there speaks as 
he thinks, otherwise the sound is harsh and oifends the ear; but 
yet he may be silent, and so not publish the thoughts of his 
mind ; a hypocrite, therefore, \vhen he comes into the company 
of the wise, either goes away, or retires to a corner of the room 
and withdraws himself from observation, and sits silent. On one 
occasion there was a numerous assembly in the spiritual world, 
who were discoursing on this subject, and saying, that not to be 
able to speak but as one thinks, must be a hard thing for those 
who might be in company with the good, but yet who have not 
thought justly concerning God and the Lord. In the midst of 
the assembly were those of the reformed church, and many of 
the clergy, and next to them were papists and monks ; and 
they all at first said that it was not a hard thing at all ; " What 
need is there to speak otherwise than one thinks, and if one 
should happen not to think justly, can he not shut his mouth 
and keep silence?" And one of the clergy said, "Who doea 
not think justly of God and the Lord ?" But some of the com- 

206 









T. 14. J THE APOCALYPSE EEVEALED. 204 

pany said, " Let us make the experiment." And they who had 
confirmed themselves in the idea of a trinity of persons in the 
Godhead, especially from these words in the Athanasian doc 
trine, " There is one person of the Father, another of the Son, 
and another of the Holy Ghost ; and as the Father is God, so 
also the Son is God, and the Holy Ghost is God," were desired 
to say, " One God ;" but they could not; they distorted and 
folded their lips in many ways, "but could not articulate any 
other words than such as were consonant with the ideas of their 
thought, which were ideas of three persons, and thence of three 
gods. They who had confirmed themselves in faith separate 
from charity, were then desired to name "Jesus;" but they 
could not ; yet they could all say Christ, and also God the 
Father. This they were surprised at, and inquired into the 
cause, which they found to be this$ viz., that they had prayed to 
God the Father for the Son s sake, and had not prayed to the 
Saviour himself ; for Jesus signifies Saviour. They were then 
desired, by thinking of the Lord s Divine Humanity, to say, 
" Divine Human " but none of the clergy that were present 
could do so, though some of the laity could, wherefore the mat 
ter was taken into serious consideration ; and then, I. The fol 
lowing texts from the evangelists were read to them : " The 
Father hath given all things into the Son s hand," John iii. 35. 
" The Father hath given the Son power over all flesh," John 
xvii. 2. " All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth," 
Matt, xxviii. 18 ; and they were directed to keep in mind, that 
Christ, both as to his Divinity and as to his Humanity, is the 
God of heaven and earth, and thus to pronounce " Divine 
Human " but still they could not; and they said that they 
were thus enabled, indeed, to entertain the thought of it by 
virtue of their understanding concerning it, but not the ac 
knowledgment, and that on this account they were not able. 
II. Afterwards was read to them out of Luke, i. 32, 34, 35, 
that the Lord as to the human nature was the Son of Jehovah 
God, and that every where in the Word he is called, as to his 
Humanity, the Son of God, and also the Only-begotten, and 
they were desired to keep this in mind ; and likewise that the 
only-begotten Son of God born in the world cannot but be God, 
as the Father is God, and to utter the words, "Divine Human" 
But they said, " We cannot, by reason that our spiritual 
thought, which is interior, does not admit into the thought 
which is next to the speech any other than similar ideas, and 
that thence they could perceive, that it is not permitted them 
to divide their thoughts, as it was in the natural world." III. 
Then were read to them these words of the Lord to Philip : 
" Philip said, Lord, show us the Father, and the Lord said, He 
who seeth me seeth the Father; believest thou not that I am 
m the Father, and the Father in me *" John xiv. 8 11 \ and 
207 



94 THE APOCALYPSE .REVEALED. [Chap. V 

other places; as "That he and the Father are one," John x. 30, 
and the like ; and it was enjoined them to keep this in mind, 
and say, "Divine Human;" but as their thought was not 
rooted in the acknowledgment that the Lord was God as to his 
human nature also, therefore they could not ; they twisted and 
folded their lips even to indignation, and would have forced 
their mouths to utter and extort it, but it was not in their 
power. The reason was, because the ideas of thought, which 
flow from acknowledgment, make one with words uttered by 
the tongue, with those who are in the spiritual world, and where 
such ideas do not exist, there are no words, for ideas become 
words in speaking. IV. Moreover there was read to them from 
the doctrine of the church received throughout the whole world, 
the following passage, taken from the Athanasian Creed : "That 
the divine and human nature in the Lord are not two but one, 
yea, one person, united altogether like soul and body ;" and it 
was said to them, From this you may possibly have an idea 
grounded in the acknowledgment that the Lord s human nature 
is divine, seeing that his soul is divine, for it is a doctrine of 
your own church, acknowledged by you when in the world. 
Moreover the soul is essence itself, and the body its form, and 
the essence and form make one, like being and existence, and 
like the efficient cause of the effect, and the effect itself; they 
retained that idea, and were wont to have uttered " Divine 
Human /" but it was not in their power ; for their interior idea 
concerning the Lord s Humanity exterminated and expunged 
this new adventitious idea, as they called it. V. Again there 
was read to them this passage out of John : " The Word was 
with God, and God was the Word ; and the Word was made 
flesh," i. 1, 14 ; and the following from Paul : " In Christ Jesus 
dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily," Coloss. ii. 9 : 
and they were desired to think firmly, that God, who was the 
Word, was made flesh, and that every thing divine, or all the 
divinity, dwells in him bodily, as they might, perhaps, by these 
means be able to pronounce " Divine Human j" but still they 
could not, avowing openly that they could not entertain an idea 
of a divine human beins;;, because God is God, and man is man, 
and God is a spirit, and of a spirit we have never thought any 
otherwise than as of air or ether. YI. At length it was said to 
them, " Ye know that the Lord said, Abide in me, and I in 
you ; he who abideth in me, and I in him, the same beareth 
much fruit, for without me ye can do nothing, " John xv. 4, 5. 
And as some of the English clergy were present, there was read 
to them this passage out of one of their prayers before the Holy 
Sacrament : " For when we spiritually eat the flesh of Christ, 
and drink his blood, then we dwell in Christ, and Christ in us." 
" If now you will but think that this cannot take place, except 
the Lord s Humanity be Divine, you may pronounce * Divwd 
208 






Chap. V.] THE APOCALYFSE KEVEALED. 294: 

Human] from an acknowledgment in thought ;" but still they 
could not ; so deeply was the idea impressed on their minds that 
the Lord s Divinity was one thing and his Humanity another, 
and that his Divinity was like the Divinity of the Father, and 
his Humanity like the humanity of another man. But it was 
said to them, " How can you entertain such a thought ? Is it 
possible for a rational mind ever to think that God is three, and 
the Lord two 2" VII. Afterwards they turned to the Luther 
ans, saying, " That the Augustan Confession, and Luther, taught 
that the Son of God and the Son of Man in Christ are one per 
son, and that he, as to his human nature also, is the true, omni 
potent, and eternal God, and that as to this nature also, being 
present at the right hand of God Almighty, governs all things 
in heaven and earth, fills all things, is with us, and dwells and 
operates in us ; and that there is no distinction of adoration, 
because by the nature which is seen, the divinity which is not 
seen is adored, thus that in Christ God is Man and Man God." 
On hearing this, they said, " Is it so?" And they looked round, 
and presently they said, "This is what we did not know before, 
therefore we are not able." But one or two of them said, 
" We have read and written concerning these things, but yet 
when we thought of them in ourselves from ourselves, they 
were only words of which we had no interior idea." VIII. At 
length, turning to the papists, they said, " Possibly you can 
name the Divine Human] because you believe that in your 
eucharist, in the bread and wine and in every part, there is the 
whole of Christ, and also adore him as God, when you show and 
carry about the host ; and likewise because you call Mary the 
mother of God, consequently you acknowledge that she brought 
forth God, that is, the Divine Human." They then attempted 
to pronounce it from those ideas of their thought concerning 
the Lord, but could not, by reason of their entertaining a mate 
rial idea of his body and blood ; and by reason of the assertion 
that the human and not the divine power is transferred by him 
to the pope. Then a certain monk got up, and said, " That he 
could think of the Divine Human, from the most Holy Virgin 
Mary, the mother of God, and the same of the saint of his 
monastery." And another monk came, and said, " From my 
idea of the matter, I could rather call his holiness, the pope, 
the divine human, than Christ ;" but then some other monks 
pulled him back, and said, "Are you not ashamed of your 
self?" After this heaven was seen open, and there appeared 
tongues, as of flame, descending and influencing some ; and 
they then celebrated THE DIVINE HUMANITY OF THE LORD, say 
ing, " Kemove the idea of three gods, and believe that in the 
Lord dwells all the fulness of the Godhead bodily, and that the 
Father and he are one, as the soul and body are one, and that 
God is not air or ether, but that he is a Man, and then you 
209 o 



THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. VI 

will be brought into conjunction with heaven, and thereby 
have power from the Lord to pronounce the name of Jesus, 1 
and utter the words Divine Human. " 



CHAPTEE YL 

1. AND I saw when the Lamb opened one of the seals, and 
1 heard one of the four animals say, as with a voice of thunder, 
Come and see. 

2. And I saw, and behold, a white horse : and he that sat 
on him had a bow ; and a crown was given unto him : and he 
went forth conquering and to conquer. 

3. And when he had opened the second seal, I heard the sec 
ond animal say, Come and see. 

4. And there went out another horse that was red, and 
power was given to him that sat thereon to take peace from the 
earth, and that they should kill one another : and there was 
given unto him a great sword. 

5. And when he had opened the third seal, I heard the 
third animal say, Come and see. And I beheld, and lo, a black 
horse ; and he that sat on him had a pair of balances in his 
hand. 

6. And I heard a voice in the midst of the four animals say, 
A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley 
for a penny ; and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine. 

7. And when he had opened the fourth seal, I heard the 
voice of the fourth animal say, Come and see. 

8. And I looked, and behold, a pale horse : and his name 
that sat on him was Death, and hell followed with him. And 
power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, 
to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with 
the beasts of the earth. 

9. And when he had opened the fifth seal, I saw under the 
altar the souls of them that were slain for the Word of God, 
and for the testimony which they held. 

10. And they cried with a loud voice, saying, How long, O 
Lord, holy and true, dost thou not judge ancl avenge our blood 
on them that dwell on the earth ? 

11. And white robes were given unto every one of them ; 
and it was said unto them, that they should rest yet for a little 
season, until their fellow-servants also, and their brethren, that 
should be killed as they were, should be fulfilled. 

12. And I beheld when he opened the sixth seal, and lo, 
there was a great earthquake ; and the sun became black as 
sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood. 

210 



Chap, vi.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 

13. And the stars of heaven fell unto the earth, even as a 
Rg-tree casteth her untimely figs, when she is shaken of a 
mighty wind. 

14. And the heaven departed as a scroll, when it is rolled 
together : and every mountain and island were moved out ol 
their places. 

15. And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the 
rich men, and the chief captains, and the mighty men, and 
every bond-man, and every free-man, hid themselves in the 
dens and in the rocks of the mountains ; 

16. And said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and 
hide us from the face of Him that sitteth on the throne, and 
from the wrath of the Lamb ; 

IT. For the great day of his wrath is come, and who shall 
be able to stand ? 



THE SPIRITUAL SENSE. 

THE CONTENTS OF THE WHOLE CHAPTER. The subject treated 
of is concerning the exploration of those, on whom the last 
judgment is to be executed ; and exploration is made to dis 
cover the quality of their understanding of the Word, and 
thence the quality of their state of life. That they consisted of 
such as were in truths originating in good, verses 1. 2 ; of such 
as were without good, verses 3, 4 ; of such as were in contempt 
of truth, verses 5, 6 ; and of such as were totally devastated, 
both as to good and truth, verses 7, 8. Of the state of those 
who were preserved by the Lord from the wicked in the infe 
rior earth, and were to be delivered at the time of the last judg 
ment, verses 9, 10. Of the state of those who were in evils 
and thence in falses, the nature of that state at the day of the 
last judgment, verses 12 17. 

THE CONTENTS OF EACH YERSE. Y. 1, "And I saw when 
the Lamb opened one of the seals," signifies exploration from 
the Lord of all those upon whom the last judgment was about 
to be executed, as to their understanding of the Word, and 
thence as to their state of life : " And I heard one of the four 
animals say, as with a voice of thunder," signifies, according to 
the divine truth of the Word : " Come and see," signifies a 
manifestation concerning those who were first in order: v. 2, 
" And I saw, and behold, a white horse," signifies the under 
standing of truth and good from the Word with these : " And 
he that sat on him had a bow, * signifies that they had the doc 
trine of truth and good from the Word, by virtue of which they 
fought against the falses and evils which are from hell : " And a 
211 



THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. vi. 

crown was given unto him," signifies his token of combat : 
" And he went forth conquering, and to conquer," signifies vic 
tory over evils and falses to eternity : v. 3, " And when he had 
opened the second seal, I heard the second animal say, Come 
and see," signifies the same here as above : v. 4, " And there 
went out another horse that was red," signifies the understand 
ing of the Word destro} r ed as to good, and thence as to life, in 
these : " And power was given to him that sat thereon to 
take peace from the earth," signifies the taking away of charity, 
spiritual security, and internal tranquillity : " And that they 
should kill one another," signifies intestine hatreds, infestations 
from the hells, and internal restlessness : "And there was given 
unto him a great sword," signifies the destruction of truth by 
falses of evil : v. 5, " And when he had opened the third seal, I 
heard the third animal say, Come and see," signifies the same 
here as above : " And I beheld, and lo, a black horse," signifies 
the understanding of the Word destroyed in these as to truth, 
and thus as to doctrine: "And he that sat on him had a pair 
of balances in his hand," signifies the estimation of o;ood and 
truth, of what kind it was with these : v. 6, " And I heard a 
voice in the midst of the four animals say," signifies the divine 
protection of the Word by the Lord : " A measure of wheat for 
a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny," signifies, 
because the estimation of good and truth is so small as scarcely 
to amount to any thing : " And see thou hurt not the oil and 
the wine," signifies that it is provided by the Lord, that the 
holy goods and truths which lie interiorly concealed in the 
Word, shall not be violated and profaned : v. 7, " And when he 
had opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth ani 
mal say, Come and see," signifies the same here as above : v. 8, 
"And I looked, and behold, a pale horse," signifies the under 
standing of the Word destroyed both as to good and as to 
truth : " And his name that sat on him was Death, and hell 
followed with him," signifies the extinction of spiritual life and 
thence damnation : " And power was given unto them over the 
fourth part of the earth, to kill," signifies the destruction of all 
good in the church : " With sword, and with hunger, and with 
death, and with the beasts of the earth," signifies by falses of 
doctrine, by evils of life, by the love of self, and by lusts : v, 
9, " And when he had opened the fifth seal," signifies explora 
tion from the Lord into the state of life of those who were to 
be saved at the clay of the last judgment, and were in the mean 
time reserved : " t saw under the altar the souls of them that 
were slain for the Word of God, and for the testimony which 
they held," signifies those who were rej.ected by the wicked on 
account of their life being conformable to the truths of the 
Word, and their acknowledgment of the Lord s Divine Human 
ity, and who were guarded by the Lord that they might no 4 
212 



Chap. VI.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 

be seduced : v. 10, "And they cried with aloud voice," signifies 
grief of heart : " Saving, How long, O Lord, holy and true, 
dost thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell 
on the earth?" signifies by reason that the last judgment was 
protracted, and that they who offer violence to the Word and 
to the Lord s Divine Humanity were not removed : v. 11, "And 
white robes were given unto every one of them," signifies their 
communication and conjunction with angels who are in divine 
truths : " And it was said unto them, that they should rest yet 
for a little season, until their fellow-servants also, and their bre 
thren, that should be killed as they were, should be fulfilled," 
signifies that the last judgment should yet be protracted a little, 
till they should be collected, who should be rejected in like 
manner by the wicked : v. 12, " And I beheld, when he had 
opened the sixth seal," signifies exploration from the Lord of 
their state of life, who were interiorly evil, upon whom the last 
judgment was to be executed: "And lo, there was a great 
earthquake," signifies the state and terror of the church with 
those totally changed : " And the sun became black as sack 
cloth of hair, and the moon became as blood," signifies the 
adulteration of all the good of love in them, and the falsifica 
tion of all the truth of faith : v. 13, " And the stars of heaven 
fell unto the earth," signifies the dispersion of all the know 
ledges of good and truth : " Even as a fig-tree casteth her un 
timely figs, when she is shaken of a mighty wind," signifies by 
the ratiocination of the natural man separated from the spirit 
ual : v. 14, " And the heaven departed as a scroll when it is 
rolled together," signifies separation from heaven and conjunc 
tion with hell : " And every mountain and island were moved 
out of their places," signifies that all the good of love and truth 
of faith departed : v. 15, " And the kings of the earth, and the 
great men, and the rich men, and the chief captains, and the 
mighty men, and every bond-man, and every free-man," signi 
fies those who, before separation, were in the understanding of 
truth and good, in the science of the knowledges thereof, in 
erudition, either from others or from themselves, and yet not in 
a life conformable thereto : " Hid themselves in the dens and 
in the rocks of the mountains," signifies that they were now in 
evils and in falses of evil : v. 16, " And said to the mountains 
and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of Him that 
sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb," signifies 
confirmations of evil by means of falsity and of falsity from 
evil, until they did not acknowledge any divinity in the Lord : 
v. IT, " For the great day of his wrath is come, and who shall 
be able to stand ?" signifies that they were made such of them 
selves by separation from the good and faithful on account of 
the la*t judgment, which otherwise they would not be able to 
abide. 
213 



295 298 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. \l 



THE EXPLANATION 

295. And I saw when the Lamb opened one of the seals, sig 
nifies exploration from the Lord of all those upon whom the 
last judgment was about to be executed, as to their understand 
ing of the Word, and thence as to their state of life. This is 
signified, because now follows in order the exploration of all 
upon whom the last judgment was about to be performed, as to 
their states of life, and this from the Lord according to the Word. 
Such then is the signification of the Lamb s opening the seals 
of the Book. That to open the Book, and loose the seals thereof, 
Bignifies to know the states of the life of all, and to judge every 
one according to his own respectively, may be seen above, n. 
259, 265, 266, 26T, 273, 274. 

296. And I heard one of the four animals say, as with a 
voice of thunder, signifies according to the divine truth of the 
Word. That by the four animals, or cherubs, is understood the 
Word, may be seen above, n. 239, 275, 286, and by a voice of 
thunder, the perception of divine truth, n. 236. It is here said 
a voice of thunder, because by this animal is meant the lion, by 
which is signified the divine truth of the Word as to its power, 
n. 241 ; hence it is, that this animal is said to have spoken as 
with a voice of thunder ; for it is said afterwards, that the second 
animal spake, then the third, and the fourth. 

297. Come and see, signifies a manifestation concerning those 
who were first in order. It has been observed above, that in 
this chapter is described the exploration of all upon whom the 
last judgment was to be executed, as to their states of life, and 
this from the Lord according to the Word, n. 295 ; here there 
fore is described the exploration of the first in order, as to their 
understanding of the Word, and consequent state of life. That 
the church exists from the Word, and that the nature and qual 
ity of every church is determined by the understanding it has 
of the Word, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusa 
lem concerning the Sacred Scripture, n. 76 79. 

298. And I saw, and behold, a white horse, signifies the 
understanding of truth and good from the Word with these. 
By horse is signified the understanding of the Word, and by a 
wnite horse the understanding of truth from the Word ; for 
white is predicated of truths, n. 167. That a horse signifies the 
understanding of the Word, is shown in a particular tract con 
cerning The White Horse but as a few passages only are there 
quoted, others shall be here adduced by way of further confir 
mation. This is very manifest indeed, from the circumstance 
of horses being seen to go out of the Book which the Lamb had 
opened, and from the animals saying, Come and see ; for by 

" animals is signified the Word, n. 239, 275, 286; so likewise 






V. 1, 2.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 298 

by the Book, n. 257 ; and by the Son of Man, who is here the 
Lamb, the Lord as to the Word, n. 44. From these considera 
tions it is at once evident, that nothing is here meant by horse 
but the understanding of the Word. This may appear more 
manifestly still from the following passages in the Apocalypse 
" I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse, and He that 
sat upon him is called the Word of God, and he hath on his 
vesture and on his thigh a name written, King of kings and 
Lord of lords. And his armies in the heavens followed him 
upon white horses," xix. 11, 13, 14, 16. That a horse signifies 
the understanding of the Word, may also appear from the fol 
lowing places : u Was thy wrath against the sea, O Jehovah, 
that thou didst ride upon thine horses, and thy chariots of sal 
vation ? Thou didst walk through the sea with thine horses, 
through the heap of great waters," Habak. iii. 8, 15. Jehovah s 
liorses* hoofs are counted like flint, Isaiah v. 28. "In that 
day I will smite every horse with astonishment, and his rider 
with madness, and will smite every horse of the people with 
blindness," Zech. xii. 4. " In that day there shall be upon the 
"bells of the horses, holiness unto Jehovah," Zech. xiv. 20. "Be 
cause God hath deprived her of wisdom, neither hath imparted 
to her understanding. What time she lifteth up herself on high 
she scorneth the horse and his rider," Job xxxix. 17, 18. " And 
I will cut off the horse from Jerusalem, and he shall speak 
peace to the heathen," Zech. ix. 10. " At thy rebuke, O God 
of Jacob, both the chariot and horse are cast into a dead sleep," 
Psalm Ixxvi. 6. " And I will overthrow the throne of king 
doms, and I will overthrow the chariots and those that ride in 
them, and the horses and their riders shall come down," Haggai 
ji. 22. "And with thee will I destroy kingdoms ; and with thee 
will I break in pieces the horse and his rider," Jerem. li. 20, 21. 
Gather yourselves on every side to my sacrifice ; thus shall 
ye be filled at my table with horses and chariots, and I will set 
my glory among the nations," Ezek. xxxix. 17, 20, 21. " Ga 
ther yourselves together unto the supper of the great God ; 
that ye may eat the flesh of horses, and of them that sit on 
them," Apoc. xix. 17, 18. " Dan shall be a serpent by the way, 
that biteth the horse heels, so that his rider shall fall backward. 
I have waited for thy salvation, O Jehovah," Gen. xlix. 17, 18. 
" Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, O most Mighty, and ride 
prosperously because of truth," Psalm xlv. 3, 4.^ " Sing unto 



rod, extol Him that rideth on the heavens," Psalm Ixviii. 5 
" Behold, Jehovah rideth upon a swift cloud," Isaiah xix. 1, 2 
Sing praises unto the Lord which " rideth upon the heaven of 
heavens which were of old," Psalm Ixviii. 34. God rode upon 
a cherub, Psalm xviii. 10. "Then shalt thou delight thyself in 
Jehovah, and I will cause thee to ride upon the high places 
of the earth," Isaiah Iviii. 14 " Jehovah alone did lead him. 
215 



298 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Cliap. vi. 

and made him to ride upon the high places of the earth," Dent, 
xxxii. 12, 13. "I will make Ephraim to ride" Hosea x. 11. 
Ephraim also signifies the understanding of the Word. Be 
cause Elijah and Elisha represented the Lord as to the Word, 
therefore they were called the chariot of Israel and his horse 
men : Elisha said to Elijah, " My father, my father, the chariot 
of Israel and the horsemen thereof," 2 Kinop ii. 12 ; and king 
Joash said to Elisha, " O my father, the chariot of Israel and the 
horsemen thereof," 2 Kings xiii. 14. " Jehovah opened the 
eyes of Elisha s young man, and he saw ; and, behold, the 
mountain was full of horses and chariots of fire round about 
Elisha," 2 Kings vi. 17. A chariot signifies doctrine drawn 
from the Word, and a horseman, one that is wise by means of 
it. The same is signified by tliQfour chariots which came out 
from between the mountains of brass, and by the four horses in 
them, which were red, black, white, and grisled, which are also 
called the four spirits, and are said to have gone forth from 
standing before the Lord of all the earth, Zech. vi. 1 8, 15. 
In these places, by horses is meant the understanding of the 
Word, or the understanding of truth from the Word ; and ir 
like manner in other places. It may appear still more clearly 
from the mention that is made of horses in an opposite sense, 
in which they signify the understanding of the Word and of 
truth falsified by reasonings, and likewise destroyed ; as also 
self-derived intelligence ; as in the following places : " Woe to 
them that go down to Egypt for help ; and stay on horses, but 
look not unto the Holy One of Israel. Now the Egyptians are 
men and not God, and their horses, flesh and not spirit," Isaiah 
xxxi. 1, 3. "Thou shalt in any wise set him king over Israel 
whom Jehovah thy God shall choose : but he shallnot multiply 
Jiorses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt to the 
end that he should multiply horses," Deut. xvii. 15, 16. This 
is said, because by Egypt is signified science and reasoning from 
self-derived intelligence, and thus the falsification of the truth 
of the Word, which is here expressed by a horse. " Ashur 
shall not save us, we will not ride upon horses" Hosea xiv. 3. 
" Some trust in chariots, and some in horses, but we will re 
member the name of the Lord our God," Psalm xx. 7. " A 
horse is a vain thing for safety," Psalm xxxiii. 17. " Jehovah 
delighteth not in the strength of the horse," Psalm cxlvii. 10. 
" Thus saith Jehovah God, the Holy One of Israel, in confi 
dence shall be your strength ; but ye said, No ; for we will flee 
upon horses ; we will ride upon the swift," Isaiah xxx. 15, 16. 
" Jehovah will make Judah as a goodly horse. The riders on 
horses shall be confounded," Zech. x. 3, 4, 5. " Woe to the 
bloody city, it is all full of lies, the prancing of horses, and 
of the jumping chariots ; the horseman lifteth up," Nahum iii. 

L " I will bring upon Cyrus the king of Babylon, with 

216 






V. 2.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 299 

horses, and with chariots, and with horsemen by reason of 
the abundance of his horses their dust shall cover thee ; thy 
walls shall shake at the noise of the horsemen and of the cha 
riots ; with the hoofs of his horses shall he tread down all thy 
streets," Ezek. xxvi. 7 11. By Tyre is signified the church as 
to the knowledges of truth, here such as are falsified in her, 
which are denoted by the horses of Babylon : besides other 
places ; as Isaiah v. 26, 28 ; Jerem. vi. 22, 23 ; viii. 16 ; xlvi. 
4, 9 ; 1. 37, 38, 42 ; Ezek. xvii. 15 ; xxiii. 5, 20 ; Habak. i. 6, 8, 
9. 10 ; Psalm Ixvi. 11. 12. The understanding of the Word 
destroyed is also signified by the red, black, and pale horse, 
mentioned below, that it is from appearances in the spiritual 
world that a horse signifies the understanding of truth from the 
Word, see the small tract concerning The White Horse. 

299. A.nd he that sat on him had a how, signifies that they 
had the doctrine of truth and good from the Word, by virtue of 
which they fought against the falses and evils which are from 
hell, thus against hell. By him that sat on the white horse, as 
mentioned in Apoc. xix. 13, is meant the Lord as to the Word ; 
but by him that sat on this white horse, is understood a man- 
angel as to the doctrine of truth and good from the Word, thus 
from the Lord ; in like manner as by the Lord s army in hea 
ven, who " followed the Lord upon white horses" Apoc. xix. 
14. Of Him that sat on the white horse, Apoc. xix., it is said, 
that out of his mouth went forth a sharp sword, that with it he 
should smite the nations ; and by the sword out of his mouth, 
is signified the divine truth of the Word fighting against falses 
and evils, n. 52, 108, 117 ; but here it is said that he who sat on 
this white horse had a bow, and by a bow is signified the doc 
trine of truth and good drawn from the Word fighting against 
evils and falses. To fight against falses and evils is also to fight 
against the hells, because evils and falses are from thence, there 
fore this also is signified. That a bow, in the Word, signifies 
doctrine combating, in both senses, may appear from these 
passages : " Whose arrows are sharp, and all their bows bent, the 
horses hoofs shall be counted like flint," Isaiah v. 28. " The 
Lord bent his low like an enemy," Lament, ii. 4. " Thou, O 
Jehovah, didst ride upon thine horses, thy low was made quite 
naked," Habak. iii. 8, 9. Who " gave the nations before him 
and made him rule over kings ? he gave them as dust to his 
sword, and as driven stubble to his low" Isaiah xli. 2. In 
these places a bow, because it is applied to Jehovah or the 
Lord, signifies the Word, from which the Lord fights in man 
against evils and falses. " And I will cut oif the chariot from 
Ephraim, and the horse from Jerusalem, and the battle low 
shall be cut off; and he shall speak peace to the heathen," 
Zech. ix. 10. " For lo, the wicked bent their low, they make 
ready their arrow upon the string, that they may privily shoot 
237 



300 302 THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. [Chap. vL 

at the upright of heart," Psalm xi. 2. " The archers have 
sorely grieved Joseph, and shot at him, and hated him ; but 
his bow abode in strength, and the arms of his hands were 
made strong by the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob," Gen. 
xlix. 23, 24. " Put yourselves in array against Babylon round 
about ; all ye that bend the bow, shoot at her, spare no arrows, 
for she hath sinned against Jehovah," Jerem. 1. 14, 29. David 
lamented over Saul " to teach the children of Judah the use of 
the low" 2 Sam. i. 17. In that lamentation the combat of 
truth against falses is treated of. " Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts ; 
Behold, I will break the bow of Elam, the cnief of their 
might," Jerem. xlix. 35. " Jehovah hath made me a polished 
shaft, in his quiver hath he hid me," Isaiah xlix. 2. " Lo, 
children are an heritage of Jehovah, happy is the man that 
hath his quiver full of them," Psalm cxxvii. 3, 4, 5. Children 
here, as in other places, signify truths of doctrine. " In Salem 
also is the tabernacle of Jehovah, there brake he the arroivs 
of the bow, the shield, the sword and the battle," Psalm Ixxvi. 
2, 3, 4. " Jehovah maketh wars to cease unto the ends of the 
earth, he breaketh the bow, and cutteth the spear in sunder, he 
burnoth the chariots in the fire," Psalm xlvi. 9 ; Ezek. xxxix. 
8, 9 Hosea ii. 18. In these places a bow signifies the doc- 
trino of truth contending against falses, and, in an opposite 
sense, false doctrine contending against truths ; therefore ar 
rows and shafts signify truths or falses. As war, in the Word, 
signifies spiritual war, therefore warlike arms, such as the 
sword, spear, shield, target, bow and arrows, signify such things 
as are proper thereto. 

300. And a crown was given unto him, signifies his token of 
combat. A crown signifies a token of combat, because in ancient 
times kings wore crowns in battle, as may appear from history, 
and partly from 2 Sam. i. 10, where the man says to David con 
cerning Saul, that when he was fallen in battle, " he took the 
crown that was upon his head, and the bracelets that were upon 
his arm ;" as also from what is said of the king of Rabbah and 
David, 2 Sam. xii. 29, 30. And as temptations are spiritual com 
bats which the martyrs sustained, therefore crowns were given 
them as tokens of victory, n. 103. Hence it appears, that by a 
crown is here signified the token of their combat ; therefore it 
follows, " And he went forth conquering, and to conquer." 

301. And he went forth conquering and to conquer, signifies 
victory over evils and falses to eternity. It is said conquering 
and to conquer, because he who in spiritual combats, which are 
temptations, conquers in this world, conquers to eternity, for the 
hells cannot assault any one who has conquered them. 

302. And when he had opened the second seal, signifies ex 
ploration from the Lord of those upon whom the last judgment 
was to be executed, respecting their states of life. The signi 

218 






V. 2 4.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 303 305 

fication here is similar to what was shown before, n. 295, only 
with the difference mentioned in what follows. 

303. I heard the second animal say, signifies according tc 
the divine truth of the Word, as above, n. 296. 

304. Come and see, signifies a manifestation concerning the 
second in order, as may appear from the explanation above, n. 
297, but there concerning the first in order, and here concern 
ing the second. 

305. And there went out another horse that was red, signi 
fies the understanding of the Word destroyed as to good, and 
thence as to life in these. By a horse is signified the under 
standing of the Word, n. 298 ; and by a red horse is signified 
good destroyed. That white is predicated of truths, because it 
proceeds from the light of the sun of heaven, and that red 
is predicated of goods because it proceeds from the fire of the 
sun of heaven, may be seen above, n. 167, 231. But the rea 
son why red is predicated of good destroyed, is, because an 
infernal redness is signified, proceeding from infernal fire, 
which is the love of evil ; this kind of redness is hideous and 
abominable, there being nothing alive therein, but all dead ; 
hence it is, that by a red horse is signified the understanding 
of the Word destroyed as to good. This may also appear from 
the description of him below ; that " it was given him to take 
peace from the earth, that men should kill one another :" the 
second animal also, being like unto a calf, by which is signified 
the divine truth of the Word as to affection, n. 241, said, 
" Come and see," and thus showed that the?*e was no affection 
of good, and thence no good in them. That red is spoken of 
love, as well the love of good as of evil, may appear from the 
following places : " He washed his garments in wine, and his 
clothes in the blood of grapes ; his eyes shall be red with 
wine, and his teeth white with milk," Gen. xlix. 11, 12 ; speak 
ing of the Lord. " Who is this that cometh from Edom ? 
Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel, and thy garments 
like him that treadeth in the wine-fat ?" Isaiah xliii. 1, 2 ; also 
of the Lord. " Her Nazarites were purer than snow, they were 
whiter than milk, they we re more red than rubies," Lament, iv. 
7 ; in these passages red is predicated of the love of good ; in 
those which follow, of the love of evil : " The shield of his 
mighty men is made red, the valiant men are in scarlet, the 
chariots shall be with flaming torches, they shall seem like 
torches" ISTahum ii. 3, 4. " Though your sins be as scarlet, 
they shall be as white as snow, though they be red like crimson, 
they shall be as wool," Isaiah i. 18. Nor is any thing else sig 
nified by the red dragon, Apoc. xii. 3 ; and by the red horse 
standing among the myrtle trees, Zech. i. 8. The same is pre 
dicated of the colours which in their ground are red, as is pre 
dicated of scarlet and purple. 

219 



606 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. vi. 

306 And power was given to him that sat thereon to take 
peace from the earth, signifies the taking away of charity, spir 
itual security, and internal tranquillity. By peace are signified 
all things in their aggregate which come from the Lord, and 
thence all things of heaven and the church, and the beatitudes 
of life that are in them ; these are what belong to peace in the 
supreme or inmost sense. It follows therefore that peace is 
charity, spiritual security, and internal tranquillity ; for when 
man is in the Lord, he is in peace with his neighbour, which is 
charity ; in protection against the hells, which is spiritual secu 
rity ; and when he is in peace with his neighbour, and in pro 
tection against the hells, he is in internal tranquillity from evils 
and falses. Since therefore all this is from the Lord, it may 
appear what is signified in general and in particular by peace 
in the following places : " 1 or unto us a Child is born, unto us 
a Son is given ; and the government shall be upon his shoulder : 
and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The Mighty 
God, The Everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Of the 
increase of his government and peace there shall be no end," 
Isaiah ix. 6, 7. Jesus said, " Peace I leave with you, my 
peace I give you," John xiv. 27. Jesus said, " These things 
nave I spoken unto you, that in me ye might have peace" John 
xvi. 33. " In his days shall the righteous flourish, and abun 
dance of peace" Psalm Ixxii. 7. " And I will make with 
them a covenant of peace" Ezek. xxxiv. 25, 27 ; xxxvii. 25, 
26 ; Malachi ii. 4, 5. " How beautiful upon the mountains 
are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth 
peace, that saith unto Zion, Thy King reigneth," Isaiah lii. 7. 
" Jehovah bless thee, and lift up his countenance upon thee, 
and give \ho,Q peace," Numb. vi. 24 26. " Jehovah will bless 
his people with peace" Psalm xxix. 11. "Jehovah will de 
liver my soul in peace" Psalm Iv. 18. " And the work of 
righteousness shall be peace, and the effect of righteousness is 
quietness, and assurance for ever. And my people shall dwell 
in a peaceable habitation and in sure dwellings, and in quiet 
resting-places," Isaiah xxxii. 17, 18. Jesus said unto the sev 
enty whom he sent, "Into whatsoever house ye enter, first 
say, Peace be to this house ; and if the Son of Peace be there, 
your peace shall rest upon it," Luke x. 5, 6 ; Matt. x. 12 14. 
" But the meek shall inherit the earth, and shall delight them 
selves in the abundance of peace : behold the upright, for the 
end of that man is peace" Psalm xxxvii. 11, 37. Zacharias 
prophesying, said, " The day-spring from on bigh hath visited 
us, to guide our feet into the way of peace," Luke i. 78, 79 
" Depart from evil and do good : seek peace, and pursue it, 
Psalm xxxiv. 14. " Great peace have they that love thy law," 
Psalm cxix. 165. " O that thou hadst hearkened to my com 
mandments ! then had thy peace been as a river : There is na 

220 



V. 4, 5.] THE APOCALYPSE EEVEALED. 307 30 

peaje, saitli Jehovah, unto the wicked," Isaiah xlviii. 18, 22. 
Jehovah will speak peace unto his people : Righteousness and 
peace shall kiss each other," Psalm Ixxxv. 9, 10. " There is no 
peace in my bones because of my sin," Psalm xxxviii. 3. " He 
hath filled me with bitterness, and thou hast removed my soul 
far off from peace / I forgat prosperity," Lament, iii. 15, 17 ; 
besides many other passages : from which it may be seen, that 
the above-mentioned things are understood by peace ; keep in 
mind spiritual peace, and you will clearly perceive that this is 
the case ; so likewise in these verses : Isaiah xxvi. 12 ; liii. 5 ; 
liv. 10, 13 ; Jerem. xxxiii. 6, 9 ; Haggai ii. 9 ; Zech. 8, 19 ; 
Psalm iv. 7, 8 ; Psalm cxx. 6, 7 ; Psalm cxxii. 6 9 , Psalm 
cxxviii. 5, 6 ; Psalm clxvii. 14. That peace is what inmostly 
affects all good with blessedness, may be seen in the work con 
cerning Heaven and Hell, n. 284 290. 

307. And that they should kill one another f signifies intestine 
hatreds, infestations from the hells, and internal restlessness. 
These things are signified, when by the taking away peace is 
signified the taking away charity, spiritual security, and inter 
nal tranquillity, and when by the red horse is signified the un 
derstanding of the Word destroyed as to good ; for these things 
happen when there is no longer any good ; and there is no 
longer any good when it is not known what good is. That intes 
tine hatreds take place when there is no charity, likewise infes 
tations from the hells when there is no spiritual security, and 
internal disquietude when there is no rest from evils and their 
concupiscences or lusts, is evident ; this is the case after death 
at least, if not in the world. That to kill, has such a significa 
tion, is plain from the signification of a sword, in what follows. 

308. And there was given unto him a great sword, signifies 
the destruction of truth by falses of evil. That a sword, a dag 
ger, and knife, signify truth combating against falses and de 
stroying them, and in an opposite sense, falsity combating 
against truths, and destroying them, may be seen above, n. 52 ; 
here a great sword signifies the falses of evil destroying the 
truths of good. They are called falses of evil, because there 
are falses which are not falses of evil, and the latter do not de 
stroy truths, but the former. That such is the signification of 
a great sword, is evident from its being said that presently a 
black horse was seen, by which is signified the understanding 
of the Word destroyed as to truth, and truth is destroyed by 
nothing but evil. 

309. And when he had opened the third seal, signifies explo 
ration from the Lord of those upon whom the last judgment 
was to be executed, as to the states of their life. The same is 
here signified by these words as before, n. 295, only with the 
difference explained below. 

221 



310 313 THE APOCALYPSE .REVEALED. [Chap. vi. 

310. And I heard the third animal say, signifies according 
to the divine truth of the Word, as above, n. 296. 

311. Come and see, signifies a manifestation concerning the 
third class, or concerning those who are the third in order, as 
may appear from the explanation above, n. 297, only there the 
first class in order are treated of, bat here the third. 

312. And I beheld, and lo, a Hack horse, signifies the under 
standing of the Word destroyed as to truth, thus as to doctrine 
among these. That a horse signifies the understanding of the 
Word, was shown above ; the reason why black signifies what 
is not true, thus falsity, is, because black is the opposite of 
white, and white is predicated of truth, n. 167, 232, 233 ; white 
also derives its origin from light, and black from darkness, thus 
from the absence of light, and light is truth. But in the spirit 
ual world there exists darkness from a twofold origin, one from 
the absence of flaming light, which light is enjoyed by those 
who are in the Lord s celestial kingdom, and the other from the 
absence of white light, which is the light enjoyed by those who 
are in the Lord s spiritual kingdom ; the latter blackness has 
the same signification as darkness, but the former as thick dark 
ness : there is a difference between these two kinds of black 
ness, the one is abominable, the other not so much so ; it is the 
same with the falsities which they signify. They who appear 
in the abominable kind of blackness are called devils, such 
holding truth in abomination as much as owls do the light of 
the sun ; but they appear in that kind of blackness, which is 
not so abominable, who are called satans ; these do not abom 
inate truth, but are averse to it ; the latter may therefore be 
compared to birds of night, and the former to horned owls. 
That black, in the Word, is applicable to falsity, may appear 
from these places : " Her Nazarites were purer than snow, 
their visage is Hacker than a coal" Lament, iv. 7, 8. " The day 
shall become dark over the prophets," Micah iii. 6. "In the 
day when thou goest down into hell, I \vill make Lebanon black 
over thee," Ezek. xxxi. 15. " The sun became black as sackcloth 
of hair," Apoc. vi. 12. The sun, the moon, and the stars, be 
came black, Jerem. iv. 27, 28 ; Ezek. xxxii. 7 ; Joel ii. 3 ; iii. 
25 ; and elsewhere. The reason why the third animal displayed 
a black horse, was, because it had a face like a man, by which 
is signified the divine truth of the Word as to wisdom, n. 243, 
therefore this animal showed that there was no longer any truth 
of wisdom among those who constituted the third class. 

313. And he that sat on him had a pair of balances in his 
hand, signifies the estimation of good and truth, of what kind 
it was with these. By the pair of balances in his hand, is sig 
nified the estimation of good and truth; for all measures and 
weights, in the Word, signifiy the estimation of the thing treated 

222 



V. 5, 6.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 314 

of. That measures and weights have such a signification, is 
evident from the following passage in Daniel: There appeared 
a hand- writing before Belshazzar king of Babylon, when he was 
drinking wine out of the vessels of gold and of silver which 
were taken out of the temple in Jerusalem, " Mene, mene, 
tekel, upharsin," that is, thou art numbered, thou art num 
bered, weighed, and divided ; whereof this is the interpretation : 
" mene, God hath numbered thy kingdom and put an end to it; 
tekel, thou art weighed in the balance and found wanting; 
peres, thy kingdom is divided and given to the Medes and Per 
sians," v. 1, 2, 26, 28 ; by drinking out of the vessels of gold 
and silver of the temple in Jerusalem, and at the same time 
worshipping other gods, is signified the profanation of good and 
truth, as also by Babel ; by mene, or to number, is signified 
to know his quality as to truth ; by tekel, or to weigh, is signi 
fied to know his quality as to good ; by peres, or to divide, is 
signified to disperse, that the quality of truth and good is sig 
nified by measures and balances in the Word, is evident in 
Isaiah : " Who hath measured the waters in the hollow of his 
hand, and meted out the heavens with the span, and compre 
hended the dust of the earth in a measure, and weighed the 
mountains in scales and the hills in a balance f" xl. 12. And 
in the Apocalypse : " The angel measured the wall of the Holy 
Jerusalem a hundred and forty -four cubits, which is the measure 
of a man, that is, of an angel," xxi. 17. 

314. And I heard a voice in the midst of the four animals 
say, signifies the divine protection of the Word by the Lord. 
That the four animals signify the Word from first principles in 
ultimates, and the defences, lest its interior truths and goods 
should be violated, may be seen above, n. 239 ; and because 
those defences are from the Lord, therefore the voice was heard 
in the midst of the four animals ; in the midst of them, means 
the Word as to its internal spiritual sense, which is guarded by 
the Lord. That the guarding of it is signified, is plain from 
what the voice says : " A measure of wheat for a penny, and 
three measures of barley for a penny, and see thou hurt not the 
oil and the wine," which signifies that since good and truth are 
held in little or no estimation, it will be provided that the holy 
goods and truths, which lie interiorly concealed in the Word, 
shall not be violated and profaned ; and this is provided of the 
Lord by this result, that they come at length to know nothing 
concerning good, and thence nothing concerning truth, but 
mere evil and falsity ; for they who know goods and truths can 
violate, yea, they can profane them, but not so they who do 
not know them. That such is the operation of the Divine Pro 
vidence in guarding the Word from violation, may be seen in 
The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Providence, n. 221 
233, n. 257, the end ; n. 258, the beginning. 
223 



315 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. V.1. 

315. A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures 
of Parley for a penny, signifies because the estimation of good 
and truth is so small as scarcely to amount to any thing. By 
choenix,* which denotes the measure and quantity measured, 
is signified quality, as above, n. 314 ; by wheat and barley is 
signified good and truth ; and by a penny, which is a very small 
coin, that they are held in little or no estimation. It is said 
three measures of barley, because three signify all, and are pre 
dicated of truths, n. 515. The reason why wheat and barley sig 
nify good and truth, in this instance the good and truth of the 
church from the Word, is, because all things which belong to the 
field and the vineyard, signify such things as are of the church, 
on account of a field signifying the church as to its good and 
consequent truth, and a vineyard, the church as to its truth and 
consequent good ; therefore where these are mentioned in the 
Word, the angels, who perceive all things spiritually, understand 
nothing else ; as in Joel : " The field is wasted, the land mourn- 
eth ; for the corn is wasted ; the new wine is dried up, the oil 
languisheth. Be ye ashamed, O ye husbandmen ; howl, O ye 
vine-dressers, for the wheat and for the barley / because the 
harvest of the field is perished," i. 10 12. All these expres 
sions signify such things as belong to the church. That wheat 
and barley signify the good and truth of the church, may be 
seen from these places : John saith concerning Jesus, that he 
will " gather his wheat into the garner, and burn up the chaff 
with unquenchable fire," Matt. iii. 11, 12. Jesus said, u Let the 
tares and the wheat grow together, and in the time of harvest I 
will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, to burn 
them, but gather the wheat into my barn," Matt. xiii. 24 30. 
I have heard the consummation and decision from Jehovah 
God ; " he layeth up the principal wheat, and appointed barley ; 
for his God doth instruct him to discretion, and doth teach 
him," Isaiah xxviii. 21 26. Jehovah shall lead thee to " a land 
of wheat and barley" Dent. viii. 7, 8. A land of wheat and 
barley here is the land of Canaan, by which the church is sig 
nified. " Therefore they shall come and sing in the height of 
Zion, and shall flow together to the goodness of Jehovah, for 
wheat and for wine," Jerem. xxxi. 12. Jehovah shall satisfy 
thee " with the fat of kidneys, of wheat," Deut. xxxii. 13, 14 ; 
Psalm Ixxxi. 14, 16 ; Psalm cxlvii. 12 14. Jehovah said unto 
the prophet Ezekiel, that he should make himself cakes of bar 
ley mixed with dung, and eat them, iv. 12, 15 ; and com 
manded the prophet Hosea to take a woman that was an adul 
teress ; whom he bought for " a homer of barley, and half a 
homer of barley," iii. 1, 2 : which things were done by those 

* Choenix, a Grecian measure, which contained as much corn as would serve 
a man one day It has been reckoned to be about a pint and a half English ccrn 
measure. 

224 






V. 6.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 316 

prophets, that they might represent the falsifications of truth in 
the church, for barley denotes truths, and barley mixed with 
dung denotes truths falsified and profaned ; an adulterous wo 
man also signifies truth falsified, n. 134. 

316. And see tliou hurt not the oil and the wine, signifies that 
it is provided by the Lord that the holy goods and truths, which 
lie interiorly conceded in the Word, shall not be violated and 
profaned. Oil signifies the good of love, and wine, truth from 
that good, therefore oil signifies holy good, and wine holy truth ; 
see thou hurt them not, signifies that it is provided by the Lord 
that they shall not be violated and profaned ; for this was heard 
from the midst of the four animals, thus from the Lord, n. 314 ; 
what is said by the Lord, the same is also provided for by him : 
that it is so provided, may be seen above, n. 314 and n. 255. 
That oil signifies the good of love, will be seen below, n. 778, 
779 ; but that wine signifies truth from that good, is evident 
from the following places : " IIo, every one that thirsteth, come 
ye to the waters, and he that hath no money, come ye, buy 
and eat, yea come, buy wine and milk without money," Isaiah 
Iv. 1. " And it shall come to pass in that day, that the moun 
tains shall drop down new wine, and the hills shall flow with 
milk," Joel iii. 18 ; Amos ix. 13, 14. "And gladness is taken 
away from Carmel, and in the vineyards there shall be no sing 
ing : the treaders shall tread out no wine, I have made their 
vintage shouting to cease," Isaiah xvi. 10; Jerem. xlviii. 32, 33. 
By Carmel is signified the spiritual church, because there were 
vineyards there. " Howl, all ye drinkers of wine; because of the 
new wine for it is cut off from your mouth ; howl, O ye vine 
dressers" Joel i. 5, 10, 11. Nearly the same words occur in 
Hosea ix. 2, 3 ; Zeph. i. 13 ; Lament, ii. 11, 12 ; Micah vi. 15; 
Amos v. 11 ; Isaiah xxiv. 6, 7, 9, 10. " He washed his gar 
ments in wine and his clothes in the Hood of grapes his eyes 
shall be red with wine" Gen. xlix. 11, 12 ; speaking of the 
Lord : wine signifies divine truth. This is the reason why the 
holy supper was instituted by the Lord, in which the bread sig 
nifies the Lord as to his divine good, and the wine the Lord as 
to his divine truth, and with the recipients the bread signifies 
holy good, and the wine, holy truth, from the Lord : therefore 
he said, " I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this 
fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it new with you 
in my Father s kingdom," Matt. xxvi. 29; Luke xxii. 18. Be 
cause bread and wine had this signification, therefore, also, Mel- 
chisedek, going to meet Abram, u brought forth bread and wine 
and he was the priest of the most high God, and he blessed 
Abram," Gen. xiv. 18, 19. Similar is the signification of the 
calces and drink-offering, in the sacrifices, concerning which see 
Exod. xxix. 40; Levit. xxiii. 12, 13, 18, 19; Numb. xv. 2 15; 
xxviii. 6, 7, 18, to the end ; xxix. 1 7, and follewing verses. 
225 * 



THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. vl. 

The cakes were of wheat flour, and were therefore instead of 
bread, and the drink-offering was of wine. From which it may 
appear what is meant by these words of the Lord : " Neither do 
men put new wine into old bottles, but they put new wine into 
new bottles, and both are preserved," Matt. ix. 17 ; Luke v. 37. 
New wine is the divine truth of the New Testament, thus of 
the new church, and old wine is the divine truth of the Old 
Testament, thus of the old church. Similar is the signification 
of these words, spoken at the marriage in Cana of Galilee: 
u Every man at first settetli forth good wine, and when men 
have well druuk, then that which is worse ; but thou bast kept 
the good wine until now," John ii. 1 10. The like is also 
signified by wine in the Lord s parable of the man that was 
wounded by robbers, into whose wounds the Samaritan poured 
oil and wine, Luke x. 33, 34 : for by him that was wounded by 
robbers, are meant they who are spiritually wounded by the 
Jews by evils and falses, to whom the Samaritan gave assistance 
by pouring oil and wine into his wounds, that is, by teaching 
good and truth, and, so far as he was able, by healing. Holy 
truth is also signified by new wine and wine in other parts of 
the Word ; as in Isaiah i. 21, 22 ; xxv. 6 ; xxxvi. 17 ; Hosea vii. 
4, 5, 14; xiv. 6 8; Amos ii. 8; Zech. ix. 15, 17; Psalm civ. 
14 16. Hence it is that a vineyard, in the Word, signifies a 
church that is in truths from the Lord. That wine signifies 
holy truth, may also appear from its opposite sense, in which it 
signifies truth falsified and profaned ; as in these places : 
"Whoredom, and wine, and new wine-, take away the heart. 
Their wvtoMA sour, they have committed whoredom continually," 
Hosea iv. 11, 17, 18. Whoredom signifies the falsification of 
truth, as do wine and new wine. " For in the hand of Jehovah 
there is a cup, and the wine is red ; it is full of mixture, and he 
poureth out of the same, but the dregs thereof all the wicked of 
the earth shall wring them out and drink them," Psalm Ixxv. 8. 
" Babylon is a cup of gold in the hand of Jehovah that made 
all the earth drunken : the nations have drunken of her wine / 
therefore the nations are mad," Jerem Ii. 7. "Babylon is 
fallen, because she made all nations drink of the wine of the 
wrath of her fornication. If any man worship the beast, the 
same shall driuk of the wine of the wrath of God, which is 
poured out without mixture into the cup of his indignation," 
Apoc. xiv. 810. " Babylon hath made all nations drink of the 
wine of her fornication," Apoc. xviii. 3. " Great Babylon 
came in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of 
the wine of the fierceness of his wrath," Apoc. xvi. 19. " The 
inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine 
of her fornication," Apoc. xvii. 1, 2. By the wine which Bel- 
shazzar, king of Babylon, and his princes, and his wives, and 
his concubines, drank out of the vessels of the temple >of Jeru* 
226 



T. 7, 8.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 317 320 

salem, and at the same time " praised the gods of gold, and of 
silver, of brass, of iron, of wood, and of stone," Dan. v. 2 5, 
nothing is meant but the holy truth of the Word and of the 
church profaned ; wherefore the hand- writing then appeared 
upon the wall, and the king was slain that night, verses 25, 30. 
Wine signifies truth falsified also in Isaiah v. 11, 12, 21, 22 ; 
xxviii. 1, 3, 7; xxix. 9; Ivi. 11, 12; Jerem. xiii. 12, 13; xxiii. 
9, 10. The same is signified by the drink-offering which they 
offered to idols, Isaiah Ixv. 11 ; Ivii. 6 ; Jerem. vii. 18 ; xliv. 
17 19 ; Ezek. xx. 28 ; Deut. xxxii. 38. That wine should 
signify holy truth, and, in an opposite sense, truth profaned, is 
from correspondence ; for the angels, who perceive all things 
spiritually, understand nothing else, when man reads about 
wine in the Word ; such a correspondence is there between the 
natural thoughts of men and the spiritual thoughts of angels. 
It is the same with the wine in the holy supper, and hence it 
is, that introduction into heaven is effected by the holy supper, 
n. 224, at the end. 

317. And when he had opened the fourth seal, signifies ex 
ploration from the Lord of those upon whom the last judg 
ment was to be executed, as to their states of life, as above, n. 
296, 303, only with the difference explained below. 

318. I heard the voice of the fourth animal say, signifies 
according to the divine truth of the Word, as above, n. 296, 303. 

319. Come and see, signifies a manifestation concerning the 
fourth class, or those who were fourth in order, as is evident 
from the explanation above, n. 297 ; but there it is applied to 
the first class, here to the fourth. 

320. And I looked, and lehold, a pale horse, signifies the 
understanding of the Word destroyed both as to good and as to 
truth. A horse signifies the understanding of the Word, n. 298, 
and paleness signifies a want of vitality. In the Word, this 
want of vitality is predicated of those wno are not in the good 
of life grounded in the truths of doctrine ; for the Word, in its 
literal sense, is not understood without doctrine, and doctrine 
is not perceived without a life according to it ; the reason is, be 
cause a life according to doctrine which is from the Word, opens 
the spiritual mind, when light flows into it from heaven and 
illustrates and imparts perception. That this is the case, he is 
not aware of who knows truths of doctrine, and yet does not 
live according to them. The reason why the fourth animal 
showed a pale horse, was, because that animal was like a flying 
eagle, and therefore it signified the divine truth of the Word, 
as to knowledges, and as to the understanding derived from 
them, n. 244; therefore it indicated, that among those who 
were now seen there were no knowledges of good and truth, 
from the Word, nor any understanding of them, and such ii 
the spiritual world appear pale, as if devoid of life. 

227 



321, 322 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. VI. 

321. And his name that sat on him was Death, and hell 
followed with him, signifies the extinction of spiritual life, and 
thence damnation. By death is here signified spiritual death, 
which is the extinction of spiritual life ; and by hell is signified 
damnation, which is a consequence of that death. Every man, 
indeed, has by creation, and therefore by birth, spiritual life, 
but that life is extinguished when he denies God, the sanctity 
of the Word, and eternal life ; it is extinguished in the will, 
but remains in the understanding, or rather in the faculty of 
understanding. By this man is distinguished from the brute. 
As death signifies the extinction of spiritual life, and hell the 
consequent damnation, therefore death and hell in some places 
are named together ; as in these : " I will ransom them from 
the power of hell, I will redeem them from d<eath: O death, ] 
will be thy plagues ; O hell, I will be thy destruction," Hosea 
xiii. 14. "The sorrows of death compassed me; the sorrow* 
of hell compassed me ; the snares of death, prevented me, 
Psalm xviii. 5, 6 ; Psalm cxvi. 3. " Like sheep they are laid 
in hell ; death shall feed on them, and their beauty shall con 
sume in hell. But God will redeem my soul from the power 
of hell," Psalm xlix. 14, 15. "I have the keys of hell and 
death, 9 Apoc. i. 18. 

322. And power was given them over the fourth part of the 
earth, to Mil, signifies the destruction of all good in the church. 
Since death signifies the extinction of man s spiritual life, and 
hell signifies damnation, it follows that to kill, here, means to 
destroy the life of a man s soul ; the life of the soul is spiritual 
life ; a fourth part of the earth signifies all the good of the 
church ; the earth is the church, n. 285. That a fourth part 
denotes all good, cannot be known by any one, unless he knows 
what numbers in the Word signify. The numbers two and 
four, in the Word, are predicated of goods, and signify them ; 
and the numbers three and six, of truths, and signify them ; 
thus a fourth part, or simply a fourth, signifies all good, and a 
third part, or simply a third, signifies all truth ; therefore to kill 
a fourth part of the earth, here signifies to destroy all the good 
of the church. That power was not given to him that sat upon 
the pale horse to kill a fourth part of the habitable earth, is 
evident. Besides, four, in the Word, signifies the conjunction 
of good and truth. That four has these significations, may in 
deed be proved out of the Word ; as by the four animals or che 
rubs, Ezek. i. vii. x. ; Apoc. v. By the four chariots between 
the two mountains of brass, Zech. vi. 2. By the four ndnds, 
Zech. ii. ; and by the four horns of the altar, Exod. xxvii. 1 
9; Apoc. ix. 13. By the "four angels standing on the four 
cornel s of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth," 
Apoc. vii. 1 ; Matt. xxv. 31 ; as also " by visiting their sins 
upon the third and fourth generation," Numb. xiv. 18; and in 

228 



V. 8.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 323 

other places by the third and fourth generation. By these, and 
by many other passages in the Word, I say, it might be proved 
that four is predicated of goods, and signifies them, and also 
the conjunction of good and truth; but since tiiis would not 
appear without a prolix explanation of those passages, it is 
sufficient to mention, that nothing else is understood in heaven 
by four and by a fourth part. 

323. With sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with 
the leasts of the earth, signifies by falses of doctrine, by evils of 
life, by the love of self, and by lusts* That by a sword is sig 
nified truth combating against evils and falses, and destroying 
them, and, in an opposite sense, falsity combating against goods 
and truths, and destroying them, may be seen above, n. 52, 108, 
117; here therefore by sword, the destruction of all good in 
the church being treated of, are signified falses of doctrine. 
That hunger signifies evils of life, will be confirmed below. 
The reason why death signifies the self-love of man, is, because 
death signifies extinction of spiritual life, and thence natural 
life separated from spiritual life, as above, n. 321, and this life 
is the life of man s self-love ; for from it man loves nothing but 
himself and the world, and thence also he loves all kinds of 
evils, which, from the love of that life, are delightful to him. 
That beasts of the earth signify lusts originating from that love, 
will be seen below, n. 567. JSTow something shall be said con 
cerning the signification of hunger. Hunger signifies depriva 
tion and rejection of the knowledges of truth and good, arising 
from evils of life ; it also signifies ignorance of the knowledges 
of truth and good arising from a deficiency thereof in the 
church ; and it signifies likewise a desire to know and under 
stand them. I. That famine signifies a deprivation and rejec 
tion of the knowledges of truth and good, arising from evils of 
life, and thence evils of life, may appear from the following 
passages : " They shall be consumed by the sword and by 
famine, and their carcasses shall be meat for the fowls of 
heaven, and for the beasts of the earth," Jerem. xvi. 4. "These 
two things shall come unto thee, desolation and destruction, and 
the famine and the sword," Isaiah li. 19. " Behold, I will 
punish them : the young men shall die by the sword, their sons 
and their daughters shall die by famine" Jerem. xi. 22. 
" Deliver up their children to the famine, and pour out their 
blood by the force of the sword; and let their men be put to 
death," Jerem. xviii. 21. " I will send upon them the sword, 
the famine, and the pestilence, and will make them like vile figs 
that cannot be eaten, they are so evil. And I will persecute 
them with the sword, famine, and pestilence" Jerem. xxix. 
17, 18. " I will send the sword, the famine, and the pestilence, 
till they be consumed from off the land," Jerem. xxiv. 10. " I 
proclaim a liberty for you, to the sword, to the pestilence, and 
229 



324, 325 THE APOCALYPSE EEVEALED. [Chap. VI, 

to the famine / and I will make you to be removed into all the 
kingdoms of the earth," Jerem. xxxiv. IT. " Because thou 
hast defiled my sanctuary, a third part of thee shall die with 
the pestilence, and with famine shall they be consumed, and a 
third part shall fall by the sword, when I shall send upon them 
the evil arrows of famine, which shall be for their destruction," 
Ezek. v. 11 13, 16. "The sword is without, and pestilence 
and famine within," Ezek. vii. 15. " For all the evil abomina 
tions of the house of Israel, they shall fall by the sword, and by 
the famine, and by the pestilence" Ezek. vi. 11. " I will send 
my four sore judgments upon Jerusalem, the sword, the fam 
ine, and the noisome least, and the pestilence, to cut off from it 
man and beast," Ezek. xiv. 13, 15, 21 : besides other places ; 
as Jerem. xiv. 12, 13, 15, 16 ; xlii. 13, 14, 1618, 22 ; xliv. 12, 
13, 27 ; Matt. xxiv. 7, 8 ; Mark xiii. 8 ; Luke xxi. 11. The 
sword, famine, pestilence, and beasts, in those places, have a 
signification similar to that of the sword, hunger, death, and the 
beasts of the earth, here mentioned ; for in the Word there is a 
spiritual sense in every single expression, in which sense a sword 
denotes the destruction of spiritual life by falses ; hunger, the 
destruction of spiritual life by evils; beasts of the earth, the 
destruction of spiritual life by lusts of falsity and evil ; and 
pestilence and death denote plenary consummation, and thus 
damnation. II. That hunger signifies ignorance of the know 
ledges of good and truth arising from a deficiency of such 
knowledges in the church, is also evident from various passages 
in the Word; as from Isaiah v. 13; viii. 19 22; Lament, ii. 
19; v. 810; Amos viii. 11 14; Job v. IT, 20; and other 
places. III. That famine or hunger signifies a desire to know 
and understand the truths and goods of the church, is plain 
from the following : Isaiah viii. 21 ; xxxii. 6 ; xlix. 10 ; Iviii. 6, 
7 ; 1 Sam. ii. 4, 5 ; Psalm xxxiii. 18, 19 ; Psalm xxxiv. 10, 11 ; 
Psalm xxxvii. 18, 19 ; Psalm cvii. 8, 9, 35 3T ; Psalm cxlvi. 
7 ; Matt. v. 6 ; xxv. 35, 3T, 44 ; Luke i. 53 ; John vi. 35 ; and 
others. 

324. And when he had opened the fifth seal, signifies an 
exploration from the Lord of their states of life, who were to be 
saved at the day of the last judgment, and in the mean time 
were reserved. That these are here treated of, is evident from 
what now follows. But it is to be observed, that these, and 
the like, are treated of throughout the twentieth chapter, the 
explanation of which may be seen, n. 839 8T4, manifesting 
who they are, and why reserved. 

325. I saw under the altar the souls of them that were slain 
for the Word of God, and for the testimony ivhich they held, 
signifies those who were hated, abused, and rejected by the 
wicked on account of their life being conformable to the truths 
of the Word, and their acknowledgment of the Lord s Divine 

230 



T. 9.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 325 

Humanity, and who were guarded by the Lord that they might 
not be seduced. Under the altar, signifies the lower earth, 
where they were guarded by the Lord ; an altar signifies the 
worship of the Lord from the good of love ; by the souls of them 
that were slain, are not here signified the martyrs, but they who 
are hated, abused, and rejected by the wicked in the world of 
spirits, and who might be seduced by the dragonists and here 
tics ; for the Word of God and for the testimony which they 
held, signifies for living according to the truths of the "Word, 
and acknowledging the Lord s Divine Humanity. Testimony 
in heaven is not given to any but to those who acknowledge 
the Lord s Divine Humanity, for it is the Lord who testifies, and 
gives the angels to testify ; " For the testimony of Jesus is the 
spirit of prophecy," Apoc. xix. 10. Since they were under the 
altar, it is evident they were guarded by the Lord ; for they who 
led, in any sort, a life of charity, were all guarded by the Lord 
against sustaining any injury from the wicked ; and after the 
last judgment, when the wicked were removed, they were set 
free and elevated into heaven. I have frequently seen them, 
since the last judgment, liberated from the lower earth and 
translated into heaven. That by the slain are meant they who 
are rejected, slandered, and hated by the wicked in the world 
of spirits, and who might be seduced, and also who desire to 
know truths, but cannot, by reason of falses in the church, may 
appear from these passages: "Thus saith Jehovah God, Feed 
the flock of the slaughter, whose possessors slay them : and I 
will feed the flock of slaughter, even you, O poor of the flock," 
Zech. xi. 4, 5, 7. " We are killed all the day long ; we are 
counted as sheep for the slaughter / O Jehovah, arise, cast us 
not off for ever," Psalm xliv. 22, 24. " Jacob shall cause them 
which are to come to take root, or is he slain according to the 
slaughter of them that were slain by him ?" Isaiah xxvii. 6, 7. 
" For I have heard a voice of the daughter of Zion, woe is me, 
now ; for my soul is wearied because of murderers" Jerem. iv. 
3. "They shall deliver you up to be afflicted, and shall ~kill 
you, and ye shall be hated of all nations for my name s sake," 
Matt. xxiv. 9 ; John xvi. 33 : this the Lord said to his disciples ; 
but by disciples are meant all who worship the Lord, and lire 
according to the truths of his Word ; these the wicked in the 
world of spirits continually desire to kill ; but because there 
they cannot kill the body, they continually desire to kill the 
soul ; and since they are not able to do this, they burn with 
such hatred against them, that nothing delights them more than 
to do them mischief : this is the reason why they were guarded 
by the Lord, and when the wicked were cast into hell, which 
happened after the last judgment, they were brought out of 
their places of security : but see the explanation of chap, xx., n. 
846, which treats of this subject. That to slay or kill, in the 
231 



326 328 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. vi. 

Word, signifies to destroy souls, which is to kill spiritually, is 
evident from many places there, as also from the following: 
Isaiah xiv. 19 21 ; xxvi. 21 ; Jerem. xxv. 33; Lament, ii. 21 ; 
Ezek. ix. 1, 6 ; Apoc. xxviii. 24. 

326. And they cried with a loud voice, signifies grief of 
heart, as is evident from what now follows. 

327. Saying, How long, Lord, holy and true, dost thou 
not judge and avenge our Hood on them that dwell on the earth f 
signifies, by reason that the last judgment was protracted, and 
they who offer violence to the Word and to the Lord s Divine 
Humanity were not removed. " How long, O Lord, holy and 
true, dost thou not judge," signifies, why is the last judgment 
protracted? "and avenge our blood," signifies, why in justice 
are they not condemned, who have offered them violence for 
acknowledging the Lord s Divine Humanity, and living in con 
formity to tne truths of his Word? by blood is signified violence 
offered to them, n. 379 ; by " them that dwell on the earth," 
are meant the wicked in the world of spirits, from whom they 
were guarded that they might not be hurt. 

328. And white robes were given unto every one of them, 
signifies that there was given them a communication and con 
junction with the angels who were in divine truths. Garments 
signify truths, n. 166, and white garments genuine truths, n. 
212. Garments have this signification, because all in the hea 
vens are clothed according to the truths they possess ; every one 
is clothed according to conjunction with angelic societies; there 
fore when conjunction is granted, they immediately appear 
clothed in a similar manner ; hence it is, that by white robes 
being given them, is signified that communication and conjunc 
tion was given them with angels who were in divine truths. 
Robes, mantles, and cloaks, signify truths in common, because 
they are a common covering to the body. He who is aware of 
this their signification, may know the arcana which are con 
tained in the following passages : That Elijah, when he found 
Elisha, " cast his mantle upon him," 1 Kings xix. 19. That 
Elijah with his mantle divided the waters of Jordan, 2 Kings 
ii. 8. And in like manner Elisha, 2 Kings ii. 14. That the 
mantle of Elijah fell from him when he was taken up into hea 
ven, and that Elisha took it up, 2 Kings ii. 12, 13 ; for by Elijah 
and Elisha the Lord was represented as to the Word, and there 
fore their mantle signified the divine truth of the Word in 
general. As also what was signified by the robe of Aaron s 
ephod, at the border of which there were pomegranates of blue 
nnd purple, and golden bells, Exod. xxviii. 31 35 ; that it 
signified divine truth in common, may be seen in The Ar 
cana Cwlestia, n. 9825. Cloaks and mantles have a similar 
signification in the following passages : " All the princes of 
the sea shall come down, and lay away their robes," Ezek. 

232 






V. 10 12.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 329- 331 

xxvi. 16. The scribes and Pharisees make broad the borders 
of their garments, that they may be seen of men, Matt, xxiii. 5. 
u My people is risen up as an enemy, ye pull off the robe with 
the garment from them that pass by," Micah ii. 8; and in 
other places. 

329. And it was said unto them, that they should rest yet 
for a little season, until their fellow-servants also and their 
brethren, that should be killed as they were, should be fulfilled, 
signifies that the last judgment should yet be protracted a little, 
till they should be collected from all quarters, who would, in 
like manner, be hated, abused, and rejected by the wicked foi 
acknowledging the Lord s Divine Humanity, and living in con 
formity to the truths of his Word. That this is the signification, 
appears from what has been said above. Similar is the signifi 
cation of this passage in Isaiah : " Thy dead men shall live ; 
Awake and sing, ye that dwell in the dust : Come, my people, 
enter thou into thy chambers, and shut thy door after thee : 
hide thyself as it were for a little moment, until the indignation 
be overpast. For, behold, Jehovah cometh out of his place, to 
pursue the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquity : the earth 
also shall disclose her blood, and shall no more cover her slain," 
xxvi. 19 21. But, as was observed before, this subject, and 
others of a similar nature, are treated of in chapter xx., which 
is explained, n. 839 874. 

330. And Ibeheld when he had opened the sixth seal, signi 
fies exploration from the Lord of their state of life, who were 
interiorly evil, and on whom the last judgment was to be exe 
cuted. That these are treated of is evident from w r hat now 
follows ; but that they may be understood, two arcana are to be 
revealed : First, that the last judgment was executed only on 
such as appeared in their external form as Christians, and orally 
professed the things of the church, but in their internal form, 
or in their hearts, were against them ; and, as such, they were 
therefore in conjunction with the ultimate heaven as to their 
exteriors, but with hell as to their interiors. Secondly, that as 
long as they were in conjunction with the ultimate heaven, so 
long the internals of their will and their love were closed, for 
which reason they did not appear wicked to others ; but when 
they were separated from the ultimate heaven, then their inte 
riors were disclosed, and found to be totally in opposition to 
their exteriors, from which they dissembled and feigned that 
they were angels of heaven, and that the places they inhabited 
were heavens. These heavens, so called, were those which 
passed away at the time of the last judgment, Apoc. xxi. 1. 
>ut more on this subject may be seen in the small tract on The 
Last Judgment, n. 70, 71, and in The Continuation of the Last 
Judgment, n. 10. 

331. And, lo, there was a great earthquake, signifies an 
233 



332 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. vi. 

entire change of the state of the church with these, and their 
terror. Earthquakes signify changes of state in the church, 
because the earth signifies the church, n. 285 ; and because in 
the spiritual world, when the state of the church is perverted 
anywhere, and there is a change, an earthquake takes place, 
aud as this is a prelude to their destruction, the effect is terror ; 
for the earths in the spiritual world are in appearance like the 
earths in the natural world, n. 260 ; but as the earths there, like 
all other things in that world, are from a spiritual origin, there 
fore changes occur according to the state of the church among 
the inhabitants, and when the state of the church is perverted, 
they quake and tremble, yea, sink down and are moved out of 
their places. That this was the case, when the last judgment 
w r as at hand and accomplished, may be seen in the tract on The 
Last Judgment. Hence it may appear what is meant by quak- 
ings, concussions, and commotions of the earth, in the follow 
ing places: "There shall be famines, pestilences, and earth 
quakes in divers places," Matt. xxiv. 7 ; Mark xiii. 8 ; Luke 
xxi. 11 ; this is said of the last judgment. "In the fire of my 
wrath have I spoken, Surely in that day there shall be a great 
earthquake, and all the men that are upon the face of the earth 
shall shake, and the mountains shall be thrown down," Ezek. 
xxxviii. 18 20. " And there was a great earthquake, such as 
was not since men were upon the earth," Apoc. xvi. 18. " I 
will shake the heavens, and the earth shall be removed out of 
her place, in the wrath of Jehovah of Hosts," Isaiah xiii. 12, 
13. " And the foundations of the earth do shake, the earth is 
moved exceedingly, for the transgression thereof shall be heavy 
upon it," Isaiah xxiv. 18 20. " Then the foundations of the 
world were moved at thy rebuke, O Jehovah," Psalm xviii. IT, 
18. The mountains quake at the presence of Jehovah, and the 
rocks are thrown down, Nahum i. 5, 6 : and so in other places ; 
as Jerem. x. 10 ; xlix. 21 ; Joel ii. 10 ; Haggai ii. 6, 7 ; Apoc. 
xi. 19 ; and elsewhere. But these things are to be understood 
as having taken place in the spiritual world, and not in the 
natural world ; in this respect they signify such things as are 
explained above. 

332. And the sun became Hack as sackcloth of hair, and the 
moon became as Hood, signifies the adulteration of all the good 
of love in them, and the falsification of all the truth of faith. 
That the sun signifies the Lord as to divine love, and thence the 
good of love from him ; and in an opposite sense, a denial of the 
Lord s divinity, and thence adulteration of the good of love, 
may be seen above, n. 53. And as the sun signifies the good 
of love, the moon therefore signifies the truth of faith ; for the 
sun is red from fire, and the moon is white by virtue of the 
light from the sun ; and fire signifies the good of love, and light, 
the truth from that good : concerning the moon, see also the 
234 



V. 12 14.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 333 335 

passages adduced above, n. 53. It is said the sun became black 
as sackcloth of hair, because adulterated good in itself is e\il, 
and evil is black ; and the reason why it is said the moon Ira- 
eame as blood, is, because blood signifies divine truth, and in 
an opposite sense, divine truth falsified, as, may be seen below, 
n. 379, 684. Nearly the same is said of the sun and moon in 
Joel : " The sun shall be turned into darkness,, and the moon into 
Hood, before the great and the terrible day of Jehovah," ii. 31. 

333. And the stars of heaven fell unto the earth, signifies 
the dispersion of all the knowledges of good and truth. That 
Btars signify the knowledges of good and truth, may be seen 
above, n. 51 ; that to fall from heaven to the earth means to be 
dispersed, or to disappear, is evident ; in the spiritual world, 
also, stars appear to fall from heaven to the earth there, when 
the knowledges of good and truth perish. 

334. Even as a fig-tree casteth her untimely figs, when she 
is shaken of a mighty wind, signifies by ratiocinations of the 
natural man separated from the spiritual. It is said to have 
this signification, when yet it is a comparison, because all com 
parisons in the Word are also correspondences, and in the spir 
itual sense they cohere with the subject treated of, as in the 
present instance ; for a fig, from correspondence, signifies the 
natural good of man in conjunction with his spiritual good, but 
here, in an opposite sense, the natural good of man separated 
from his spiritual good, which is not good ; and as the natural 
man, when separated from the spiritual, perverts from ratioci 
nations the knowledges of good and truth, which are signified 
by the stars, it follows that this is signified by a fig-tree shaken 
by a mighty wind. That wind and storm signify ratiocination, 
is evident from many passages in the Word, but it is not neces 
sary to adduce them here, because it is a comparison. The 
reason why a fig-tree signifies the natural good of man, is, 
because every tree signifies something of the church in man, 
therefore also man with respect thereto : by way of confirmation 
we select these passages : All the hosts of heaven " shall fall 
down, as the leaf falleth off from the vine, and as a falling fig 
from the fig-tree" Isaiah xxxiv. 4:. " I will surely consume 
them, there shall be no grapes on the vine, nor figs on the fig- 
tree, and the leaf shall fade," Jerem. viii. 13. " All thy strong 
holds shall be like fig-trees with the first ripe figs ; if they be 
shaken, they shall even fall into the mouth of the eater," Na- 
hum iii. 12 ; besides other places ; as Isaiah xxxiv. 2, 3, 5, 8 ; 
xxxviii. 21 ; Jerem. xxix. 17, 18 ; Hosea ii. 12 ; ix. 10 ; Joel i. 
7, 12 ; Zech. iii. 10 ; Matt. xxi. 1821 : xxiv. 32, 33 ; Mark xi. 
1215, 19 -25 ; Luke vi. 44 ; xiii. 69 ; in which places 
nothing else is meant by a fig-tree. 

335. And the heavens departed as a scroll when it is rolled 
together, signifies separation from heaven and conjunction with 

235 



336 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Cliap. VI. 

hell. It is said that heaven departed as a scroll rolled together, 
because the interior understanding, and hence the thought, of 
man, is as heaven ; for his understanding can be elevated into 
the light of heaven, and in such elevation can think with the 
angels concerning God, concerning love and faith, and concern 
ing eternal life : but if his will is not at the same time elevated 
into the heat of heaven, the man is not conjoined with the 
angels of heaven, thus is not a heaven. That this is the case, 
may be seen in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine 
Love and the Divine Wisdom, Part the Fifth. By virtue of 
this faculty of the understanding, the wicked, who are here 
treated of, could be in consociation with the angels of the ulti 
mate heaven ; but when these were separated from the former, 
their heaven departed as a scroll rolled together. By a scroll 
rolled together is meant parchment rolled up, because their 
books were skins, and the comparison is made with a book, be 
cause a book denotes the Word, n. 256 ; therefore when it is 
rolled up like a skin, nothing that it contains is apparent, and 
it is as though it were not. On this account the like is said in 
Isaiah : " And all the host of heaven shall be dissolved, and the 
heavens shall be rolled together as a scroll, and shall fall down 
as the leaf falleth from the tig-tree," xxxiv. 4. Hosts are the 
goods and truths of the church derived from the Word, n. 447. 
From these considerations it may appear, that by the heavens 
departing as a scroll rolled together, is signified separation from 
heaven, and conjunction with hell. That separation from hea 
ven is conjunction with hell, is evident. 

336. And every mountain and island were moved out of 
their places, signifies that all the good of love and truth of 
faith departed. That this is the signification of these words no 
one could discover without the spiritual sense ; they have this 
signification however, because by mountains are understood 
those who are in the good of love, by reason that the angels 
dwell upon mountains ; such as are in love to the Lord dwelling 
on high mountains, and such as are in love towards their neigh 
bour dwelling on lower ones ; wherefore by every mountain is 
signified every good of love. By islands are meant those who 
are more remote from the worship of God, see above, n. 34; 
here those who are in faith, and not so much in the good of love, 
therefore, in an abstract sense, every island signifies every 
truth of faith ; by being moved out of their places is signified 
to recede. It is owing to the circumstance of the angels dwell 
ing upon mountains and hills, that mountains and hills in the 
Word signify heaven and the church, where there exists love to 
the Lord and love to the neighbour, and, in an opposite sense, 
hell, where there exists self-love and the love of the world. 
That by mountains and hills are signified heaven and the 
church, where there exists love to the Lord and love to the 
236 



V. 14:.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 

neighbour, and thus where the Lord is, is evident from the 
following places : " I will lift up mine eyes to the hills, from 
whence cometh my help," Psalm cxxi. 1. "Behold upon the 
mountains the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that 
publisheth peace," Nahum i. 15 ; Isaiah lii. 7. "Praise Jeho 
vah, mountains and all hills" Isaiah cxlviii. 9. The hill of 
God is as the hill of Bashan, a high hill is the hill of Bashan. 
Why leap ye, ye high hills f the hill which Jehovah desireth 
to dwell in, yea, Jehovah will dwell in it for ever," Psalm 
Ixviii. 15, 16. "Ye mountains that ye skipped like rams; 
and ye little hills like lambs ? Tremble, thou earth, at the pre 
sence of the Lord," Psalm cxiv. 4, 7. "And I will bring 
forth a seed out of Jacob, and out of Judah an inheritor of 
my mountains, and mine elect shall inherit it, and my servants 
shall dwell there," Isaiah Ixv. 9. At the consummation of 
the age ; " then let them which be in Judea flee into the 
mountains" Matt. xxiv. 16. " Thy righteousness, O Jehovah, 
is like the great mountains" Psalm xxxvi. 6. Jehovah will 
go forth to battle, " and his feet shall stand in that day upon 
the Mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem on the east," 
Zeoh. xiv. 4. Because the Mount of Olives signified divine 
love, therefore the Lord in the day-time taught in the temple, 
but " at night he went out and abode in the Mount of Olives" 
Luke xxi. 37 ; xxii. 39; John viii. 1. And for the same reason 
the Lord discoursed with his disciples upon that mount concern 
ing his coming and the consummation of the age, Matt. xxiv. 3 ; 
Mark xiii. 3, and following verses. And also went from thence 
to Jerusalem and suffered, Matt. xxi. 1 ; xxvi. 80 ; Mark xi. 1 ; 
xiv. 26 ; Luke xix. 29, 37 ; xxi. 37 ; xxii. 39. Because a moun 
tain signified heaven and love, Jehovah descended upon the 
top of Mount Sinai, and promulgated the law, Exod. xix. 20 ; 
xxiv. 17. And for the same reason the Lord was transfigured 
before Peter, James, and John, upon a high mountain, Matt, 
xvii. 1. And on this account Zion was upon a mountain, ana 
also Jerusalem, and they are called the Mountain of Jehovah 
and the Mountain of Holiness, in many parts of the Word. 
Mountains and hills have a similar signification in other places ; 
as in Isaiah vii. 25 ; xxx. 25 ; xl. 9 ; xliv. 23 ; xlix. 11, 13 ; iv. 
12 ; Jerem. xvi. 15, 16 ; Ezek. xxxvi. 8 ; Joel iii. 18 ; Amos iv. 
12, 13 ; ix. 13, 14 ; Psalm Ixxx. 9, 10 ; Psalm civ. 610, 13. 
That those loves are signified by mountains and hills, may 
appear still more evidently from their opposite sense, in which 
they signify infernal loves, which are self-love and the love of 
the world, as is manifest from the following passages : The day 
of Jehovah shall come upon " all the high mountains, and upon 
all the hills that are lifted up," Isaiah ii. 12, 14. " Every val 
ley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be mado 
low," Isaiah xl. 3, 4. " The mountains flowed down at thy 
237 



337 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. vi. 

presence," Isaiah Ixiv. 1, 3. "Behold, I am against thee, O 
destroying mountain, which destroyest all the earth, and will 
make thee a burnt mountain" Jerem. li. 25. " I beheld the 
mountains, and lo, they trembled, and all the hills moved 
lightly," Jerem. iv. 23, 24. "For a fire is kindled in mine 
anger, arid it shall set on fire the foundations of the moun 
tains" Dent, xxxii. 22. " I will make waste mountains and 
hills? Isaiah xlii. 15. " Behold, (O Jacob,) I will make thee 
a new sharp threshing instrument having teeth, thou shalt 
thresh the mountains, and beat them small, and shalt make the 
hills as chaff, and the wind shall carry them away," Isaiah 
xli. 15, 16. " Give glory to Jehovah your God, before your 
feet stumble upon the mountains of twilight? Jerem. xiii. 16. 
Nor is any thing else meant by the seven mountains, upon which 
the woman sat, which was Babylon, Apoc. xvii. 9 ; besides 
other places ; as Isaiah xiv. 13 ; Hi. 7 ; Jerem. ix. 10 ; Ezek. 
vi. 3 ; xxxiv. 6 ; Micah vi. 1, 2 ; Nahum i. 4, 5 ; Psalm xlvi. 
3, 4. From the above it is evident what is to be understood 
by every mountain and island being moved out of their places ; 
as also in what follows, by " And every island fled away, and 
the mountains were not found," Apoc. xvi. 20; n. 714. 

337. And the Icings of the earth, and the great men, and the 
rich men, and the chief -captains, and the mighty men, and every 
bond-man, and every free-man, signifies those who before sepa 
ration were in the understanding of truth and good, in the 
science of the knowledges thereof, in erudition, either from 
others or from themselves, and yet not in a life conformable 
thereto. That such is the signification of the above words in 
their order, can only be known by those who are acquainted 
with the meaning of kings, of great men, rich men, chief- 
captains, mighty men, bond-men, and free-men, in the spiritual 
sense ; for by kings, in this sense, are signified they who are in 
truths ; by great men, they who are in goods ; by rich men, 
they who are in the knowledges of truth ; by chief-captains, 
they who are in the knowledges of good ; by mighty men, they 
who are in erudition ; by servants, they who are in such things 
from others, thus from the memory ; by free-men, they who are 
in such things from themselves, thus from judgment. But to 
prove the signification of all these names from the Word would 
be too prolix ; what is signified by kings has been shown before, 
n. 20, and what by rich men, n. 206 ; what by great men, is 
evident from Jerem. v. 5 ; Nahum iii. 10 ; Jonah iii. 7 ; for 
great is predicated of good, n. 896, 898 ; that mighty men, and 
bond-men, and free-men, are such as are in erudition, either 
from others or from themselves, will be seen below. It is said, 
they who are in these things, and yet not in a life according to 
them, because wicked men, yea, the worst of men, may be in 
the science and in the understanding of the knowledges of good 
238 



7 15, 16.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 338, 339 

and truth, and also in much erudition, but as they are not in 
a life according to them, they are in fact not in them ; for what 
is only in the understanding, and not at the same time in the 
life, is not in a man, but without, as it were in an outer court ; 
but that w r hich is at the same time in the life, is in a man, it is 
within him as in a house ; therefore the latter are preserved, 
and the former rejected. 

338. Hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the moun 
tains, signifies that they were now in evils and in falses of evil. 
To hide themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the moun 
tains, signifies to be in evils and in falses of evil, because they 
who in the sight of the world have appeared to be in the good 
of love, and yet were in evil, after death hide themselves in 
dens ; and they who have pretended to be principled in the 
truths of faith, and yet were in falses of evil, hide themselves in 
the rocks of the mountains. The entrances appear like holes in 
the earth, and like clefts in the mountains, into which they 
crawl like serpents, and there hide themselves. That such are 
their abiding places I have frequently seen. Hence it is that 
by dens or caves are signified the evils with such, and by holes 
and clefts the falses of evil, in the following places : In that 
day " they shall go into the holes of the rocks and into the caves 
of the earth, when Jehovah ariseth to shake terribly the earth," 
Isaiah ii. 19. In that day they shall " go into the clefts of the 
rocks and into the tops of the rugged rocks for fear of Jehovah," 
Isaiah ii. 21. " To dwell in the cliffs of the valleys, in caves 
of the earth, and in the rocks," Job xxx. 6. " The pride of 
thine heart hath deceived thee, thou that dwellest in the clefts 
of the rock," Obad. verse 3. In that day "they shall come 
and shall rest in the desolate valleys, and in the holes of the 
rocks," Isaiah vii. 19. " Because the palaces shall be forsaken 

the forts and towers shall be for dens for ever," Isaiah xxxii. 
14. " The pride of thine heart hath deceived thee, O thou that 
dwellest in the clefts of the rock," Jerem. xlix. 16. " And 
they shall hunt them from every mountain and hill, and out of 
the holes of the rocks ; they are not hid from my face, neither 
is their iniquity hid from mine eyes," Jerem. xvi. 16, IT. In 
that day " the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, 
and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice den" 
Isaiah xi. 8. 

339. And said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and 
hide us from the face of Him that sitteth on the throne, and from 
the wrath of the Lamb, signifies confirmations of evils by falsity, 
and of falsity from evil, until they did not acknowledge any 
thing divine in the Lord. Mountains signify the loves of evil, 
thus evils, n. 336, and rocks signify the falses of faith ; by fall 
ing upon them and hiding them, is signified to be defended 
against influx from heaven ; and as this is done by confirm a 

239 



340 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. VI. 

tions of evil by falsity, and by confirmations of falsity from evil, 
therefore these are signified ; by hiding themselves from the face 
of Him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of thp 
Lamb, is signified until they do not acknowledge any thing di 
vine in the Lord ; by Him that sitteth on the throne is meant 
the Lord s divinity, from whence are all things ; and by the 
Lamb is meant himself as to the Divine Humanity; the Lord 
as to both was upon the throne, as has been shown above. It is 
said from his face and from his anger, because all they who are 
in dens and rocks, dare not set foot out of them, nor even put 
forth a finger, by reason of the pain and torment consequent on 
doing so ; this is owing to the hatred which they bear against 
the Lord, even to their not being able to name him ; and the 
divine sphere of the Lord fills all things, which they cannot 
remove from themselves, but by confirmations of evil by falsity, 
and of falsity from evil ; the delights of the wicked occasion 
this. Similar is the signification of this passage in Hosea: 
" And they shall say to the mountains, Cover us, and to the 
hills, Fall on us," x. 8 : and in Luke : " Then shall they begin 
to say to the mountains, Fall on us ; and to the hills. Cover us," 
xxiii. 30. That this is the spiritual sense of these words, can 
not appear in the letter, but the spiritual sense is rendered 
apparent by this consideration, that when a last judgment is 
executed, they who are in evil, and desire to be in good, expe 
rience great sufferings in the beginning ; whereas they suffer 
less on such an occasion who confirm themselves in their evil by 
falses, for these last cover their evil by falses, but the former 
lay bare their evil, and in this case cannot support the divine 
influx, as is seen in what follows. The dens and caves into 
which they cast themselves, are correspondences. 

340. For the great day of his wrath is come, and who shall 
le able to stand f signifies that they were made such of them 
selves by means of their separation from the good and faithful 
on account of the last judgment, which otherwise they would 
not be able to abide. The great day of the wrath of the Lamb, 
signifies the day of the last judgment ; and who shall be able to 
stand ? signifies their inability to support it by reason of their 
torment ; for when the last judgment is at hand, the Lord, to 
gether with heaven, approaches, and of those who are below in 
the spiritual world, none can support the Lord s coming, but 
those who are interiorly good, and they are interiorly good, 
who shun evils as sins, and look to the Lord. That the day of 
the Lord s anger signifies the last judgment is evident from the 
following passages : "Before the fierce anger of Jehovah come 
upon you, before the day of Jehovah s anger come upon you, 
it may be ye shall be hid in the day of Jehovah s anger," 
Zeph. ii. 2, 3. " Behold the day of Jehovah cometh, cruel both 
with wrath and fierce anger," Isaiah xiii. 9. 13. " The great 
240 



V. 16.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 34:1 

day of Jehovah is near, a day of wrath, a day of trouble and 
distress, a day of clouds and thick darkness, * Zeph. i. 14, 15. 
" Thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead that they should 
be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward uiito thy ser 
vants, and shouldest destroy them that destroy the earth," 
Apoc. xi. 18. "Kiss the Son, lest he be angry and ye perish 
in the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are 
all they that put their trust in Him," Psalm ii. 12. 

341. To the above I will add this Memorable Relation, 
saw some of the English clergy assembled, to the number of six 
hundred, who prayed to the Lord that they might be permitted 
to ascend to a society of the superior heaven ; which being 
granted them, they ascended. And when they entered, to their 
great joy they saw their king, the present king s grandfather,* 
who w r ent up to two bishops that were among them, whom he 
had known in the world, and entering into discourse with them, 
asked them, " How came you here P To which they replied, 
that they had made supplication to the Lord, and it was 
granted them. He said to them, " Why to the Lord, and not 
to God the Father ?" And they answered, that they were so 
instructed below. Upon which he said, " Did I not sometimes 
tell you in the world, that the Lord ought to be approached, 
and also that charity is primary ? What reply did you then 
make concerning the Lord?" And it was given them to recol 
lect, that they had made answer, " That when the Father is 
approached, the Son also is approached." But the angels who 
were about the king said, "You are mistaken, you did not think 
so, nor is the Lord approached, when application is made to the 
Father ; but God the Father is approached, when application 
is made to the Lord, because they are one, like soul and body. 
Who applies to a man s soul, that he may thus have access to 
his body ? When a man is addressed as to his body which is 
seen, is not his soul also addressed, which is not seen*?" To this 
they were silent ; and the king went up to the two bishops, with 
two gifts in his hand, saying, " These are gifts from heaven." 
They were celestial forms of gold which he was about to pre 
sent to them, when a dusky cloud covered them, and separated 
them, and they descended by the way that they had come up; 
and wrote these things in a book. 

The rest of the English clergy, who heard that their com 
panions had been permitted to ascend to the superior heaven, 
assembled at the foot of a mountain, where they waited foi 
their return. On their return they saluted their brethren, and 
related what had happened to them in heaven, and that the 
king had presented the bishops with two celestial forms of gold, 
beautiful to behold; but that they fell out of their hands 

* This was written in the reign of George III., who was grandson to George II. 
241 



THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap, vii. 

They then retired into a grove, which was nigh at hand, and 
discoursed among themselves, looking about to see if any one 
heard them ; though they were heard nevertheless. Their dis 
course was about unanimity and concord, and then about supre 
macy and dominion. The bishops spoke, and the rest assented. 
And on a sudden, to my surprise, they no longer appeared as 
many, but as one great figure whose face resembled that of a 
lion, having on his head a turreted mitre, on which was a 
crown : and he spake in a lofty tone, and walked proudly ; and, 
looking behind, he said, "Who else has a right to supremacy 
but me !" The king looked down from heaven, and saw them, 
first all as one, and afterwards as several unanimous ; but most 
of them, as he said, in a secular habit. 



CHAPTER VII. 

1. AND after these things I saw four angels standing on the 
four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, 
that the wind should not blow on the earth, nor 011 the sea, nor 
on any tree. 

2. And I saw another angel ascending from the rising of 
the sun, having the seal of the living God. And he cried with 
a loud voice lo the four angels, to whom it was given to hurt 
the earth and the sea, 

3. Saying, Hurt not the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees, 
till we have sealed the servants of our God in their foreheads. 

4. And I heard the number of them that were sealed ; a hun 
dred and forty and four thousand, sealed out of all the tribes 
of the children of Israel. 

5. Of the tribe of Judah were sealed twelve thousand. Of 
the tribe of Reuben were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe 
of Gad were sealed twelve thousand. 

6. Of the tribe of Aser were sealed twelve thousand. Of the 
tribe of Nephtalim were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe 
of Manasses were sealed twelve thousand. 

T. Of the tribe of Simeon were sealed twelve thousand. Of 
the tribe of Levi were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of 
L&sachar were sealed twelve thousand. 

8. Of the tribe of Zabulon were sealed twelve thousand. 
Of the tribe of Joseph were sealed twelve thousand. Of the 
tribe of Benjamin were sealed twelve thousand. 

9. After this, I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude which no 
man can number, of all nations, and tribes, and people, and 
tongues, stood before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed 
with white robes, and palms in their hands ; 

242 



Cliap. vii.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 

10. And cried with a loud voice, saying, Salvation to onr 
God that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb. 

11. And all the angels stood round about the throne, and 
about the elders, and the four animals, and fell before the 
throne on their faces, and worshipped God, 

12. Saying, Amen ; blessing, and glory, and wisdom, and 
thanksgiving, and honour, and power, and might, be unto our 
God, for ever and ever, arnen. 

13. And one of the elders answered, saying unto me, "Who 
are these that are arrayed in white robes ? and whence came 
they? 

14. And I said unto him, Sir, thou knowest. And he said 
unto me, These are they that come out of great tribulation, and 
have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of 
the Lamb. 

15. Therefore are they before the throne of God, and serve 
him day and night in his temple : and He that sitteth on the 
throne shall dwell among them. 

16. They shall hunger no more, neither thirst any more ; 
neither shall the sun light on them, nor any heat. 

17. For the Lamb which is in the midst of the throne shall 
feed them, and shall lead them unto living fountains of waters : 
and God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes. 



THE SPIRITUAL SENSE. 

THE CONTENTS OF THE WHOLE CHAPTER. This chapter treats 
of those who are and will be in the Christian heaven ; and first 
of their separation from the wicked, verses 1 to 3 : afterwards, 
of those who are in love to the Lord and thereby in wisdom, of 
whom the superior heavens consist, verses 4 to 8 ; and of those 
who are in charity and its faith from the Lord, because they 
have fought against evils, of whom are the inferior heavens, 
verses 9 to 17. 

THE CONTENTS OF EACH YERSE. Y. 1, " And after these 
things, I saw four angels standing on the four corners of the 
earth," signifies the universal heaven now in the effort to exe 
cute the last judgment : " Holding the four winds of the earth, 
that the wind should not blow on the earth, nor on the sea, nor 
on any tree," signifies a withholding and restraining by the 
Lord, of a nearer and thence more powerful influx into the 
inferior things, where the good were in conjunction with the 
wicked: v. 2, "And I saw another angel ascending from the 
rising of the sun," signifies the Lord providing and regulating 
243 



THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. Vli 

" Having the seal of the living G-od," signifies who alone knows 
all and every one, and can distinguish and separate them one 
from another : " And he cried with a loud voice to the four 
angels, to whom it was given to hurt the earth and the sea, (v. 
3,) saying, Hurt not the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees," 
signifies the preventing and withholding by the Lord of a 
nearer and stronger influx into inferior things : " Till we have 
sealed the servants of our God in their foreheads," signifies 
before they are separated who are in truths originating in good 
from the Lord : v. 4, " And I heard the number of them that 
were sealed, a hundred and forty and four thousand," signifies 
all who acknowledge the Lord to be the God of heaven and 
earth, and are in truths of doctrine from the good of love, from 
him through the Word : " Sealed out of all the tribes of the 
children of Israel," signifies the Lord s heaven and church 
composed of them : v. 5, " Of the tribe of Judah were sealed 
twelve thousand," signifies celestial love, which is love to the 
Lord, and this with all who will be in the new heaven and the 
new church : " Of the tribe of Reuben were sealed twelve thou 
sand," signifies wisdom derived from celestial love, with them 
who are there : " Of the tribe of Gad were sealed twelve thou 
sand," signifies uses of life, which are of wisdom derived from 
that love, with those who were there : v. 6, " Of the tribe of 
Aser were sealed twelve thousand," signifies mutual love with 
them : " Of the tribe of Nephtalim were spaled twelve thou 
sand," signifies a perception of use, and whot use is with them: 
" Of the tribe of Manasses were sealed twelve thousand," signi 
fies the will of serving, and of action, with them : v. T, "Of 
the tribe of Simeon were sealed twelve thousand," signifies 
spiritual love, which is love towards the neighbour, with them: 
" Of the tribe of Levi were sealed twelve thousand," signifies 
the affection of truth derived from good, from whence comes 
intelligence, with them : " Of the tribe of Issachar were sealed 
twelve thousand," signifies good of life with them : v. 8, " Of 
the tribe of Zabulon were sealed twelve thousand," signifies 
the conjugial love of good and truth with them : " Of the tribe 
of Joseph were sealed twelve thousand," signifies the doctrine 
of good and truth with them : " Of the tribe of Benjamin were 
sealed twelve thousand," signifies the life of truth derived from 
good according to doctrine with them : v. 9, " After this I be 
held, and, lo, a great multitude which no man could number," 
signifies all the rest who are not among the above-recited, and 
yet are in the new heaven and new church of the Lord, and 
who constitute the ultimate heaven and the external church, 
whose quality no one knows but the Lord alone : " Of all na 
tions, and tribes, and people, and tongues," signifies all in the 
Christian world, who are in religion from good, and ir truths 
from doctrine : " Stood before the throne and before the Lamb, 
244 



Chap, vii.] THE APOCALYPSE EEVEALED. 

signifies, hearing the Lord and doing his precepts : " Clothed 
with white robes, and palms in their hands," signifies commu 
nication and conjunction with the superior heavens, and con 
fession from divine truths : v. 10, " And cried with a loud voice, 
saying, Salvation to our God that sitteth upon the throne and 
unto the Lamb," signifies an acknowledgment from the heart 
that the Lord is their Saviour : v. 11, " And all the angels 
stood round about the throne, and about the elders, and the 
four animals," signifies all in the universal heaven : " And fell 
before the throne on their faces, and worshipped God," signifies 
the humiliation of their heart, and, from humiliation, adoration 
of the Lord : v. 12, " Saying, Amen," signifies divine verity 
and confirmation therefrom : " Blessing, and glory, and wisdom, 
and thanksgiving," signifies the divine spiritual things of the 
Lord : " And honour, and power, and might," signifies the 
divine celestial things of the Lord : " Be unto our God for ever 
and ever," signifies these things in the Lord, and from the 
Lord to eternity : " Amen," signifies the consent of all : v. 13, 
" And one of the elders answered, saying unto me, Who are 
these that are arrayed in white robes ? and whence came they ? 
(v. 14,) And I said unto him, Sir, thou knowest," signifies a 
desire of knowing and the will of interrogating, and the answer 
and information : " And he said unto me, These are they that 
come out of great tribulation," signifies that they are those 
who have been in temptations, and have fought against evils 
and falses : " And have washed their robes," signifies who have 
cleansed their religious principles from the evils of falsity : 
" And made them white in the blood of the Lamb," signifies, 
and purified them from the falses of evil by truths, and thus 
have been reformed by the Lord : v. 15, " Therefore are they 
before the throne of God, and serve him day and night in his 
temple : and He that sitteth on the throne shall dwell among 
them," signifies that they are in the presence of the Lord, and 
constantly and faithfully live according to the truths which they 
receive from him in his church : v. 16, " They shall hunger no 
more, neither thirst any more," signifies that hereafter there 
shall be no deficiency of goods and truths w r ith them : " Neither 
shall the sun light on them, nor any heat," signifies that here 
after they shall have no lusts to evil nor to the false of evil : v. 
17, " For the Lamb which is in the midst of the throne shall 
feed them," signifies that the Lord alone will teach them : 
" And shall lead them unto living fountains of waters," signi 
fies, and lead them by the truths of the "Word to conjunction 
with himself: " And God shall wipe away all tears from their 
eyes," signifies that they shall no longer be in combats against 
evils and their falses, and thereby in sorrow, but in goods and 
truths, and thence in joys celestial from the Lord. 
245 



342 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. 



THE EXPLANATION. 

342. And after these things I saw four angels standing on 
the four corners of the earth, signifies the universal heaven now 
in the effort to execute the last judgment on those who were 
in the world of spirits. Many things now follow concerning the 
state of the spiritual world previous to the last judgment, which 
no one could know but by revelation from the Lord. And 
since it has been granted me to see in what manner the last 
judgment was performed, and also the changes which preceded 
it, and the arrangements which ensued ; I am thereby enabled 
to explain the signification of all the particulars contained in 
this and the following chapters. By the four angels is here 
signified the universal heaven ; by the four corners of the earth 
is signified the universal world of spirits, which is in the midst 
between heaven and hell ; for the last judgment was executed 
on those who were in the world of spirits, but not on any one 
in heaven, nor on any one in hell. The reason why the angels 
signify heaven, is, because an angel, in the supreme sense, 
means the Lord as to the Divine Humanity, n. 344 ; and as 
heaven is heaven from the Lord, by the angels is also signified 
heaven. The four angels here signify the universal heaven, 
because they were seen standing on the four corners of the 
earth, and by the four corners are signified the four quarters 
The reason why the above words signify the effort of the uni 
versal heaven to execute a last judgment, is, because the Lord, 
when the judgment was at hand, caused the heavens to draw 
near over the world of spirits, and by this approach of the 
heavens, such a change of state in the interiors of the minds 
of those who were below, was effected, that they saw nothing 
but terrors before their eyes. That corners signify quarters, and 
thence four corners all quarters, may appear from the following 
passages : " Ye shall measure from without the city, the corner 
towards the east, the corner towards the south, the corner to 
wards the west, and the corner towards the north," Numb. xxxv. 
5. "Thou shalt make the boards for the tabernacle for the 
south side [corner], and for the north side [corner]," Exod. xxvi. 
18, 20, 23. " And a court for the south side [corner], for the 
north side [corner ], for the west side [corner], and for the 
cast side [corner"]," Exod. xxvii. 9, 11 13. The four quarters 
are also called the four corners frequently in Ezekiel, as in chap, 
xlvii. 18 20, and xlviii. Because corners signify quarters, 
therefore they signify all things, as all things relating to heaven 
or hell, or to good and truth, as is plain from these passages : 
Satan shall go out to " deceive the nations which are in the 
four quarters of the earth," Apoc. xx. 8. " I have cut off the 
nations : their corners are desolate," Zeph. iii. 6. " Israel was 
246 



V. 1.] THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. 343 

gathered together as one man, and the corners of all the 
people stood up," Judges xx. 1, 2. "A sceptre shall rise out 
of Israel, and shall smite the corners of Moab," Numb. xxiv. 
IT. " A day of the trumpet and alarm and against the high 
corners" Zeph. i. 16. "1 would scatter them into corners] 
Deut. xxxii. 26. That a corner signifies the ultimate which 
sustains things superior, as a foundation does a house, and thus 
also all things, appears from these passages : " Behold, I lay in 
Zion for a foundation a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner 
stone" Isaiah xxviii. 16. "And they shall not take of the 
stone for a corner" Jerem. li. 26. " And Judah shall be a 
corner stone," Zech. x. 4. " The stone which the builders re 
fused is become the head of the corner" Psalm cxviii. 22 ; 
Matt. xxi. 42 ; Mark xii. 10 ; Luke xx. IT, 18. 

343. Holding the four winds of the earth, that the wind should 
not How on the earth, nor on the sea, nor on any tree, signifies a 
withholding and restraining by the Lord of a nearer and thence 
more powerful influx into inferior things, where the good were 
in conjunction with the wicked. It is to be noted that the last 
judgment takes place when the wicked are multiplied, below the 
heavens in the world of spirits, to such a degree that the ari^ela 
in the heavens cannot subsist in their state of love and wisdom; 
for in this case they have no support and foundation to rest 
upon ; and as this is occasioned by the increase of the wicked 
below, therefore the Lord, in order to preserve their state, flows 
in with his divinity more and more strongly, and this continues 
till they can no longer be preserved by any influx, without 
a separation of the wicked, that are below, from the good, 
which is effected by the letting down and drawing near of the 
heavens, and thence by a stronger influx, until it at length 
becomes insupportable to the wicked, upon which they flee 
away, and cast themselves into hell. This is also what is sig 
nified in the foregoing chapter by these words : " And said to 
the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face 
of Him that sitteth upon the throne, and from the wrath of the 
Lamb : for the great day of his wrath is come ; and who shall 
be able to stand?" Apoc. vi. 16. But to proceed to the expla 
nation. By the four winds is signified the influx of the heavens ; 
by the earth, the sea, and every tree, are signified all inferior 
principles and the things that are therein ; by the earth and sea, 
all inferior principles ; and by every tree, all things therein* 
That wind signifies influx, properly the influx of truth into the 
understanding, may appear from the following passages : " Thus 
saith the Lord Jehovah, Come from the four winds, O spirit, 
and breathe upon these slain, that they may live," Ezek. xxxviii. 
9, 13. There were seen four chariots, at which there were four 
horses, " these are the four winds of the heavens," Zech vi. 1 ; 
5 "Ye must be born again. The wind blowetli where it 
247 



84:3 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. viL 

listeth, but thou canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither 
it goeth," John iii. 7, 8. The Maker of the earth "hath 
established the world by his wisdom, and bringeth forth the 
wind out of his treasures," Jerem. x. 12, 13 ; li. 15, 16 ; Psalm 
cxxxv. 7. Jehovah " causeth his wind to blow, and the waters 
flow. He showeth his Word unto Jacob, his statutes and judg 
ments unto Israel," Psalm cxlvii. 17 19. " Stormy wind ful 
filling his Word," Psalm cxlviii. 8. Jehovah " maketh his angels 
winds" Psalm civ. 3, 4. Jehovah " did fly upon the wings of 
the wind" Psalm xviii. 10, 11 ; Psalm civ. 3. The wings of the 
wind are divine truths which flow in : therefore the Lord is called 
" The breath of our nostrils," Lament, iv. 20 ; and it is writ 
ten, that he breathed into the nostrils of Adam the soul of lives, 
Gen. ii. 7 ; also, that " He breathed on his disciples, and said, 
Eeceive ye the Holy Ghost," John xx. 21, 22. The Holy 
Ghost (or Spirit) is the divine truth proceeding from the Lord, 
whose influx into the disciples was represented, and thus sig 
nified, by his breathing upon them. That wind and respiration 
signify the influx of divine truth into the understanding, is 
from the correspondence of the lungs with the understanding, 
on which subject see The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divint 
Love and the Divine Wisdom, n. 371 429. As, therefore, a 
nearer and stronger divine influx through the heavens disperses 
truths among the wicked, therefore wind signifies the disper 
sion of truth among them, and thence their conjunction with 
hell, and destruction ; as may be seen from these passages : 
" And upon Elam will I bring the four winds from the four 
quarters of heaven, and will scatter them," Jerem. xlix. 36. 
" Thou shalt fan them, and the wind shall carry them away, and 
the whirlwind shall scatter them," Isaiah xli. 16. " The breath 
of Jehovah, like a stream of brimstone, doth kindle it," Isaiah 
xxx. 33. The contrivers of iniquity perish " by the blast of 
God, and by the breath of his nostrils are they consumed," Job 
iv. 8, 9. " The foundations of the world were discovered at 
thy rebuke, O Jehovah, at the blast of the breath of thy nostrils " 
Psalm xviii. 15. "I saw in my vision, and behold, the 
four winds of the heavens strove upon the great sea. And four 
great beasts came up," Dan. vii. 2, 3, and following verses. 
" Behold, a whirlwind of Jehovah is gone forth in fury it shall 
fall grievously upon the head of the wicked," Jerem. xxiii. 19 ; 
xxx. 23. " So persecute them with thy storm, and make them 
afraid with thy tempest," Psalm Ixxxiii. 15. "The way of 
Jehovah is in the whirlwind and the storm," Kahum i. 3 ; 
besides other places ; as Jerem. xxv. 82 ; Ezek. xiii. 13 ; Hosea 
viii. 7; Amos i. 14; Zech. ix. 14; Psalm xi. 6; Psalm 1. 3: 
Psalm Iv. 8 ; Psalm cvii. ; where it is thus written : " For he 
commandeth and raiseth the stormy wind. He maketh the 
itorm to a calm, so that the waves thereof are still," verse 25 Y 
248 



V. 2, 3.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 344 346 

39 : hence it may appear what is the signification of these 
words in their spiritual sense. Jesus in the ship " rebuked the 
wind, and said unto the sea, Peace, be ytill, and there was a 
great calm," Mark iv. 39, 40 ; Luke viii. 23, 24. By the sea 
is here signified hell, and by the wind influx thence. Nor is 
any thing but strong influx signified by the east wind, Ezek. 
xvii. 10; Jerem. xviii. IT; xix. 12; Hosea xiii. 15, 39; Psalm 
xlviii. 7 : nor by the same wind which dried up the Kea Sea, 
Exodus xiv. 21 ; concerning which it is thus written by Moses : 
" And with the blast of tliy nostrils the waters were gathered 
together as a heap, thou didst Mow with thy wind, the sea 
covered them," Exod. xv. 8, 10. From what has been said, it 
may now be seen, that by holding the four winds that the wind 
should not blow on the earth, is signified to withhold and pre 
vent a nearer and stronger influx into inferior things. 

344. And I saw another angel ascending from tfie rising of 
the sun, signifies the Lord providing and regulating. An angel 
here means the Lord as to his divine love, because he ascended 
from the east, and from the east or rising of the sun, is from 
divine love, for in the spiritual world the Lord is the sun and 
the east, and is so called as to that love. That he was providing 
and moderating, is evident from his command to the four angels, 
not to hurt the earth and the sea, till the servants of God were 
sealed on their foreheads. That the Lord s Divine Humanity 
is meant by an angel, in the supreme sense, is manifest from 
these passages : "The angel of the faces of Jehovah saved them ; 
in his love and in his pity he redeemed them, and he bare them, 
and carried them all the days of old," Isaiah Ixiii. 9. "The 
angel which redeemed me from all evil bless the lads," Gen. 
xlviii. 16. "The Lord whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to 
his temple, even the angel of the covenant, w r hom ye delight in," 
Malachi iii. 1. " Behold, I send an angel before thee to keep 
thee in the way, beware of him, and obey his voice, for my 
name is in him," Exod. xxiii. 20 23. Angel and Sent, in the 
Hebrew language, are expressed by one and the same word ; 
hence it is that the Lord so often calls himself the Sent of the 
Father, by which is to be understood the Divine Humanity. 
But an angel, in a relative sense, denotes every one who re 
ceives the Lord, both in heaven and in the world. 

345. Having the seal of the living God, signifies who alone 
knows all and every one, and can distinguish and separate them 
one from another. Since they were sealed on their foreheads 
with a seal, therefore by having the seal of the living God, as 
spoken of the Lord, is meant to know all and every one, and to 
be able to distinguish and separate the servants of God from, 
those who are not. 

346. And he cried with a loud voice to the four angels, to 
whom it was given to hurt the earth and the sea, saying, Hurt not 

249 



347 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. VU, 

the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees, signifies the preventing 
and withholding by the Lord of a nearer and stronger influx 
into inferior things. That this is the signification of these 
words, is evident from the explanation above, n. 343. In a 
literal sense, it was the four angels that withheld influx, but, in 
a spiritual sense, it was the Lord. Not to hurt the earth, the 
sea, nor the trees, signifies that they should not operate by a 
vehement, but by a moderate, influx ; for the Lord, by various 
degrees of influx into the heavens, disposes, regulates, tempers, 
and moderates all things there and in the hells, and, through 
the heavens and the hells, all things in the world. 

347. Till we have sealed the servants of our God in their fore 
heads, signifies before they are separated who are in truths ori- 
S nating in good from the Lord, thus who are interiorly good. 
y sealing tliem in their foreheads, is not meant to set a seal 
there, but to distinguish and separate those who are in the good 
of love from the Lord ; for the forehead signifies the good of 
love. That they who are in truths from good from the Lord 
are meant, follows from such being understood by the servants 
of God, n. 3. The reason why the forehead signifies the good 
of love, is, because the face is the image of man s affections, and 
the forehead is the highest part of the face ; the brain, from 
which is the origin of all things of man s life, being immediately 
under the forehead. As the forehead signifies love, good love 
in the good, and evil love in the evil, therefore by sealing them 
on their foreheads, is signified to distinguish and separate one 
from another according to the love. Similar is the signification 
of this passage in Ezekiel : " Go through the midst of Jeru 
salem, and set a mark upon the foreheads of the men that sigh 
over the abominations," ix. 4 6. As the forehead signifies 
love, therefore concerning the plate of gold on the mitre of 
Aaron, on which was engraven Holiness to Jehovah, it is written, 
That it should be on the region of the faces of the mitre, that 
it might be over the forehead of Aaron, and that it should always 
be upon the forehead of Aaron, that he might be accepted of 
Jehovah, Exod. xxviii. 36 38. And moreover it was com 
manded that these words, "And thou shalt love Jehovah thy 
God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul," were to be upon 
the hand and upon the forehead, Deut. vi. 5, 8; xi. 18. That 
they should have the name of the Father written on their fore 
heads, Apoc. xiv. 1. And the name of God and of the Lamb 
in their foreheads, Apoc. xxii. 4. It may be observed, that the 
Lord looks at the angels in the forehead, whilst they look at the 
Lord through the eyes ; by reason that the Lord views all from 
the good of love, and desires that they, on their part, should 
view him from the truths of wisdom : in this manner conjunc 
tion is effected. The forehead, in an opposite sense, signifies 
evil love in these places : Who have the mark of the beast on 
250 



. 3, 4.] 



THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 



348 



their foreheads^ Apoc. xiii. 16 ; xiv. 9 ; xx. 4 ; and also the 
name of Babylon upon \\Qvforehead, Apoc. xvii. 5. The fore 
head of an adulterous woman, Jerem. iii. 3. Obdurate of fore 
head, and hard of heart, Ezek. iii. 7, 8. " Thou art obstinate, 
and t\iy forehead is brass," Isaiah xlviii. 4. 

348. And I heard the number of them which were sealed, a 
hundred and forty and four thousand, signifies all who acknow 
ledge the Lord to be the God of heaven and earth, and are in 
truths of doctrine from the good of love from him through the 
Word. That these are signified by a hundred and forty and 
four thousand out of the twelve tribes of Israel, is, because the 
twelve tribes of Israel signify the church, as composed of those 
who are in good and truth from the Lord, and acknowledge him 
as the God of heaven and earth. By the number one hundred 
and forty-four thousand, all these are understood ; for by this 
number the same is signified as by twelve, since it arises by 
multiplying twelve into twelve, and then by multiplying it by 
one hundred and by one thousand ; and any number whatever 
multiplied into itself, and then by ten, one hundred, or one 
thousand, has the same signification as the original number ; 
therefore the number one hundred and forty-four thousand 
signifies the same as one hundred and forty-four, and this the 
same as twelve, because twelve multiplied by twelve make one 
hundred and forty-four ; so likewise the twelve thousand sealed 
out of each tribe, being multiplied by twelve, make one hun 
dred and forty-four thousand. The number twelve signifies all, 
and is predicated of truths from good, because twelve is the pro 
duct of three and four multiplied by each other, and the num 
ber three signifies every thing as to truth, and the number 
four every thing as to good; hence twelve, in this instance, 
signifies every thing as to truth derived from the good of love. 
That all numbers signify the adjuncts of things determining 
their quality or quantity, may appear manifest from numbers 
in the Apocalypse, which, were they without some specific sig 
nification, would yield no sense whatever in many places. From 
what has been said it may be seen, that by one hundred and forty- 
four thousand sealed, and by twelve thousand out of each tribe, 
is not to be understood that so many were sealed and elected 
out of the tribes of Israel, but all who are in truths of doctrine 
derived from the good of love from the Lord. This is what is 
signified in general by the twelve tribes of Israel, and also by 
the Lord s twelve apostles ; but, in particular, some truth de 
rived from good is signified by each tribe and by each apostle. 
But the signification of each particular tribe shall be explained 
presently. Since the twelve tribes signify all truths of doctrine 
derived from the good of love from the Lord, they also signify 
all things of the church ; on which account the twelve tribes of 
Israel represented the church, as did also the twelve apostles, 
251 



348 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. VH. 

As twelve is predicated of the truths and goods of the church, 
therefore the New Jerusalem, by which is understood the Lord s 
New Church, is described by the number twelve in every par 
ticular, as that the length and breadth of the city was twelve 
thousand furlongs / that the wall thereof was one hundred and 
forty-four cubits ; one hundred and forty-four is twelve multi 
plied by twelve ; that there were twelve gates ; and the gates were 
of twelve pearls / that over the gates there were twelve angels / 
and the names written of the twelve tribes of Israel ; that the wall 
had twelve foundations ; and in them the names of the twelve 
apostles of the Lamb ; and they consisted of twelve precious 
stones as also that the tree of life was there, bearing twelve 
fruits according to the twelve months. Concerning all these 
particulars, see chapters xxi. and xxii. From such as are here 
treated of the new heaven is formed, and the new church is 
forming by the Lord ; for they are the same who are mentioned 
in chapter xiv., where it is written of them: "And I looked, 
arid, lo, a Lamb stood on the Mount Zion, and with him one 
hundred and forty-four thousand. And they sung, as it were, 
a new song before the throne, and no man could learn that song 
but the hundred and forty-four thousand, which were redeemed 
from the earth, for they are virgins, which follow the Lamb 
whithersoever he goeth," verses 1, 3, 4. Because the twelve 
tribes signify the Lord s church as to all its truths and goods, 
therefore the number twelve became a number of the church, 
and was used in its holy ceremonies and solemnities. In the 
breast-plate of judgment, in which were the urim and thum- 
mim, and twelve precious stones, Exod. xxviii. 21. That twelve 
breads of faces were put upon the table in the tabernacle, Levit. 
xxiv. 5, 6. That Moses built an altar at the foot of Mount Si 
nai, and erected twelve pillars, Exod. xxiv. 4. That twelve men 
were sent to explore the land of Canaan, Deut. i. 23. That 
twelve men brought twelve stones out of the midst of Jordan, 
Josh. iv. 1 9, 20. That twelve princes at the dedication of 
the altar brought twelve chargers of silver, twelve bowls of silver, 
twelve censers of gold, twelve oxen, twelve rams, twelve lambs, 
and twelve Tie-goats, Numb. vii. 84, 87. That Elijah took twelve 
stones, and built an altar, 1 Kings xviii. 31. That Elijah found 
Elisha ploughing with twelve yoke of oxen, and himself among 
the twelve, and that then he cast his mantle upon him, 1 Kings 
xix. 19. That Solomon placed twelve oxen under the brazen 
sea, 1 Kings vii. 25, 44. That he made a throne, and twelve 
lions standing at the steps of it, 1 Kings x. 19, 20. That on the 
head of the woman who was clothed with the sun there was a 
crown of twelve stars, Apoc. xii. 1. From what has been said 
it may now be evident, that by one hundred and forty-four 
thousand sealed, twelve thousand out of each tribe, are not un 
derstood so many in number of the Jews and Israelites, but aL 
252 



V. 4.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 34:9 

of the new Christian heaven, and the New Church, who will 
be in truths of doctrine derived from the good of love through 
the Word from the Lord. 

349. Of all the tribes of the children of Israel^ signifies the 
Lord s heaven and church composed of them. By a tribe is 
signified religion as to good of life, and by every tribe is sig 
nified the church as to every good of love and as to every truth 
from that good in which good of life originates ; for there are 
two things which constitute a church good of life, and truth 
of doctrine ; the marriage of these is the church. The twelve 
tribes of Israel represented, and thence signified the church as 
to that marriage, and each tribe some universal truth of good 
or good of truth therein. But what each tribe signifies has not 
been revealed to any one, nor could be revealed, lest, by an ill- 
connected explanation, the sanctity which lies concealed in 
their several conjunctions into one, should be profaned, for 
their signification is determined by their conjunction. They 
have one signification in the series in which they are named 
according to their nativities, Gen. xxix., xxx., xxxv. 18; where 
the series of them is as follows : Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, 
Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Aser, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph, Benja 
min. They have another signification in the series in which 
they are mentioned when they came to Egypt, which is as fol 
lows : Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Gad, 
Aser, Joseph, Benjamin, Dan, Naphtali, Gen. xlvi. 9 21. An 
other, in the series in which they are blessed by their father 
Israel, which is this : Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Zebulun, 
Issachar, Dan, Gad, Aser, Naphtali, Joseph, Benjamin, Gen. 
xlix. Another, in the series in which they are blessed by Mo 
ses, which is, Reuben, Judah, Levi, Benjamin, Joseph, Ephraim, 
Manasses, Zebulun, Gad, Dan, Naphtali, Aser, Deut. xxxiii : 
here Ephraim and Manasses are mentioned, and not Simeon and 
Issachar. Another, in the series in which they encamped and 
jpurneyed, which was this : the tribe of Judah, Issachar, and 
Zebulun to the east; the tribe of Reuben, Simeon, and Gad to 
the south ; the tribe of Ephraim, Manasses, and Benjamin to 
the west ; the tribe of Dan, Aser, and Naphtali to the north ; 
and the tribe of Levi in the middle, Numb. ii. 1 to the end. 
Another, in the series in which they are mentioned in other 
places ; as Gen. xxxv. 23 26 ; Numb. i. 5 16 ; x. 1 to the 
end ; xiii. 4 15 ; xxvi. 5 56 ; xxxiv. IT 28 ; Deut. xxvii. 
12, 13 ; Josh. xv. xix. ; Ezek. xlviii. 1 to the end. So, therefore, 
when Balaam saw Israel dwelling according to their tribes, he 
said, "How goodly are thy tents, O Jacob, and thy tabernacles, 
O Israel," Numb. xxiv. 1, 2, 3, 5. In the breast-plate of judg 
ment, which was the uriin and thummim, wherein were twelve 
Srecious stones, according to the names of the sons of Israel 
Exod. xxviii. 15 29), the signification of the tribes in their 
253 



350 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Cliap. vii. 

series was determined by the interrogation, to which they re 
quired an answer. But what they signify in the series in which 
they are here mentioned in the Apocalypse, this being different 
also, shall be explained presently. That tribes signify religion, 
and the twelve tribes the church as to all things relating to it, 
is, because tribe and sceptre, in the Hebrew language, are one 
and the same word, and the sceptre is the kingdom, and the 
Lord s kingdom is heaven and the church. 

350. Of the tribe of Judah were sealed twelve thousand, sig 
nifies celestial love, which is love to the Lord, and this with all 
who will be in the Lord s new heaven and new church. By 
Judah, in a supreme sense, is signified the Lord as to celestial 
love ; in a spiritual sense, the Lord s celestial kingdom and the 
Word ; and, in a natural sense, the doctrine of the celestial 
church from the Word. But here by Judah is signified celes 
tial love, which is love to the Lord ; and because it is men 
tioned first in the series, it signifies that love with all who will 
be of the Lord s new heaven and new church ; for the tribe 
first named is the all in the rest, it is as their head, and as a 
universal entering into all things that are consequent, collect 
ing, qualifying, and affecting them. Love to the Lord is such 
a universal principle. That twelve thousand signify all who 
are in that love, may be seen above, n. 348. It is well known 
that the twelve tribes of Israel, after Solomon s time, were di 
vided into two kingdoms, the Jewish and Israelitish ; the Jew 
ish kingdom represented the Lord s celestial kingdom or priest 
hood ; and the Israelitish kingdom, the Lord s spiritual king 
dom or royalty; the latter, however, was destroyed when there 
was nothing spiritual left among them ; but the Jewish king 
dom was preserved, on account of the Word, and because the 
Lord was to be born there. But when they had wholly adul 
terated the Word, and thus could not know the Lord, then 
their kingdom was also destroyed. From hence it may appear, 
that by the tribe of Judah is signified celestial love, which is 
love to the Lord ; but by reason of their character being such 
as to the Word, and as to the Lord, therefore by the tribe of 
Judah is also signified the opposite love, which is self-love, pro 
perly the love of dominion from the love of self, which love is 
called diabolical love. That by Judah and his tribe is signified 
the celestial kingdom and its love, which is love to the Lord, is 
evident from these places : " Judah, thou art he whom thy 
brethren shall praise : The sceptre shall not depart from Judah 
until Shiloh come, and unto him shall the gathering of the 
people be; binding his foal unto the vine, and his ass s colt 
unto the choice vine ; he washed his garments in wine ; his eyes 
shall be red with wine, and his teeth white with milk," Gen. 
xlix. 8 12. "And my servant David shall be their prince 
for ever. Moreover I will make a covenant of peace with them, 
254 






V. 5.J THE APOCALYPSE BEVEALED. 350 

it shall be an everlasting covenant with them ; and I will set 
my sanctuary in the midst of them for evermore," Ezek. xxxvii. 
26, 27. "Sins: and rejoice, O daughter of Zion ; and Jehovah 
shall inherit Judah) his portion in the holy land," Zech. ii. 10, 
12. " Keep thy solemn feasts, Judah, perform thy vows ; 
for the wicked shall no more pass through thee, he is entirely 
cut off," Nahum i. 15. " The Lord shall suddenly come to 
his temple, then shall the offering of Judah and Jerusalem be 
pleasant unto Jehovah, as in the days of old," Malachi iii. 1, 4. 
u Judah shall dwell for ever, and Jerusalem from generation to 
generation," Joel iii. 20. " Behold, the days come, that I will 
raise unto David a righteous branch ; in his days shall Judah 
be saved," Jerem. xxiii. 5, 6. " Judah was his sanctuary, and 
Israel his dominion," Psalm cxiv. 2. " And I will bring forth 
a seed out of Jacob, and out of Judah an inheritor of my moun 
tains ; and mine elect shall inherit it," Isaiah Ixv. 9. " Be 
hold, the days come, that I will make a new covenant with the 
house of Judah ; but this shall be the covenant, I will put my 
law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts," Jerem. 
xxxi. 27, 31, 33, 34. " In those days, ten men shall take hold 
of the skirt of a man of Judah, saying, "We will go with you, for 
we have heard that God is with you," Zech. viii. 22, 23. " For 
as the new heavens and the new earth, which I will make, shall 
remain before me, so shall your seed and your name remain : 
and kings shall be thy nursing fathers, and their queens thy 
nursing mothers ; they shall bow down to thee with their face 
toward the earth, and lick up the dust of thy feet," Isaiah Ixvi. 
20, 22 ; xlix. 22, 23. From these and many other passages, too 
numerous to be adduced, it is very evident, that by Judah is 
not meant Judah, but the church ; not to mention the Lord s 
entering into a new and eternal covenant with that nation, and 
making them his inheritance and his sanctuary for ever ; and 
the kings of the Gentiles and their princes bowing down to them, 
licking the dust of their feet, and such like. That by the tribe 
of Judah, regarded in itself, is meant the diabolical kingdom 
which has its origin in the love of dominion from self-love, 
may appear from these passages : " I will hide, my face from 
them, I will see what their end shall be ; for they are a froward 
generation, children in w r hom there is no faith ; for they are a 
nation void of counsel ; for their vine is of the vine of Sodom, 
and of the fields of Gomorrah; their grapes are grapes of gall, 
their clusters are bitter, their wine is the poison of dragons and 
the cruel venom of asps. Is not this laid up in store with me, 
and sealed up among my treasures ?" Deut. xxxii. 20 34. " Un 
derstand, therefore, that Jehovah thy God giveth thee not this 
good land for thy righteousness, or for the uprightness of thine 
heart : for thou art a stiff-necked people," Deut. ix. 5, 6. "Ac 
cording to the number of thy cities are thy gods, Judah, ac 
255 



351 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap, vii, 

cording to the number of the streets of Jerusalem have ye set 
up altars to burn incense unto Baal," Jerem. ii. 28 ; xi. 13. 
" Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father 
ye will do," John viii. 44. They are said to be/wK of hypocrisy, 
iniquity, and uncleanness, Matt, xxiii. 27, 28. An adulterous 
generation, Matt. xii. 39 ; Mark viii. 38. And Jerusalem, their 
dwelling-place, is called Sodom, Isaiah iii. 9 ; Jerem. xxiii. 14 ; 
Ezek. xvi. 46, 48 ; Apoc. xi. 8 : besides other places, where 
it is said, that that nation is utterly ruined, and Jerusalem 
doomed to destruction ; as in Jerem. v. 1 ; vi. 6, 7 ; vii. 17, 18, 
and following verses ; viii. 6 8, and following verses ; ix. 10, 
11, 13, and following verses ; xiii. 9, 10, 14 ; xiv. 16 ; Lament, 
i. 8, 9, 17 ; Ezek. iv. 1 to the end ; xii. 18, 19 ; xv. 6, 7, 18 ; 
xvi. 163 ; xxiii. 149. 

351. Of the tribe of Reuben were sealed twelve thousand, 
signifies wisdom derived from celestial love, with those who will 
be in the Lord s new heaven and new church. By Reuben, in 
a supreme sense, is signified omniscience ; in a spiritual sense, 
wisdom, intelligence, and science, also faith; and, in a natural 
sense, sight ; but here by Reuben is signified wisdom, because 
it follows after Judah, by whom is signified celestial love, and 
celestial love produces wisdom ; for love does not exist without 
its consort, which is science, intelligence, and wisdom. The 
consort of natural love is science, that of spiritual love is intel 
ligence, and that of celestial love is wisdom. That these things 
are signified by Reuben, follows from his being named from 
sight, and spiritual-natural sight is science, spiritual sight is 
intelligence, and celestial sight is wisdom. Reuben was also 
the first-born of Jacob, and therefore was called by Israel his 
" might, the beginning of my strength, the excellency of dig 
nity, and the excellency of power," Gen. xlix. 3 ; such indeed 
is wisdom derived from celestial love. And as Reuben from his 
primogeniture represented, and thence signified, the wisdom of 
the men of the church, he therefore exhorted his brethren not 
to kill Joseph, and was grieved when Joseph was not found in 
the pit, Gen. xxxvii. 21, 22. And on this account his tribe 
encamped on . the south, and was called the Camp of Reiiben, 
Numb. ii. 10 16 ; the south also signifies wisdom derived 
from love : therefore they who are in that wisdom dwell to the 
south in heaven, as may be seen in the work on Heaven and 
Hell, n. 148 150. This wisdom is signified by Reuben in the 
prophecy of Deborah and Barak by these words, " For the divi 
sions of Reuben were great thoughts of heart, Why abodest thou 
among the sheepfolds to hear the bl eatings of the flocks ? For 
the divisions of Reuben there were great searchings of heart," 
Judges v. 15, 16 ; the divisions of Reuben are knowledges of 
every kind, which have relation to wisdom. As all the tribes 
have an opposite signification also, the tribe of Reuben, in this 
256 



V. 5, 6.J THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 352, 353 

sense, signifies wisdom separated from love, and thence also 
faith separated from charity ; wherefore he was cursed by his 
father Israel, Gen. xlix. 3, 4 ; and deprived of his birthright, 
1 Chron. v. 1, see above, n. 17; and an inheritance was given 
him on the other side Jordan, and not in the land of Canaan ; 
and instead of Reuben and Simeon, the sons of Joseph, Ephraim 
and Manasseh, were acknowledged, Gen. xlviii. 5 ; neverthe 
less he retained the representation and thence the signification 
of wisdom. 

352. Of the tribe of Gad were sealed twelve thousand, sig 
nifies uses of life, which are of wisdom derived from that love, 
also with those who will be in the Lord s new heaven and new 
church. By Gad, in a supreme sense, is signified omnipotence ; 
in a spiritual sense, good of life, which also is use ; and, in a 
natural sense, work ; in this instance uses of life, because it fol 
lows after Reuben and Judah, and celestial love by wisdom pro 
duces uses. There are three things which cohere and cannot 
be separated love, wisdom, and use of life ; if one is separated, 
the othc-r two fall to the ground, as may be seen in The Angelic 
Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom, 
n. 241, 297, 316. That by Gad is signified uses of life, which 
is also called fruit, may appear from his name as denoting a 
troop or a heap, Gen. xxx. 11 ; as also from his father Israel s 
blessing, Gen. xlix. 19 ; and from the blessing given him by 
Moses, Deut. xxxiii. 20, 21 ; and likewise from his inheritance, 
Numb, xxxii. 1 to the end ; xxxiv. 14 ; Deut. iii. 16, 17 ; xxxiii. 
20, 21. Also from the signification of Gad in an opposite sense, 
Isaiah Ixv. 11 ; Jerem. xlix. 1 3. It must be observed, that 
all the tribes of Israel are here divided into four classes, as in 
the urim and thummim, and in their encampments, and that 
each class contains three tribes, by reason that three cohere as 
one, as love, wisdom, and use, and as charity, faith, and work ; 
for, as was said, if one is wanting, the other two are not any 
thing. 

353. Of the tribe of Aser were sealed twelve thousand, sig 
nifies mutual love, which is the love of performing good uses 
to the community or society, with those who will be of the 
Lord s new heaven and new church. By Aser, in a supreme 
sense, is signified eternity ; in a spiritual sense, eternal beati 
tude ; and, in a natural sense, the affection of good and truth ; 
but here by Ase^ is signified the love of performing uses, which 
exists with those who are in the Lord s celestial kingdom, and 
is there called mutual love ; this love desends proximately from 
love to the Lord, because the love of the Lord is to perform 
uses to the community, and to each society in the community, 
and he performs these by means of men who are principled in 
love to him. That Aser has the above signification, may in 
some measure be seen from his father Israel s blessing : " Out 

257 B 



354:, 355 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. vil. 

of Aser ; his bread shall be fat, and he shall yield royal dain 
ties," Gen. xlix. 30 ; and from his blessing by Moses : " Let 
Aser be blessed with children, let him be acceptable to his 
brethren, and as thy days so shall thy strength be, Dent, xxxii. 
24, 25. Moreover the name denotes beatitude, and they who 
are in the love of performing uses to the community and to 
society, enjoy beatitude above all others in heaven. 

354. Of the tribe of Nephtalim were sealed twelve thousand, 
signifies a perception of use, and what use is, with those who 
will be in the Lord s new heaven and new church. By Nephta- 
lirn, in a supreme sense, is signified the proper power of the 
Lord s Divine Humanity ; in a spiritual sense, temptation and 
victory ; and, in a natural sense, resistance on the part of the 
natural man ; for the name denotes wrestlings. But Nephtalim 
here signifies a perception of use, and what use is, because it 
follows in the series after Aser, by whom is signified the love 
of uses ; and also because they who have conquered in tempta 
tion, have an interior perception of uses ; for by temptations 
the interiors of the mind are opened. The perception which 
they have is described in Jeremiah xxxi. 33, 34 ; they feel in 
themselves what is good, and see in themselves what is true. 
That the tribe of Nephtalim signifies angels and men as to 
that perception, may be confirmed from the "Word : Nephtalim 
" is in the high places of the field," Judges v. 18 ; high places 
of the field are the interiors of the church as to perception. 
Nephtalim " is satisfied with favour, and full with the blessing 
of Jehovah; possess thou the west and the south," Deut. xxxiii, 
23 ; to possess the west, is to possess the good that is subser 
vient to love, and to possess the south, is to possess the light of 
wisdom, which constitutes that perception. " Nephtalim is a 
hind let loose, he giveth goodly w r ords," Gen. xlix. 21 ; describ 
ing the state after temptation as to the spontaneous eloquence 
which results from perception. It is also recorded of one of 
the tribe of Nephtalim, that he was filled with wisdom, intelli 
gence and knowledge, and executed all Solomon s work about 
the temple in brass, 1 Kings vii. 14. The historical parts of 
the Word, as to names and tribes, are equally as significative as 
the prophetical. 

355. Of the tribe of Manasses were sealed twelve thousand, 
signifies the will of serving and of action, with those also who 
will be of the Lord s new heaven and new church. There are 
three things which follow in order, love to the Lord, wisdom, 
and use, as was said above, n. 352 ; so also here, mutual love, 
understanding or perception, and will or action ; these likewise 
make one, so that if one of them is wanting, the other two are 
not any thing; the will or willingness to serve with the action, 
is the effect, thus the ultimate, in which the two former are 
and co-exist. The reason why Manasses has this signification, 

258 



v. 6, 7.J 



THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 



356 



is, because Joseph, who was the father of Manasses and 
Ephraim, signifies the spiritual principle of the church ; and 
the spiritual principle of the church is the good of the will, and 
at the same time the truth of the understanding; hence it is 
that Manasses signifies the voluntary principle of the church, 
and Ephraim its intellectual principle. Manasses signifies the 
voluntary principle of the church, because Ephraim signifies its 
intellectual principle, as appears manifestly in Hosea, where 
Ephraim is so frequently mentioned ; and as Manasses signifies 
the voluntary principle of the church, lie also signifies action, 
for the will is the endeavour in all action, and where there is 
endeavour, there is action, when it is possible. Mention is 
made of Manasses in several places, as when he was born, Gen. 
xli. 50 52 ; when he was accepted of Jacob as if instead of 
Simeon, Gen. xlviii. 3 5; and blessed by him, Gen. xlviii. 
15, 16 ; and by Moses, Deut. xxxiii. IT ; and moreover in 
Isaiah ix. 18 20 ; Psalm Ix. 9 ; Psalm Ixxx. 2 ; Psalm sviii. 
9 ; from which it may in some measure be seen, that by Ma 
nasses is signified the voluntary principle of the church. 

356. Of the tribe of Simeon were sealed twelve thousand, 
signifies spiritual love, which is love towards the neighbour, or 
charity with those who will be of the Lord s new heaven and 
new church. By Simeon, in a supreme sense, is signified pro 
vidence ; in a spiritual sense, love towards the neighbour or 
charity ; and, in a natural sense, obedience and hearing. In 
the two foregoing series they are treated of who are in the 
Lord s celestial kingdom ; but in this series they are treated of 
who are in the Lord s spiritual kingdom ; the love of the latter 
is called spiritual love, which is love towards the neighbour, and 
charity. The reason why Simeon and his tribe represented this 
love, and therefore signify it in the Word, is, because he was 
born after Reuben, and immediately before Levi, and by these 
three, Reuben, Simeon, and Levi, in their order, is signified 
truth in the understanding, or faith ; truth in the will, or cha 
rity ; and truth in act, or good works ; in like manner as by 
Peter, James, and John. That Simeon and his tribe might 
therefore represent truth in the will, which is both charity and 
obedience, he was named from hearing, and to hear signifies 
both to understand truth and to will or obey it ; to understand 
it when it is said to hear any one, and to will and obey it, we 
say to hearken to any one, or to listen. Here it may be expe 
dient to say something concerning love towards our neighbour, 
or charity : love towards our neighbour, is the love of obeying 
the Lord s commandments, which are chiefly those contained in 
the second table of the decalogue, as, thou shalt not kill ; thou 
shalt not commit adultery ; thou shalt not steal ; thou shalt not 
bear false witness ; thou shalt not covet the things which are 
thy neighbour s. The man who will not do such things because 
259 



357,358 THE APOCALYPSE KEVKA JET). [Chap. vil. 

they are sins, loves his neighbour; for he does not love the 
neighbour who hates him, and from hatred desires to kill him ; 
he does not love the neighbour who desires to commit adultery 
with his wife ; nor does he love the neighbour who desires to 
steal and make depredations on his goods, and so on. This, 
also, Paul teaches in the following words : " For he that loveth 
another, hath fulfilled the law. tor this, Thou shalt not com 
mit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou 
shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet, and if there 
be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this 
saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: there 
fore charity is the fulfilling of the law," Rom. xiii. 8 10. 

357. Of the tribe of Levi were sealed twelve thousand, signi 
fies the affection of truth derived from good, from whence 
comes intelligence with those who will be of the Lord s new 
heaven and new church. By Levi, in a supreme sense, is sig 
nified love and mercy ; in a spiritual sense, charity in act, which 
is good of life ; and, in a natural sense, consociation and con 
junction ; for the name denotes to adhere, by which, in the 
Word, is signified conjunction through love. But by Levi is 
here signified the love or affection of truth, and thence intelli 
gence, because it follows after Simeon, and in this series forms 
the intermediate. Since Levi represented these things, there 
fore this tribe was appointed to the priesthood, Numb, iii. 1, to 
the end ; Dent. xxi. 5 ; and in other places. That the tribe of 
Levi signifies the love of truth, which is the essential love from 
which the church is a church, and thence intelligence, may ap 
pear from these places : The sons of Levi are chosen by Jehovah 
to minister unto him, and to bless in his name, Dent. xxi. 5 ; 
to bless in the name of Jehovah is to teach ; which they alone 
can do, who are in the affection of truth, and thence in intelli 
gence. " For they have observed thy Word, and kept thy 
covenant ; they shall teach Jacob thy judgments, and Israel 
thy law," Dent, xxxiii. 8 12. " The Lord shall suddenly come 
to his temple, and he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver, 
and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold 
and silver," Malachi iii. 1 4 ; to purify the sons of Levi, is to 
purify those who are in the affection of truth. As that affec 
tion flourishes from intelligence, therefore the staff of Levi, upon 
which was written the name of Aaron, blossomed and yielded 
almonds, Numb. xvii. 6 8. 

358. Of the tribe of Issachar were sealed twelve thousand, 
signifies good of life with those who will be of the Lord s new 
heaven and new church. By Issachar is signified, in a supreme 
sense, the divine good of truth, and the truth of ^ood ; in a 
spiritual sense, celestial conjugial love, which is the love of 
good and truth ; and, in a natural sense, remuneration ; but 
here the good of life, because in this class it is the third ir 






v. 7, 8.] 



THE APOCALYPSE KEYEALED. 



359 ? 360 



order, and the third in any class signifies the ultimate, which 
is produced from the two former, as the effect from its cause ; 
and the effect of spiritual love, which is love towards the neigh 
bour, and is signified by Simeon, through the affection of truth, 
which is signified by Levi, produces good of life, which is Issa- 
char : he w r as also named from hi/re. Gen. xxx. 17, 18, thus from 
remuneration, and good of life has remuneration in itself. 
Something of this sort is also signified by Issachar in his bless 
ing by Moses : " Rejoice Zebulon in thy going out, and Issachar 
in thy tents. They shall call the people unto the mountain ; 
there shall they offer sacrifices of righteousness : for they shall 
suck of the abundance of the sea, and of treasures hid in the 
sand," Deut. xxxiii. 18, 19. But by Issachar, in his blessing 
by his father Israel, Gen. xlix. 14, 15, is signified meritorious 
good of life, as may be seen in The Arcana Ccelestia, n. 6388. 

359. Of the tribe of "Ldbulon were sealed twelve thousand, 
signifies the conjugial love of good and truth also with those 
w r ho will be of the Lord s new heaven and new church. By 
Zabulon, in a supreme sense, is signified the union of the essen 
tial divinity and the Divine Humanity in the Lord ; in a spir 
itual sense, the marriage of good and truth with those who are 
in heaven and in the church ; and, in a natural sense, conjugial 
love itself; therefore here, by Zabulon is signified the conjugia 
love of good and truth ; he was also named from cohabitation 
Gen. xxx. 19, 22 ; and cohabitation is predicated of married 
pairs whose minds are joined into one, for such conjunction is 
spiritual cohabitation. The conjugial love of good and truth, 
which is here signified by Zabulon, is the conjugial love of the 
Lord and his church ; the Lord is the good of love itself, and 
gives to the church to be truth from that good ; and cohabita 
tion is effected, when the man of the church receives good from 
the Lord in truths ; in this case the marriage of good and truth 
takes place with man, which constitutes the church itself, and 
he becomes a heaven ; hence it is that the kingdom of God, that 
is, heaven and the church, is so often compared in the Word to 
a marriage. 

360. Of the tribe of Joseph were, sealed twelve thousand, 
signifies the doctrine of good and truth with those who will be 
of the Lord s new heaven and new church. By Joseph is sig 
nified the Lord as to the divine spiritual priciple : in a spiritual 
sense, the spiritual kingdom ; and, in a natural sense, fructifi 
cation and multiplication ; but by Joseph is here signified the 
doctrine of good and truth, which is with those who are in the 
Lord s spiritual kingdom. Joseph has this signification, because 
he is named after the tribe of Zabulon, and before the tribe of 
Benjamin, thus in the middle; and the tribe which is first 
named in a series or class, signifies some love which is of the 
will ; and the tribe which is named after it signifies something 

261 



361 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap Vli. 

of wisdom which relates to the understanding ; and the tribe 
which is named last signifies some use or effect derived from 
them. Thus each series is full or complete. As Joseph signi 
fied the Lord s spiritual kingdom, therefore he was made gov 
ernor in Egypt, Gen. xli. 38 44 ; Psalm cv. 17 23 ; where 
each particular signifies such things as relate to the Lord s spir 
itual kingdom. The spiritual kingdom is the Lord s royalty ; 
and the celestial kingdom is his priesthood. Joseph, : n the 
presemt instance, signifies the doctrine of good and truth, be 
cause he is here in the place of Ephraim ; and by Ephraim is 
signified the intellectual principle of the church ; see The Doc 
trine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture, 
n. 79 ; and the intellectual principle of the church is in every 
respect derived from the doctrine of good and truth from the 
Word. The reason why Joseph is here in the place of Ephraim, 
is, because Manasseh, who was Joseph s other son, and signi 
fied the voluntary principle of the church, was before reckoned 
among the tribes, n. 355. The intellectual principle of the 
church being derived from the doctrine of good and truth, 
therefore that intellectual principle, and also that doctrine, are 
signified by Joseph in the following passages : " Joseph is a 
fruitful bough, even a fruitful bough by a well ; but his bow 
abode in strength; he shall be blessed with the blessings of 
heaven above, and with the blessings of the deep that lieth 
under," Gen. xlix. 22, 26 : a well signifies the Word, and a 
bow doctrine, n. 299. " And of Joseph he said, Be his land 
blessed of Jehovah, for the precious things of heaven, for the 
dew, and for the deep that coucheth beneath \ and for the pre 
cious things brought forth by the sun, and for the precious 
things put forth by the moon, and for the precious things of 
the earth and fulness thereof," Deut. xxxiii. 13 17 ; by those 
precious things are signified the knowledges of good and truth, 
from which doctrine is derived. Who u drink wine in bowls, 
but are not grieved for the affliction of Joseph" Amos vi. 5, 6. 
" And I will strengthen the house of Judah, and 1 will save the 
house of Joseph, and they of Ephraim shall be like a mighty 
man, and their heart shall rejoice as through wine," Zech. x. 
6, 7; here also Joseph signifies doctrine, and wine, the truth of 
it from good, n. 316. 

361. Of the tribe of Benjamin were sealed twelve thousand, 
signifies the life of truth derived from good according to doc 
trine, with those who will be in the Lord s new heaven and new 
church. When by Zabulon is signified the conjugial love of 

ood and truth ; and by Joseph, the doctrine of good and truth ; 
len by Benjamin, because he is third in the series, is signified 
the life of truth derived from good, Benjamin has this signi 
fication, because he was born last, and was called by his father 
Jacob, the son of his right hand, Gen. xxxv. 18 ; and by a sou 
262 



v. 8, 0.J 



THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 



362, 303 



of the right hand is signified truth derived from good ; there 
fore also his tribe dwelt round about Jerusalem, where the tribe 
of Judah was, and the city of Jerusalem signified the church as 
to doctrine, and its circuit, such things as are derived from doc 
trine ; see Joshua xviii. 11 28 ; Jerem. xvii. 26 ; xxxii. 8, 44 ; 
xxxiii. 13 ; and other places. 

362. In the enumeration of the tribes of Israel neither Dan 
nor Ephraim is named ; the reason is, because Dan was the 
last of the tribes, and his tribe dwelt in the most remote part of 
the land of Canaan, and thus could not signify any thing in the 
Lord s new heaven and new church, where there will only be 
such as are celestial and spiritual ; wherefore Manasseh is put 
in the place of Dan, whilst Joseph is put in the place of 
Ephraim ; see above, n. 360. 

363. After this I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude, which 
no man could number, signifies all the rest who are not among 
the above-recited, and yet are in the Lord s new heaven and 
new church, being those who compose the ultimate heaven and 
the external church, whose quality no one knows but the Lord 
alone. That by a great multitude are signified those who are 
not enumerated above, and yet are in the Lord s heaven and 
church, is plain from verses 9, 10, 13 17, where it is said, tha 
they " stood before the throne and before the Lamb, clothed in 
white robes, and palms in their hands ; and that they serve him 
in his temple ; and he that sitteth on the throne shall dwell 
among them ;" besides many other things. By numbering, in 
a spiritual sense, is signified to know the nature and quality of 
any thing ; that such is the signification of numbering, will be 
seen in the next paragraph. But who they are in particular, 
who are meant by those that are called a great multitude, can 
not be known without first revealing an arcanum ; the arcanum 
; s this : the universal heaven, together with the church on the 
earths, in the sight of the Lord, is as one man ; and because it 
is as one man, there are some who constitute the head, and 
thus the face with all its organs of the senses ; and there are 
some who constitute the body with all its members : those who 
are enumerated above constitute the face with all its organs of 
the senses ; but these now mentioned, are they who constitute 
the body with all its members. That this is the case has been 
revealed to me ; as also, that they who constitute the first class 
of the tribes, verse 5, are those who correspond to the forehead 
down to the eyes ; that they who are of the second class, verse 
6, are those who correspond to the eyes, together with the nos 
trils ; the third class, verse 7, those who correspond to the ears 
and cheeks; and the fourth class, verse 8, those w^ho corre 
spond to the mouth and tongue. The Lord s church is also in 
ternal and external ; they who are meant by the twelve tribes 
of Israel are such as constitute the Lord s internal church, but 

263 



364, 365 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. VU. 

they wlio are now mentioned are such as constitute the external 
church, and cohere as one with the above recited, as inferior 
things with superior, thus as the body does with the head ; 
therefore the twelve tribes of Israel signify the superior heavens 
and also the internal church, but these signify the inferior hea 
vens and the external church. That these are also called a 
great multitude, see below, n. 803, and n. 811. 

364-. To number, in a spiritual sense, signifies to know the 
quality of a thing, because number, in the Word, does not 
signify number, but its quality, n. 10; in this passage therefore, 
by " a great multitude which no man could number," in a 
natural sense, is meant what the words import, that there was a 
great multitude ; but, in a spiritual sense, is meant that none 
but the Lord alone knows their quality : for the Lord s heaven 
consists of innumerable societies, and these societies are distin 
guished according to the varieties of affections in general ; in 
like manner all in each society, are distinguished in particular. 
The Lord alone knows the quality of the affection of each indi 
vidual, and disposes all in order according thereto. By num 
bering, the angels understand, to know this quality. The same 
is meant, in the Word, in these passages : When Belshazzar 
was drinking wine out of the vessels of the temple of Jerusa 
lem, there was written upon the wall, " Thou art numbered, 
thou art numbered" Dan. v. 2, 5, 25. " I shall go to the 
gates of the grave, I am numbered" Isaiah xxxviii. 10. "A 
tumultuous noise of the kingdoms, Jehovah of hosts number eth 
the host of battle," Isaiah xiii. 4. " Behold, who hath created 
these things, that bringeth out their host by number f" Isaiah 
xl. 26. Jehovah who numbereth the host of the stars, Psalm 
cxlvii. 4. " The flocks shall pass again under the hands of him 
that numbereth them," Jerem. xxxiii. 13. " My steps are num 
bered" Job xiv. 16. The houses and towers of Zion and of 
Jerusalem are numbered, Isaiah xxii. 9, 10 ; xxxiii. 18, 19 ; 
Psalm xlviii. 12 14 ; to number is the same as to know their 
quality. From the signification of numbers and of numbering, 
it may appear, why a punishment was denounced against David 
for numbering the people or tribes of Israel, and why he said 
to the prophet Gad, " I have sinned greatly in that I have 
done," 2 Sam. xxiv. 1, to the end. And why, when the people 
were numbered by Moses as to all their tribes, it w r as com 
manded, that every one should give an expiation of his soul to 
Jehovah in numbering, that, there be no plague among them in 
numbering them, Exod. xxx. 12; the reason was, because tc 
number signified to know their quality as to their spiritual state, 
thus as to the state of the church understood by the twelve 
tribes of Israel, which the Lord alone knows. 

365. Of all nations, and tribes, and people, and tongues, sig 
nifies all in the Christian world, who are in religion from good, 
264 



V. 9.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 366, 367 

and in truths from doctrine. By all nations and tribes, are 
meant those who are in religion from good, who are of the ulti 
mate or lowest heaven, n. 363 ; by nations, those who are in 
good, n. 920, 921 ; and by tribe, religion, n. 349 ; by people 
and tongues are meant those who are in truths from doctrine 
by people, those who are in truths, n. 483 ; and by tongue, doc 
trine, n. 282. By "out of all nations, tribes, people, and 
tongues," taken together in a spiritual sense, are therefore sig 
nified all who are in religion from good, and in truths from 
doctrine. 

366. Stood before the throne, and before the Lainb, signifies 
hearing the Lord, and doing his precepts. By standing before 
God, is signified to hear and do what he commands, as they do 
who stand before a king. The same is signified by standing 
before God, in other parts of the "Word ; thus : The angel said 
to Zacharias, "I am Gabriel, that stand in the presence of God," 
Luke i. 19. "There shall not want a man to stand before me 
for ever," Jerem. xxxv. 19. " These are the two anointed ones 
that stand before the Lord of the whole earth," Zech. iv. 14. 
He hath "separated the tribe of Levi to stand before Jehovah," 
Deut. x. 8 ; and in other places. 

367. Clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands, sig 
nifies communication and conjunction with the superior hea 
vens, and confession from divine truths. That to be clothed with 
white robes, signifies to have communication and conjunction 
with the heavens, may be seen above, n. 328. The reason why 
to hold palms in their hands signifies confession from divine 
truths, is, because palms signify divine truths ; for every tree 
signifies somewhat of the church, and palms signify divine truth 
in ultimates, which is the divine truth of the literal sense of the 
Word ; for this reason on all the walls of the temple of Jeru 
salem, within and without, and also upon the doors, were carved 
cherubs and palm trees, 1 Kings vi. 29, 32. The same in the 
new temple, mentioned in Ezekiel xli. 18 20. By cherubs is 
Bignified the Word, n. 239, and by palm trees, divine truths 
therein. That by palm trees are signified the divine truths of 
the Word, and by palms in their hands confessions from them, 
may appear from its being commanded at the feast of taberna 
cles that they should "take boughs of goodly trees and branches 
of palm trees, and should rejoice before Jehovah," Levit. xxiii. 
39, 40. That when Jesus went to Jerusalem to the feast, " they 
took branches of palm trees," and went to meet him, crying, 
" Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord," John 
xii. 12, 13 ; by which \vas signified confession from divine truths 
concerning the Lord. A palm tree signifies divine truth also in 
David : " The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree those 
that be planted in the house of Jehovah shall flourish in the 
courts of our God," Psalm xcii. 12, 13 ; in like manner in other 

265 



368 370 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. VH. 

places. Because Jericho was a city near Jordan, and by the 
river Jordan was signified that which is first in the church, and 
this is divine truth, such as it is in the literal sense of the Word, 
therefore it was called the City of Palm Trees, Deut. xxxiv. 
3; Judges i. 16; iii. 13; for Jordan was the first boundary or 
entrance into the land of Canaan, and by the land of Canaan is 
signified the church. 

368. And cried with a loud voice, saying, Salvation to our 
God that siiteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb, signifies an 
acknowledgment from the heart that the Lord is their Saviour. 
To cry with a loud voice, signifies acknowledgment from the 
heart ; " Salvation to our God that sitteth upon the throne, and 
unto the Lamb," signifies that the Lord is salvation itself, and 
that the salvation of all is from him, thus that he is the Saviour. 
By him that sitteth upon the throne and the Lamb, is meant 
the Lord alone; by him that sitteth upon the throne, his divin 
ity from which he came forth ; and by the Lamb, his Divine 
Humanity ; as may also be seen above, n. 273 : they are both 
named, because from his divinity, from whence he came forth 
by his Divine Humanity, he was the Saviour ; that they are one, 
is evident from the passages where the Lamb is mentioned as 
being in the midst of the throne, chap. v. 6 ; vii. 17. The Lord 
in many parts of the Word is called Salvation, by which is 
understood that he is the Saviour ; as, " My salvation shall not 
tarry, and I will place salvation in Zion," Isaiah xlvi. 13. 
" Say ye to the daughter of Zion, Behold, thy salvation cometh," 
Isaiah Ixii. 11. "I will also give thee for a light to the Gen 
tiles, that thou inayest be my salvation unto the end of the 
earth," Isaiah xlix. 6. " This is Jehovah, we have waited for 
him, we will be glad and rejoice in his salvation," Isaiah xxv. 
9. Salvation, in the Hebrew language, is called Joschia, which 
is Jesus. 

369. And all the angels stood round about the throne, and 
about the elders and the four animals, signifies all in the uni 
versal heaven hearing and doing what the Lord commands. 
By the animals and elders are meant the angels of the superior 
heavens, as above, and also below, n. 808 ; but by angels are 
here meant the angels of the inferior heavens, and thus all in 
the universal heaven. To stand, signifies to hear and do what 
lie commands, n. 366. 

370. And fell before the throne on their faces, and worshipped 
God, signifies the humiliation of their heart, and, from humili 
ation, adoration of the Lord. That to fall upon their faces and 
worship, denotes humiliation of heart and thence adoration, is 
evident. Humiliation before the Lord and adoration of him, is 
signified by falling before the throne and worshipping God, be 
cause by God is understood his divinity, which is the divinity 
whence he came forth, and at the same time, his Divine Human 

266 



V. 10 12 J THE APOCAI XTSE REVEALED. 371 374 

ity, n. 286 ; for both together are one God, because they are 
one person. 

371. Saying, Amen, signifies divine truth and confirmation 
therefrom ; as may be seen above, n. 23, 28, 61. 

372. Blessing, and glory, and wisdom, and thanksgiving, 
signifies the divine spiritual things of the Lord. All acknow 
ledgment and confession of the Lord comprehends, in general, 
these two points : that he is divine love itself and divine wisdom 
itself, and consequently that love, and every thing of the nature 
of love, with those who are in heaven and in the church, is from 
him : in like manner wisdom, and all that pertains thereto. 
Whatsoever proceeds from the Lord s divine love, is called 
divine celestial, and what from his divine wisdom, is called 
divine spiritual. The divine spiritual principle of the Lord is 
understood by glory, wisdom, and thanksgiving ; and his divine 
celestial principle, by honour, power, and might, which follow. 
The blessing which goes before, signifies both, as may be seen 
above, n. 289. That glory is predicated of divine truth, thus 
of the divine spiritual principle, see n. 249. That wisdom has 
relation to the same, is evident. That thanksgiving has also a 
like reference, is, because it is performed from divine truth ; 
for man gives thanks therefrom and thereby. 

373. And honour, and power, and might, signifies the divine 
celestial things of the Lord. In the preceding article it is said 
that these three, honour, power, and might, in the Word, when 
applied to the Lord, are predicated of the divine celestial prin 
ciple, or of the divine love, or of his divine good. That honour 
is so predicated, may be seen, n. 249 ; and might, n. 22 ; arid 
that power is so likewise, may be rendered evident by a refer 
ence to the passages in the Word where it is mentioned. It is 
to be observed, that in all the particulars of the Word there is 
a marriage of good and truth, and that there are expressions 
which have relation to good, and expressions which have rela 
tion to truth ; but these expressions can only be distinguished 
by those who study the spiritual sense. From that sense it ap 
pears what expressions have relation to good or love, and what 
to truth or wisdom ; and from many passages it has been given 
to know, that honour, power, and might, occur when the sub 
ject treated of is concerning divine good. That this is very 
evident with respect to power, may be seen in Matt. xiii. 54 ; 
xxiv. 30 ; Mark xiii. 25, 26 ; Luke i. 17, 35 ; ix. 1 ; xxi. 27 ; 
and elsewhere. That in all the particulars of the Word there 
is a marriage of the Lord and the church, and thence a mar 
riage of good and truth, may be seen in The Doctrine of the 
New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture, n. 80 90. 

374. Be unto our God for ever and ever, signifies these 
things in the Lord and from the Lord to eternity ; a? is eviden 

267 



875 378 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. vii. 

from what was said above : and also that for ever and ever, 
means to eternity. 

375. Amen, signifies the consent of all. In this verse amen 
is said at the beginning, and again at the end ; when it is said 
at the beginning it signifies truth, and thence confirmation, n. 
371 ; but when at the end, it signifies the confirmation and 
consent of all that it is the truth. 

376. And one of the elders answered, saying unto me, Who 
are these that are arrayed in white robes f and whence came 
they f And I said unto him, Sir, thou knowest, signifies the 
desire of knowing, and the will of interrogating, and the answer 
and information. The reason why John was questioned con 
cerning these things, is, because it is common in all divine wor 
ship, that man should first will, desire, and pray, and that the 
Lord should then answer, inform, and do ; otherwise man does 
not receive any thing divine. Now as John saw those who were 
arrayed in white robes, and was desirous to know and to ask 
who they were, and as this was perceived in heaven, therefore 
he was first questioned and then informed. The same occurred 
to the prophet Zechariah, when he saw several things repre 
sented to him, as may appear from chap i. 9 ; ii. 2, 4 ; iv. 2, 5, 
11,12; v. 2, 6, 10; vi. 4. Besides, we frequently read in the 
Word, that the Lord answers such as call and cry unto him ; 
as in Psalm iv. 2 ; Psalm xvii. 6 ; Psalm xxx. 8, 9 ; Psalm 
xxxiv. 6 ; Psalm xci. 15 ; Psalm cxx. 1 : also, that he gives on 
being asked, Matt. vii. 7, 8 ; xxi. 22 ; John iv. 13, 14 ; xv. 7 ; 
xvi. 23, 27. But yet the Lord gives them to ask, and what to 
ask ; therefore the Lord knows it beforehand ; but still the Lord 
wills that man should ask first, to the end that he may do it as 
from himself, and thus that it should be appropriated to him ; 
otherwise, if the petition itself were not from the Lord, it would 
not be said in those places, that they should receive whatsoever 
they asked. 

377. And he said unto me, These are they that come out of 
great tribulation, signifies that they are those who have been in 
temptations, and have fought against evils and falses. That 
tribulation is infestation from evils and falses, and spiritual 
combat against them, which is temptation, see n. 33, 95, 100, 101. 

378. And have washed their robes, signifies, and who have 
cleansed their religious principles from the evils of falsity. By 
washing, in the Word, is signified to cleanse from evils and 
falses ; and by robes are signified common or general truths, 
n. 328. General truths are the knowledges of goodness and 
truth derived from the literal sense of the Word, and accord 
ing to which men have lived, and thence constitute religious 
principles ; and as every thing of a religious nature relates to 
good and truth, therefore robes are twice mentioned, thus, have 



V. 12 14.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 378 

washed their robes and whitened their robes. Robes, or reli 
gious principles, are cleansed only with those who tight against 
evils, and so reject falses ; thus by temptations, which are sig 
nified by great affliction, n. 377. That to be washed signifies to 
be cleansed from evils and falses, and so to be reformed and re 
generated, may be seen evidently from the following passages : 
" When the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the 
daughters of Zion, and shall have purged away the blood of 
Jerusalem by the spirit of judgment, and by the spirit of burn 
ing," Isaiah iv. 4. " Wash you, make you clean, put away the 
evil of your doings from before mine eyes ; cease to do evil," 
Isaiah i. 16. " O Jerusalem, wash thine heart from wickedness, 
that thou mayest be saved," Jerem. iv. 14. " Wash me thor 
oughly from mine iniquity, and I shall be whiter than snow," 
Psalm li. 2, 7. " For though thou wash thee with nitre, and take 
thee much soap, yet thine iniquity is marked before me," Jerem. 
ii. 22. " If I wash myself with snow-water, and make my hands 
never so clean, yet shalt thou plunge me in the ditch, and mine 
own clothes shall abhor me," Job ix. 30, 31. " lie washedlus 
garments in wine, and his clothes in the blood of grapes," Gen. 
xlix. 11. This is said of the celestial church, to which they 
belong who are in love to the Lord ; and, in a supreme sense, 
it refers to the Lord : wine, and the blood of grapes, is divine 
truth spiritual and celestial. I washed thee with waters, and 
washed away the blood from off thee, Ezek. xvi. 9 ; speaking 
of Jerusalem : waters are truths, and bloods are the adultera 
tions of truth. From these considerations, it may appear what 
was represented, and thence signified, by washings in the Israel- 
itish church ; as that Aaron should wash himself before he put 
on the garments of his ministry, Levit. xvi. 4, 24. And before 
he went to the altar to minister, Exod. xxx. 18 21 ; xl. 30, 31. 
In like manner, the Levites, Numb. viii. 6, 7. In like manner, 
others, who were made unclean by sins ; yea, that they washed 
vessels, Levit. xi. 32 ; xiv. 8, 9 ; xv. 5 12 ; xvii. 15, 16 ; Matt, 
xxix. 26, 27. That they were sanctified by washings, Exod. 
xxix. 4 ; xl. 12 ; Levit. viii. 6. That Naaman from Syria washed 
himself in Jordan, 2 Kings v. 10, 14. Therefore, that they 
might wash themselves, the brazen sea and many vessels for 
washing were placed near the temple, 1 Kings vii. 23 39. 
And that the Lord washed the disciples feet, John xiii. 10. 
And commanded the blind man to wash himself in the pool of 
Siloam, John ix. 6, 7, 11, 15. From which it may appear, that 
washing, among the children of Israel, represented spiritual 
washing, which is purification from evils and falses, and con 
sequent reformation and regeneration. And from what has 
been said, it is also evident what was signified by John s bap 
tizing in Jordan, Matt. iii. ; Mark i. 4 13 ; and by these words 
of John concerning the Lord, That he would baptise with the 
269 



379 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. VH. 

Holy Spirit and with fire, Luke iii. 16 ; John i. 33 ; and of 
himself, That he baptized with water, John i. 26 : the meaning 
of which is, that the Lord washes or purities man by the divine 
truth and the divine good, and that John represented this by 
his baptism : for the Holy Spirit is divine truth, fire is divine 
good, and water is the representative of both ; for water signi 
fies the truth of the Word, which becomes good by a life accord 
ing to it, n. 50. 

379. And made them white in the blood of the Lamb, signi 
fies, and have purified them from the falses of evil by truths, 
and thus are reformed by the Lord. There are evils of the 
false, and falses of evil ; evils of the false with those who from 
religion believe that evils do not condemn, provided they con 
fess with their lips that they are sinners ; and falses of evil 
with those who confirm evils in themselves. By robes are here 
signified, as above, n. 378, general truths from the Word, which 
constitute their religious principles. It is said, they made white 
their robes in the blood of the Lamb, because white is predi 
cated of truths, n. 167>231, 232 ; thus, that they purified them 
selves from falses by truths : it also signifies that they werft 
reformed by the Lord ; because all who have fought against 
evils in the world, and have believed in the Lord, after their 
departure out of the world, are taught by the Lord, and are with 
drawn from the falsities of their religion by truths, and thus are 
reformed : the reason is, because they who shun evils as sins, 
are in the good of life ; and good of life desires truths, and 
acknowledges and accepts them ; but evil of life never. By the 
blood of the Lamb here, and in other parts of the Word, it is 
believed that the Lord s passion of the cross is signified ; but the 
passion of the cross was the last temptation, by which the Lord 
fully overcame the hells, and fully glorified his Humanity, by 
which two processes he saved man ; see The Doctrine of the 
New Jerusalem concerning the Lord, n. 22 24, and n. 25 27; 
also above, n. 67. And because the Lord thus fully glorified 
his Humanity, that is, made it divine, therefore nothing else can 
be meant by his flesh and blood but the divinity in him and 
from him ; by flesh, the divine good of the divine love ; and 
by blood, divine truth from that good. Blood is mentioned in 
many parts of the Word, and everywhere signifies, in a spiritual 
sense, the divine truth of the Lord, which also is the divine 
truth of the Word ; and, in an opposite sense, the divine truth 
of the Word falsified or profaned, as may appear from the fol 
lowing passages. First ; that blood signifies the divine truth 
of the Lord, or of the Word, is manifest from these considera 
tions : that blood was called the blood of the covenant, and 
covenant is conjunction, and this is effected from the Lord by 
his divine truth ; as in Zechariah : " By the blood of thy cove 
nant I have sent forth thy prisoners out of the pit," ix. 11 ; and 
270 






V. 14.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 379 



in Moses : Moses, after that ne had read the book of the law in 
the ears of the people, sprinkled half of the Mood upon the peo- 

Ele, " and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which Jehovah 
ath made with you concerning all these Words," Exod. xxiv. 
3 -8. " And Jesus took the cup, and gave it to them, saying, 
Drink ye all of it ; for this is my blood of the new covenant" 
Matt. xxvi. 27, 28 ; Mark xiv. 24 ; Luke xxii. 20. By the 
blood of the new covenant or testament, nothing else is sig 
nified but the Word, which is called a Covenant and Testa 
ment, Old and New, thus the divine truth therein. As this is 
signified by blood, therefore the Lord gave them the wine, 
saying, This is my blood ; and wine signifies divine truth, n. 
316 : it is also on this account called the blood of grapes, Gen. 
xlix. 11 ; Deut. xxxii. 14. This is again evident from these 
words of the Lord : " Yerily, verily, I say unto you, except ye 
eat the flesh of the Son of Man, and drink his blood, ye have 
no life in you. For my flesh is meat indeed, and my blood is 
drink indeed. He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood, 
dwelleth in me, and I in him," John vi. 50 58. That by blood 
is here meant divine truth, appears manifestly, because it is 
said that he who drinks, has life, and dwells in the Lord, and 
the Lord in him. That divine truth and a life conformable to 
it effects this, and that the holy supper confirms it, might be 
known in the church. Since blood signifies the divine truth of 
the Lord, which is also the divine truth of the Word, and this 
is the Old and New Covenant or Testament itself, therefore 
blood was the most holy representative in the Israelitish church, 
in which all and singular things were correspondences of spirit 
ual things ; as, That they should take the paschal blood, " and 
strike it on the two side-posts and the upper door-post of the 
houses," that the plague might not come upon them, Exod. xii. 
7, 13, 22. That the blood of the burnt-offering should be sprin 
kled upon the altar, on the foundations of the altar, upon Aaron, 
his sons, and their garments, Exod. xxix. 12, 15, 20, 21 ; Levit. 
i. 5, 11, 15; iii. 2, 8, 13; iv. 25, 30, 34; v. 9 ; viii. 15, 24 ; 
xvii. 6 ; Numb, xviii. 17 ; Deut. xii. 27 : as also on the vail 
which was over the ark, on the mercy seat, and on the horns 
of the altar of incense, Levit. iv. 6, 7, 17, 18 ; xvi. 1215. 
The same is signified by the blood of the Lamb in the follow 
ing passage in the Apocalypse : " And there was war in hea 
ven ; Michael and his angels fought against the dragon, and 
overcame him by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of 
their testimony," xii. 7, 11 : for it cannot be supposed that 
Michael and his angels overcame the dragon by any thing else 
but the divine truth of the Lord in the Word ; for, in heaven, 
the angels cannot think at all of blood ; nor do they think of 
the Lord s passion, but of the divine truth and of his resur 
rection : wherefore, when man thinks of the Lord s blood, the 
271 



379 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. vii. 

angels perceive his divine truth ; and when he thinks of the 
Lord s passion, they perceive his glorification, and then his 
resurrection only. It has been granted me to know that this 
is the fact, by much experience. That blood signifies divine 
truth is also evident from these words in David: God "shall 
save the souls of the needy, and precious shall their Hood be 
..n his sight. And he shall live, and to him shall be given of 
the gold of Sheba," Psalm Ixxii. 13 16. Blood precious in the 
sight of God denotes divine truth with them ; gold of Sheba is 
wisdom derived from it. In Ezekiel : " Gather yourselves on 
every side to my sacrifice upon the mountains of Israel, that ye 
may eat flesh and drink Hood / ye shall drink the Hood of the 
princes of the earth, and ye shall drink Hood till ye be drunken, 
of my sacrifice which I have sacrificed to you. And I will set 
my glory among the heathen," xxxix. 17 21. By blood here 
cannot be meant blood, because it is said that they shall drink 
the blood of the princes of the earth, and that they shall drink 
blood till they be drunken ; but the true sense of the Word 
results, when by blood is understood divine truth. The Lord s 
church also is there treated of, which he was about to establish 
among the Gentiles. Secondly, that blood signifies divine 
truth, may be clearly seen from its opposite sense, in which it 
signifies the divine truth of the Word falsified or profaned, as is 
evident from the following passages : Who " stoppeth his ears 
from hearing Hood, and shutteth his eyes from seeing evil," 
Isaiah xxxiii. 15. " Thou shalt destroy them that speak leas 
ing, Jehovah will abhor the Hoody and deceitful man," Psalm 
v. 6, Every one that is written among the living in Jerusalem, 
when the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daugh 
ters of Zion, and shall have purged the Hood of Jerusalem from 
the midst thereof, by the spirit of judgment, and by the spirit 
of burning, Isaiah iv. 3, 4. " In the day thou wast born, I 
saw thee polluted in thine own Hood ; I said unto thee, In 
thine own Hood, live; I washed thee, and washed away the 
lood from off thee," Ezek. xvi. 5, 6, 9, 22, 36, 38. " They have 
wandered as blind men in the streets, they have polluted them 
selves with Hood, so that men could not touch their garments," 
Lament, iv. 13, 14. " And garments rolled in llood" Isaiah 
ix. 5. " Also in thy skirts is found the Hood of the souls of the 
poor innocents," Jerem. ii. 33, 34. " Your hands are full of 
blood. Wash you, make you clean; put away the evil of your 
doings," Isaiah i. 15, 16. "For your hands are defiled with 
Hood, and your fingers with iniquity ; your lips have spoken 
lies, they make haste to shed innocent Hood" Isaiah lix. 3, 
" For Jehovah cometh out of his place to visit the inhabi 
tants of the earth for their iniquity ; the earth also shall dis 
close her Hood" Isaiah xxvi. 20. " But as many as received 
him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God ; which 
272 






V. 14:, 15.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 380 

were born not of blood" John i. 12, 13. In Babylon " was 
found the Hood of the prophets and saints," Apoc. xviii. 24. 
" The sea became as the blood of a dead man, and the foun 
tains of water became blood" Apoc. xvi. 3, 4 ; Isaiah xv. 6, 9 ; 
Psalm cv. 23, 28, 29. The same is signified by the rivers, col 
lections, and lakes of water in Egypt being turned into blood, 
Exod. vii. 15, 25. The moon shall be turned into blood before 
the coming of the great day of Jehovah, Joel ii. 3. u The 
moon became as blood" Apoc. vi. 12. In these places, and 
many others, blood signifies the truth of the Word falsified, and 
also profaned ; which yet may be seen more manifestly still 
by reading those passages in the Word in their series. Since 
therefore by blood, in an opposite sense, is signified the truth 
of the Word falsified or profaned, it is evident that by blood, 
in a genuine sense, is signified the truth of the Word not falsi 
fied. 

380. Therefore are they before the throne of God, and serve 
him day and night in his temple : and He that sitteth on 
the throne shall dwell among them, signifies that they are in 
the presence of the Lord, and constantly and faithfully live 
according to the truths which they receive from him in his 
church, and that the Lord constantly gives good in their truths. 
Therefore are they before the throne of God, signifies that they 
are in the Lord s presence ; and serve him day and night, sig 
nifies that they constantly and faithfully live according to the 
truths, that is, the precepts, which they receive from him ; by 
serving the Lord nothing else is signified ; in his temple signi 
fies in the church, n. 191 ; He that sitteth on the throne shall 
dwell among them, signifies that the Lord constantly introduces 
good with the truths which they receive from him ; that this is 
signified by dwelling among them, is, because, in the Word, to 
dwell, is predicated of good, and to serve, of truth. This arca 
num may now be made known, viz., that the marriage of the 
Lord with the church consists in this, that the Lord flows into 
angels and men with the good of love, and that angels and men 
receive him, or the good of his love, in truths; that hereby a 
marriage of good and truth is effected, which marriage con 
stitutes the church itself, and makes heaven with them. Such 
being the nature of the Lord s influx and reception of him, 
therefore the Lord looks at angels and men in the forehead, and 
they look at the Lord through the eyes ; for the forehead corre 
sponds to the good of love, and the eyes correspond to truths 
from that good, which thus by conjunction become truths of 
good. But the Lord s influx with truths into angels and men, 
is not as the influx of good into them, for it is mediate, flowing 
from good, as light does from fire, being received by them in 
the understanding, and only so far in the will as they do truths. 
This then constitutes the marriage of love and wisdom, or of 
273 8 



381 383 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALEI/. [Chap, vii. 

good and truth from the Lord, with those who receive them in 
the heavens and in the earths. This arcamum was disclosed for 
the sake of making it known how it is to be understood, that 
the Lord constantly gives good in their truths. 

381. They shall hunger no more, neither thirst any more, 
signifies that hereafter there shall be no deficiency of goods and 
truths with them. By not hungering is signified to have no 
lack of good, and by not thirsting is signified to have no lack of 
truth ; for to hunger is predicated of bread and meat, and to 
thirst, of wine and water ; and by bread and meat is signified 
good, and by wine and water is signified truth: see above, 
n. 323. 

382. Neither shall the sun light on them, nor any heat, sig 
nifies that hereafter they shall have no lust to evil, nor to the 
false of evil. The sun shall not liojht upon them, signifies that 
they shall have no lust to evil ; neither shall any heat light on 
them, signifies that they shall have no lust to falsity. That the 
sun signifies divine love and thence the affections of good ; and, 
in an opposite sense, diabolical love and thence the lust to evil, 
may be seen above, n. 53. But the reason why heat signifies 
lust to the false of evil, is, because falsity is produced from evil, 
as heat is from the sun ; for when the will loves evil, the under 
standing loves falsity, and burns with the lust of confirming it, 
and evil confirmed in the understanding, is the falsity of evil ; 
consequently the falsity of evil is evil in its form. Heat, and to 
burn or be hot, have a like signification in the following places : 
" Blessed is the man that trusteth in Jehovah, and he shall 
not see when heat cometh," Jerem. xvii. 7, 8. " For thou hast 
been a refuge to the needy from the storm ; a shadow from its 
heat even the heat with the shadow of a cloud," Isaiah xxv. 
4, 5. "In their heat I will make them drunken, that they 
may sleep a perpetual sleep," Jerem. li. 39. " They are all hot 
as an oven, there is none among them that calleth unto me," 
Hosea vii. 7. " He beholdeth not the way of the vineyards. 
Drought and heat consume the snow waters," Job xxiv. 18, 19. 
" And the fourth angel poured out his vial upon the sun ; and 
power was given unto him to scorch men with great heat, and 
they blasphemed the name of God," Apoc. xvi. 8, 9. " That 
thou mayest say to the prisoners, Go forth ; They shall not, 
hunger nor thirst, neither shall the heat nor sun smite them," 
Isaiah xlix. 9, 10. 

383. For the lamb which is in the midst of the throne shall 
feed them, signifies that the Lord alone will teach them. By 
the Lamb in the midst of the throne, is signified the Lord as to 
his Divine Humanity in the inmost, and thus in all things of 
heaven ; in the midst is in the inmost, and thereby in all tilings, 
n. 44 ; the throne is heaven, n. 14 ; and the Lamb is the Lord 
as to his Divine Humanity, n. 269, 291 ; and he who is in the 

274 



V. 16, IT.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 384 

inmost, and thus in all tilings of heaven, alone feeds, that is. 
teaches all. If it be asked, how can he alone feed all ? be it 
known that he is God, and because in the universal heaven he 
is as a soul in its body, for heaven is from him as one man. 
To feed means to teach, because the church, in the Word, is 
called a flock, and the men of the church are called sheep and 
lambs, hence to feed signifies to teach, and a pastor, or feeder, 
one that teaches ; and this in many places ; as : " In that day 
shall thy cattle feed in large pastures," Isaiah xxx. 23. " He 
shall feed his flock as a shepherd," Isaiah xl. 11. " They shall 
feed in the ways, and their pastures shall be in all high places," 
Isaiah xlix. 9. Israel " shall feed on Carmel and Bashan," 
Jerem. 1. 19. " I will seek out my sheep, I will feed them in 
a good pasture, and in a fat pasture upon the mountains of 
Israel," Ezek. xxxiv. 12 14. " Feed thy people, let them 
feed in Bashan and Gilead," Micah vii. 14. " The remnant of 
Israel shall feed and lie down," Zeph. iii. 13. " Jehovah is my 
shepherd, I shall not want, he maketh me to lie down in green 
pastures," Psalm xxiii. 1, 2. The Lord hath chosen David tc 
feed Jacob and Israel, and lie fed them, Psalm Ixxviii. 70 72. 
Jesus said unto Peter, Feed my lambs, and a second and a third 
time he said, Feed my sheep, John xxi. 15 17. 

384. And shall lead them unto living fountains of waters, 
signifies, and lead them by the truths of the V^ord to conjunction 
with himself. Since by a living fountain of waters is signified 
the Lord, and also the Word, and by waters are signified truths, 
n. 50, and since by the divine truths of the Word, when they 
are brought into the life, or by living according to them, con 
junction is effected with the Lord, therefore by leading them to 
living fountains of waters, is signified to lead by the truths of 
the Word to conjunction with the Lord. That by a fountain 
and fountains is signified the Lord, and also the Word, is evi 
dent from these passages : " All my fountains are in thee, O 
Jehovah," Psalm Ixxxvii. 7. " They have deserted Jehovah, 
the Fountain of living waters" Jerem. ii. 13. " And thou shalt 
make them drink of the river of thy pleasures, for w r ith thee is 
the fountain of life" Psalm xxxvi. 9, 10. " In that day shall a 
fountain be opened to the inhabitants of Jerusalem," Zech xiii. 
1. Israel dwelt securely solitary at the fountain of Jacob, 
Deut. xxxiii. 28. When the Lord was sitting at the fountain 
of Jacob, he said unto the woman, " The water that I shall give 
shall become a fountain of water springing up into everlasting 
life," John iv. 5 20. " Joseph is a fruitful bough by & foun 
tain" Gen. xlix. 22. " Bless the Lord from the fountain of 
Israel," Psalm Ixviii. 26. " Therefore with joy shall ye draw 
waters out of the fountains of salvation," Isaiah xii. 3. Unto 
him that is athirst will I give of the fountain of the water of 
life freely," Apoc. xxi. 6. " I will cause them to walk by the 
275 



385, 386 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Cliap. ^U 

fountains of waters in the straight way," Jerem. xxxi. 9. Ex 
pressions similar to these and trie above in the Apocalypse, 
occur also in Isaiah : " THEY SHALL NOT HUNGER NOR THIRST, NEI 
THER SHALL THE HEAT NOR SUN SMITE THEM. FOR HE THAT HATH 
MERCY ON THEM SHALL LEAD THEM EVEN BY THE FOUNTAINS OF 

WATER," Isaiah xlix. 10. 

385. And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes, 
signifies that they shall no longer be in combats against evils 
and their falses, and thereby in sorrow, but in goods and truths, 
and thence in celestial joys from the Lord. That these things 
are signified by the Lamb wiping away all tears from their eyes, 
is, because above, in verse 14, it is said that these are they 
which come out of great affliction, by which is signified that 
they are such as have been in temptations, and fought against 
evils, n. 377 ; and they who afterwards are not in combats 
against evils, the same are in goods and truths, and thence in 
celestial joys. The following passage in Isaiah has a similar 
signification : " He will swallow up death in victory, and the 
Lord Jehovah will wipe away the tears from all faces : And it 
shall be said in that day, Lo, this is our God, we have waited 
for him, and he will save us. This is Jehovah, we have waited 
for him, we will be glad and rejoice in his salvation," xxv. 8, 9. 

386. To the above I will add this Memorable Relation. On 
a time, when looking around in the spiritual world, I heard a 
noise like that of the gnashing of teeth, and also a beating 
noise, and a sort of hoarse sound blended with them : and I in 
quired what was meant by them ; and the angels who were with 
me said, " There are colleges which we call diversoria,* where 
disputations take place ; these disputations are so heard at a dis 
tance, but on coming near to them they are only heard as dis 
putations." I drew near, and saw some huts, constructed of 
reeds stuck together with mud ; and I would fain have looked 
through a window, but there w r as none ; for it was not allowed 
to enter by the door, because the light would thus have flowed 
in from heaven, and confounded them. But suddenly a window 
was made on the right side ; and then I heard them complain 
that they were in darkness. Shortly afterwards a window was 
made on the left side, and that on the right was closed ; upon 
which the darkness gradually dispersed, and they seemed to 
themselves to be in the light. After this I was permitted to 
go in at the door and hear. There was a table in the middle, 
and benches round about ; but they all seemed to me to stand 
upon the benches, and to dispute sharply with one another con 
cerning FAITH and CHARITY : on one side, that faith was the 
essential of the church ; on the other, that charity was. The) 

* A house of resort. 

276 



V. IT.] THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. 386 

who made faith the essential, said, " Have we not to do with 
God by faith, and with man by charity ? is not faith therefore 
heavenly, and charity earthly? are we not saved by what is 
heavenly, and not by what is earthly? Again, cannot God give 
faith from heaven, because it is heavenly, and must not man 
procure to himself charity, because it is earthly? and what man 
procures for himself, is not of the church, and therefore is not 
saving : can any one be justified in the sight of God by works, 
which are called works of charity ? Believe us, we are not only 
justified, but also sanctified by faith alone, provided that faith 
be not defiled by things meritorious, which are derived from 
works of charity :" not to mention more arguments to the same 
purpose. But they who made charity Sie essential of the 
church, strenuously denied these things, saying, " That char 
ity saves, and not faith ; are not all dear to God, and does he 
not will the good of all? how can God effect this, except by 
men ? does God only give to men to talk with one another about 
such things as relate to faith, and not to do to men those things 
which relate to charity ? do you not see that it is absurd in you 
to say that charity is earthly ? charity is heavenly, and because 
you do not perform the good of charity, your faith is earthly ; 
how do you receive faith but as a stock or a stone ? you say by 
the hearing of the Word only ; but how can the Word operate 
by being heard only, and this too upon a stock or a stone ? pos 
sibly you are quickened without knowing it ; but of what avail 
is this quickening, except in being enabled to say that faith 
alone saves ? but what faith is, and what a saving faith, you 
know not." But there then arose one, who, by the angel that 
was talking with me, was called a syncretist ;* he took off a 
turban from his head, and placed it on the table ; but suddenly 
put it on again, because he was bald. He said, " Attend ! you 
are all in error ; it is true that faith is spiritual, and charity, 
moral ; but yet they are joined together; and this by the Word, 
by the Holy Spirit, and by effect, without man s knowledge, 
which indeed may be called obedience, but in which man has 
no share. I have long considered this with myself, and have at 
length discovered, that man may receive faith from God, which 
may be spiritual, but that he cannot be moved by God to char 
ity, which may be spiritual, but as a statue of salt." On say 
ing this, he was applauded by those who were in faith alone, 
but disapproved by those who were in charity : and the latter 
said, with indignation, " Hear, friend ! you do not know that 
there is a spiritual moral life, and that there is a moral life 
merely natural ; a spiritual moral life with those who do good 

* Syncretist a name given to some Platonic Christians in the fifteenth century, 
who steered a middle course between the opposite factions among the follower! 
of Aristetle and Plato ; a sect held in great veneration, for a long time, among th* 
mystics. Vide Mosh elm s Ecclesiastical History, Cent 16, Ch. II. Part 2. 

277 



iii.] THE APOCALYrSE REVEALED. 386 

from God, and yet as if from themselves ; and a moral life 
merely natural with those who do good from hell, and yet as if 
from themselves." 

It was said above, that the disputation was heard as a gnash- 
ing of teeth, and as a beating noise, with which a hoarse sound 
was blended. The disputation heard as a gnashing of teeth, 
was by those who were in faith alone ; but the disputation heard 
as a beating noise, was by those who were in charity alone ; and 
the hoarse sound that was blended with them was from the syn- 
cretist. The sound of them was so heard at a distance, because, 
when in the world, they all spent their time in disputations, 
and did not shun any evil, and therefore performed no spiritual 
moral good ; and, moreover, they were entirely ignorant, that 
the all of faith is truth, and the all of charity, good, and that 
truth without good is not truth in spirit, and that good without 
truth is not good in spirit, and that thus one makes or com 
pletes the other. The reason why darkness ensued when a win 
dow was made on the right side, is, because light from heaven 
ilowing-in on that side affects the will; and the reason why 
there was light when the window on the right side was shut, and 
another was made on the left, is, because light flowing-in from 
heaven on the left side affects the understanding, and man may 
be in the light of heaven as to his understanding, provided the 
will be closed as to its evil. 



CHAPTER YIII. 

1. AND when he had opened the seventh seal, there wag 
silence in heaven about the space of half an hour. 

2. And I saw the seven angels, who stood before God ; and 
to them were given seven trumpets. 

3. And another angel came and stood at the altar, having a 
golden censer : and there was given unto him much incense, 
that he should offer it with the prayers of all saints upon the 
golden altar which was before the throne. 

4. And the smoke of the incense, which came with the 
prayers of the saints, ascended out of the hand of the angel 
before God. 

5. And the angel took the censer, and filled it with the fire 
of the altar, and cast it unto the earth : and there were voices, 
and thunderings, and lightnings, and an earthquake. 

6. And the seven angels that had the seven trumpets pre 
pared themselves to sound. 

7. The first angel sounded, and there followed hail and fire, 
mingled with blood ; and they were cast upon the earth ; and 

.978 



386 



THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. 



[Chap. viii. 



the third part of the trees was burnt up, and al green grass 
was burnt up. 

8. And the second angel sounded, and as it were a great 
mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea : and the third 
part of the sea became blood. 

9. And the third part of the creatures which were in the 
sea, and had life, died ; and the third part of tiie ships were 
destroyed. 

10. And the third angel sounded, and there fell from heaven 
a great star burning as it were a lamp : and it fell upon the 
third part of the rivers, and upon the fountains of waters : 

11. And the name of the star is called Wormwood: and the 
third part of the waters became wormwood ; and many men 
died of the waters, because they were made bitter. 

12. And the fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the 
sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the 
third part of the stars ; so that the third part of them was dark 
ened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night 
likewise. 

13. And I beheld, and I heard an angel flying in the midst 
of heaven, saying with a loud voice, Woe, woe, woe, to the in- 
habiters of the earth, by reason of the other voices of the trum 
pet of the three angels that are yet to sound. 



THE SPIRITUAL SENSE. 

THE CONTENTS OF THE WHOLE CHAPTER. The reformed church 
is here treated of, as to the quality of those therein who are in 
faith alone : the preparation of the spiritual heaven for com 
munication with them, verses 1 6. The exploration and 
manifestation of those therein, who are in the interiors of that 
faith, verse 7" ; of those who are in its exteriors, verses 8, 9 ; 
what they are in regard to the understanding of the Word, 
verses 10, 11. That they are in falses and tnence in evils, 
verses 12, 13. 

THE CONTENTS OF EACH YEKSE. Y. 1, "And when he had 
opened the seventh seal," signifies exploration from the Lord 
of the state of the church, and thence of the life of those who 
are in his spiritual kingdom, being those who are in charity and 
its faith; in this case who are in faith alone: "There was si 
lence in heaven about the space of half an hour," signifies that 
the angels of the Lord s spiritual kingdom were greatly amazed, 
when tney saw those who said they were in faith, in such a state : 
v. 2, " And I saw the seven angels who stood before God," sig 
nifies the universal spiritual heaven in the presence of tho 
279 



THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. vili. 

Lord, bearing and doing his commands : " And to them were 
given seven trumpets," signifies the exploration and discovery 
of the state of the church, and thence of the life of those who 
are in faith alone : v. 3, " And another angel came and stood at 
the altar, having a golden censer," signihes spiritual worship, 
which is performed from the good of charity by the truths of 
faith : " And there was given him much incense, that he should 
offer it with the prayers of all saints upon the golden altar which 
was before the throne," signifies propitiation lest the angels of 
the Lord s spiritual kingdom should be hurt by the spirits of 
the satanic kingdom that were beneath : v. 4, " And the smoke 
of the incense which came with the prayers of the saints as 
cended up out of the hand of the angels before God," signifies 
the protection of them by the Lord : v. 5, "And the angel 
took the censer, and filled it with the fire of the altar, and cast 
it unto the earth," signifies spiritual love, in which there is 
celestial love, and its influx into inferior things, where they 
were who were in faith separated from charity : " And there 
were voices, and thunderings, and lightnings, and an earth 
quake," signifies that after a communication was opened with 
them, there were heard reasonings concerning faith alone, and 
confirmations in favour of it : v. 6, " And the seven angels 
that had the seven trumpets prepared themselves to sound," 
signifies that they were prepared and ready to explore the 
state of the church and thence the state of life with those 
whose religion is faith alone: v. 7, "The first angel sounded," 
signifies the exploration and manifestation of the quality of 
the state of the church with those who are interiorly in that 
faith : " And there followed hail and fire mingled with blood," 
signifies falsity from infernal love destroying good and truth, 
and falsifying $ie Word : " And they were cast upon the 
earth, and the third part of the trees was burnt up," signifies 
that with them all the affection and perception of truth, which 
constitute the man of the church, had perished : " And all 
green grass was burnt up," signifies, thus all that is alive in 
faith : v. 8, "And the second angel sounded," signifies the ex 
ploration and manifestation of wnat the state of the church is 
with those who are exteriorly in that faith : " And as it were a 
great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea," signi 
fies the appearance of infernal love with them : " And the 
third part of the sea became blood," signifies that all general 
truths with them were falsified : v. 9, " And the third part of 
the creatures which were in the sea that had life, died," signi 
fies that they who have lived and do live this faith cannot be 
reformed and receive life : "And the third part of the ships 
were destroyed," signifies that all the knowledges of good and 
truth from the Word, serving for the use of life, were destroyed 
with them : v. 10, " And the third angel sounded," signifies 
280 



Chap, viii.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 387 

the exploration and manifestation of the state ot the church 
with those whose religion is faith alone, as to the affection and 
reception of truths from the "Word : "And there fell from hea 
ven a great star, burning as it were a lamp," signifies the ap 
pearance of self-derived intelligence from a pride springing 
from infernal love : " And it fell upon the third part of the 
rivers, and upon the fountains of waters," signifies that thence 
all the truths of the Word were totally falsified : v. 11, " And 
the name of the star is called "Wormwood ; and the third part 
of the waters became wormwood," signifies the infernal falsity 
from which their self-derived intelligence is derived, by which 
all the truths of the Word are falsified : "And many men died 
of the waters, because they were made bitter," signifies the 
extinction of spiritual life from the falsified truths of the Word : 
v. 12, " And the fourth angel sounded," signifies the explora 
tion and manifestation of the state of the church with those 
whose religion is faith alone, as being in the evils of falsity, and 
in the falsities of evil : " And the third part of the sun was smit 
ten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the 
stars, so that the third part of them w r as darkened," signifies 
that by reason of evils from falsities and of falsities from evils, 
they did not know what love is, or what faith is, or any truth : 
" And the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night 
likewise," signifies that there is no longer any spiritual truth 
nor natural truth serviceable for doctrine and life from the 
Word with them : v. 13, " And I beheld, and I heard an angel 
flying in the midst of heaven," signifies instruction and pre 
diction from the Lord : " Saying with a loud voice, Woe, woe, 
woe, to the inhabiters of the earth, by reason of the other 
voices of the trumpet of the three angels which are yet to 
sound," signifies deep lamentation over the damned state of 
those in the church, who in doctrine and life have confirmed 
themselves in faith separate from charity. 



THE EXPLANATION. 

387 THERE are two kingdoms into which the universal hea 
ven is divided, the CELESTIAL KINGDOM and the SPIRITUAL KING 
DOM. The celestial kingdom consists of those who are in love 
to the Lord and thence in wisdom ; and the spiritual kingdom 
consists of those who are in love towards their neighbour, and 
thence in intelligence ; and as love towards our neighbour is at 
this day called charity, and intelligence, faith, the latter king 
dom consists of those who are in charity, and thence in faith. 
Now, because heaven is divided into two kingdoms, hell also is 
281 



388 THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. [Chap. Vlll. 

divided into two kingdoms that are opposite to them ; into a 
DIABOLICAL KINGDOM and into a SATANICAL KINGDOM. The diabo- 
lical kingdom consists of those who are in the love of dominion 
from self-love, and thence in foolishness ; for this love is opposite 
to celestial love, and its foolishness is opposite to celestial wis 
dom : but the satanical kingdom consists of those who are in the 
love of dominion from the pride of self-derived intelligence, and 
thence in insanity ; for this love is opposite to spiritual love, and 
its insanity is opposite to spiritual intelligence. By foolishness 
and insanity are meant foolishness and insanity in things celes 
tial and spiritual. The same things which are said of heaven 
are to be understood of the church on earth, for they make one. 
Concerning these two kingdoms, see the work on Heaven and 
Ifell, n. 20 28, and many other places. Now, as the Apoca 
lypse treats only of the state of the church at its end, as was 
observed in the preface, and at n. 2, therefore what now follows 
treats of those who are in the two kingdoms of heaven, and of 
those who are in the two kingdoms of hell, and of their quality ; 
from this chapter, viz., viii. to xvi., of those who are in the spir 
itual kingdom, and in the satanical kingdom opposite to it ; in 
chap. xvii. and xviii., of those who are in the celestial kingdom, 
and in the diabolical kingdom opposite to it ; and afterwards of 
the last judgment; and, lastly, of the New Church which is the 
New Jerusalem ; this bringing all that goes before to a conclu 
sion, by reason of its constituting the final purpose. In many 
parts of the Word the devil and satan are mentioned, and by 
both is meant hell ; it is so named, because all in one hell are 
called devils, and all in the other are called satans. 

388. And when he had opened the seventh seal, signifies ex 
ploration from the Lord of the state of the church, and thence 
of the state of life of those who are in his spiritual kingdom, 
being those who are in charity and its faith ; in this case, who 
are in faith alone. That this is the signification of these words, 
may appear from all the particulars of this chapter when under 
stood in a spiritual sense ; for this chapter and the following to 
capter xvi. treat of those who are in the spiritual kingdom, or 
those who are in love towards their neighbour and thence in 
intelligence, as was said above, n. 387. But since, at this day, 
the word charity is used instead of love towards our neighbour, 
and faith instead of intelligence ; and here there is not any 
exploration of those who are in charity and thence in faith, 
because these belong to such as are in heaven ; therefore explo 
ration is here made of those who are in faith alone. Faith 
alone is also faith separated from charity, there being no con 
junction : see below, n. 417. That to open the seal signifies 
to explore states of life, or, what is the same thing, the states 
of the church and thence of life, see above, n. 295, 302, 309, 
317, 324. 
282 



V. 1 3.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 389 392 

389. There was silence in heaven about the space of half an 
hour, signifies that the angels of the Lord s spiritual kingdom 
were greatly amazed, when they saw those, who said they were 
in faith, in such a state. By silence in heaven, nothing else is 
meant but amazement there in regard to those who say they are 
in faith, and are nevertheless in such a state ; for their state is 
described in what follows, the quality of which will be rendered 
evident by the explanation. By half an hour is signified greatly, 
because by an hour is signified a full state. That time signifies 
state, will be seen below r . 

390. And I saw the seven angels who stood before God, sig 
nifies the universal spiritual heaven in the presence of the Lord, 
hearing and doing his commands. By seven angels is signi 
fied the universal heaven, because seven signifies all, or every 
thing, thence the total, and the universal, n. 10 ; and by angels, 
in a supreme sense, is signified the Lord, and, in a relative sense, 
heaven, n. 5, 66, 342, 344: ; here, the spiritual heaven, as may 
appear from what was said above, n. 387, 388. That to stand 
before God signifies to hear and do his commands, see above, 
n. 366. 

391. And to them were given seven trumpets, signifies the 
exploration and discovery of the state of the church, and thence 
of the life of those who are in faith alone. Here, by trumpets 
the same thing is signified as by sounding, because they soimued 
with them, and by sounding with trumpets is signified to call 
together upon solemn occasions, which were various ; in this 
case, for the purpose of exploring and discovering the quality 
of those who are in faith alone, thus the quality of those who 
are at this day of the reformed churches. "It should be ob 
served, that the church in the reformed w r orld is at this day 
divided into three, from the three leaders, Luther, Calvin, and 
Melancthon, and that these three churches differ in various 
things ; but in this point, that man is justified by faith with 
out the works of the law, they all agree, which is remarkable." 
That by sounding with trumpets is signified to call together, 
will be seen below, n. 39T. 

392. And another angel came and stood at the altar, having 
a golden censer, signifies spiritual worship, which is performed 
from the good of charity by the truths of faith. By the altar 
at which the angjel stood, and by the golden censer which he 
had in his hand, is signified the worship of the Lord from spir 
itual love, which worship exists from the good of charity by 
the truths of faith. With the children of Israel there were two 
altars, one without the tent, and the other within "it ; the altar 
without the tent was called the altar of burnt-offering, because 
burnt-offerings and sacrifices were offered upon it ; the altar 
within the tent was called the altar of incense, as also the golden 
altar. There were two altars, because the worship of the Lord 

283 



392 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap, Vlil 

is performed from celestial love and from spiritual -ove ; from 
celestial love by those who are in his celestial kingdom, and 
from spiritual love by those who are in his spiritual kingdom ; 
concerning these two kingdoms, see above, n. 387. Concerning 
the two altars, see the following passages in Moses : on the altar 
of burnt-offering, Exod. xx. 24 to the end ; xxvii. 1 9 ; xxxix. 
30_43 ; Levit. vii. 15 ; viii. 11 ; xvi. 18, 19, 33, 34. On 
the altar of incense, Exod. xxx. 1 10 ; xxxii. 6 ; xxxvii. 25 
29 ; xl. 5, 26 ; Numb. vii. 1. That altars, censers, and incense, 
were seen by John, was not because such things exist in heaven, 
these being only representative of the worship of the Lord 
there ; the reason is, because such things were instituted among 
the children of Israel, and are therefore often mentioned in the 
Word ; and that church was a representative church, for all 
things connected with their worship did represent, and do con 
sequently now signify, the divine celestial and spiritual things 
of the Lord, which relate to his church in the heavens and in 
the earths. The same is therefore signified by the two altars 
spoken of in the Word, in the following passages : " O send out 
thy light and thy truth, let them lead me ; let them bring me 
to thy holy hill. Then will I go unto the altar of God, unto 
God my exceeding joy," Psalm xliii. 3, 4. " I will wash my 
hands in innocency ; so will I compass thine altar, O Jehovah ; 
that I may publish with the voice of thanksgiving," Psalm xxvi. 
6, 7. " The sin of Judah is written with a pen of iron, it is 
graven upon the table of their heart, and upon the horns of 
your altars" Jerem. xvii. 1, 2. " God is Jehovah, which hath 
showed us light ; bind the sacrifice with cords unto the horns of 
the altar" Psalm cxviii. 27. " In that day shalt thou be an 
altar to Jehovah in the midst of the land of Egypt," Isaiah xix. 
19. The altar of Jehovah in the midst of the land of Egypt, 
signifies the worship of the Lord from love in the natural man. 
"The thorn and the thistle shall come up on their altars" 
Hosea x. 7, 8 : by which is signified worship from evils and 
from the falses of evil. Besides other places ; as Isaiah xxvii. 
9 ; Ivi. 6, 7 ; Ix. 7 ; Lament, ii. 7 ; Ezek. vi. 3, 4, 6, 13 ; Hosea 
viii. 11 ; x. 1, 2 ; Amos iii. 14 ; Psalm li. 18, 19 ; Psalm Ixxxiv. 
35 ; Matt. v. 23, 24 ; xxiii. 1820. Since the worship of 
the Lord was represented and thence signified by the altar, it is 
evident that by altar here in the Apocalypse nothing else is 
understood : and also elsewhere : as, " I saw under the altar 
the souls of them that were slain for the Word of God," Apoc. 
vi. 9. " The angel stood saying, Rise, and measure the temple 
of God and the altar, and them that worship therein," Apoc. 
xi. 1. " And I heard another angel out of the altar, say, 
True and righteous are thy judgments," Apoc. xvi. 7. As 
representative worship, which was performed for the most part 
upon two altars, was abolished by the Lord when he came intc 
284 



V. 3 5.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 393, 394 

the world, from the circumstance of his having himself opened 
the interiors of the church ; therefore it is said in Isaiah, " At 
that day shall a man look to his Maker, and his eyes shall have 
respect to the Holy One of Israel. And he shall not look to 
the altars, the work of his hands," xvii. 8. 

393. And there was given him much incense, that he should 
offer it with the prayers of all saints upon the golden altar which 
was before the throne, signifies propitiation, lest the angels of 
the Lord s spiritual kingdom should be hurt by the spirits of 
the satanic kingdom, that were beneath. By the incense and 
by the golden altar is signified the worship of the Lord from 
spiritual love, n. 277, 392 ; by prayers are signified those things 
which relate to charity and thence to faith in worship, n. 278 ; 
and by saints are meant those who are of the Lord s spiritual 
kingdom ; and by the righteous, those who are of the Lord s 
celestial kingdom, n. 173 : from which it may appear, that they 
who are in the Lord s spiritual kingdom are nere treated of. 
That much incense offered with the prayers of all saints upon 
the golden altar signifies propitiation, lest they should be hurt 
by the spirits of the satanic kingdom who were beneath them, 
is, because propitiations and expiations were made by incense, 
especially when dangers threatened ; as may appear from the 
following passages : When the congregation murmured against 
Moses and Aaron, and were affected with a plague, Aaron took 
fire from off the altar, and put incense into a censer, and ran in 
among the living and the dead to make atonement, " and the 
plague was stayed," Numb. xvi. 46 48. Moreover, the altar 
of incense was placed in the tabernacle, before the mercy-seat, 
that was over the ark, and incense was offered on it every morn 
ing when the lamps were dressed, Exod. xxx. 1 10. And it 
was commanded, that as often as Aaron entered within the vail, 
he should offer incense, and the cloud of incense should cover 
the mercy-seat, lest he should die, Levit. xvi. 11 -13. Hence 
it may appear, that propitiations in the representative Israel- 
itish church were made by offering incense : in like manner 
here, that they might not be hurt by the satanic spirits who 
were beneath them. 

394. And the smoke of the incense which came with the pray 
ers of the saints, ascended up out of the hand of the angel before 
God, signifies the protection of them by the Lord. By the 
smoke of the incense ascending before God is signified what is 
accepted and grateful ; wherefore the like is said by David : 
" Let my prayers be set forth before thee as incense," Psalm 
cxli. 2 ; the reason was, because the smoke of the incense was 
fragrant, from the spices of which it was composed, which were 
stacte, onyche, galbaimm, and frankincense, Exod. xxx. 34 ; 
and the fragrances of those spices correspond to such things aa 
are of spiritual love or charity, arid thence of faith ; for ID 

285 



395, 396 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. viii. 

heaven most fragrant odours are sensibly perceived correspond 
ing to the perceptions of the angels originating from their love; 
therefore it is also said in many parts of the Word, that Jeho 
vah smelled an odour of rest. That protection from the Lord 
is signified, follows from what was said above, n. 393. 

395. And the angel took the censer, and filled it with the fire 
of the altar, and cast it unto the earth, signifies spiritual love, in 
which is celestial love, and its influx into inferior things, where 
they were who are in faith separated from charity. That by a 
censer, as well as by incense, is signified worship from spiritual 
love, is evident from what was shown above ; and also from this 
consideration, that in the Word, the thing containing signifies 
the same as the thing contained, as a cup and platter signify 
the same as wine and meat, Matt, xxiii. 25, 26 ; Luke xxii. 20 ; 
and in other places. By the fire of the altar of burnt-offering, 
is signified divine celestial love, because by that altar was sig 
nified worship from that love, as may be seen above, n. 392 ; 
and by fire, in a supreme sense, is signified divine love, n. 494. 
Spiritual love, which is charity, derives its essence from celestial 
love, which is love to the Lord; without this love there is 
nothing vital in spiritual love or charity, for spirit and life is 
from no other source than from the Lord. This was repre 
sented in the Israelitish church by their not being allowed to 
take fire from any other place to put into the censer when they 
offered incense, than from the altar of burnt-offering ; as may 
appear in Moses, Levit. xvi. 12, 13; Numb. xvii. 11, 12: and 
that the two sons of Aaron were consumed by fire from heaven, 
because they offered incense with strange fire, that is, with fire 
not taken from the altar, Levit. x. 1, 2 ; therefore it was also 
ordained, that^fo^ should burn constantly on the altar of burnt- 
offering, and should not be put out, Levit. vi. 9 ; and this by 
reason that the fire of that altar signifies the divine love of the 
Lord, and thence love to the Lord. By casting the censer upon 
the earth is signified influx into lower spheres (or degrees). 

396. And there were voices, and thunderings, and lightnings, 
and an earthquake, signifies that after a communication was 
opened with them, there were heard reasonings concerning faith 
alone, and confirmations in favour of it, and that the state of 
the church with them was perceived to be tottering towards 
destruction. That lightnings, thunderings, and voices, signify 
illustrations, perceptions, and instructions, by influx from hea 
ven, see above, n. 236 ; but here, with those who were in faith 
alone, who have no illustration, perception, and instruction, by 
influx from heaven. By voices, thunderings, and lightnings, 
are signified reasonings about faith alone, and argumentations 
and confirmations in favour of it ; by earthquakes are signified 
changes of the state of the church, n. 331, in this case, that the 
state of the church among them was perceived to be tottering 

286 



V. 5, 6.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 397 

towards destruction; for earthquakes take place in the world of 
spirits, when the state of the church in societies is perverted 
and inverted. The reason why the censer was thrown unto the 
earth by the angel, before the seven angels began to sound with 
their trumpets, was, that by influx a communication might be 
opened between those who were in the spiritual heaven, with 
those beneath who were in faith alone ; from which communi 
cation there arose reasonings and confirmations in favour of it, 
which were also heard and perceived ; wherefore it is said that 
after a communication was opened, they were heard and per 
ceived. 

397. A.nd the seven angels that had the seven trumpets pre* 
pared themselves to sound, signifies that they were prepared and 
ready to explore the state of the church, and thence the state of 
life, with those whose religion is faith alone. What is meant 
by trumpets, appears from the statute respecting the use of them 
among the sons of Israel, concerning which it is thus written in 
Moses : Jehovah spake unto Moses to make trumpets of silver 
for the calling of the assembly, and for the journeying of the 
camps ; and that they should blow with them in days of glad 
ness, and festivals and new moons, and over burnt-offerings and 
sacrifices ; also, that when they went to war against enemies that 
infested them, they should blow an alarm with the trumpets, and 
that then they should come into remembrance before Jehovah 
God. and should be preserved from their enemies, Numb. x. 1 
11. From these words it may be seen what is signified by 
blowing with trumpets. That by the seven angels sounding, is 
here signified the exploration and manifestation of what the 
state of the church is with those whose religion consists in faith 
alone, is evident from the particulars of this chapter, and from 
the particulars of the chapters that follow as far as the sixteenth 
inclusive, when understood in the spiritual sense. From the 
ase of trumpets among the sons of Israel may also be seen what 
ts signified by trumpets, and by sounding with them, in the fol 
lowing places : " Blow ye the trumpet in Zion, and sound an 
alarm in my holy mountain, for the day of Jehovah cometh," 
Joel ii. 1, 2. u And Jehovah shall be seen over them, and his 
arrow shall go forth as the lightning, and the Lord Jehovah 
shall blow the trumpet" Zech. ix. 14. " Jehovah shall go forth 
as a lion and touna" Isaiah xlii. 13. " And it shall come to 
pass in that day, that the great trumpet shall be blown, and they 
shall come which were ready to perish in the land of Assyria, 
and the outcasts in the land of Egypt, and shall worship Jeho 
vah in the holy mountain at Jerusalem," Isaiah xxvii. 13, 
* And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, 
and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, 
from one end of heaven to the other," Matt. xxiv. 31. "Blessed 
is the people who know the joyful sound ; they shall walk, 
287 



398 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. viii. 

Jehovah, in the light of thy countenance," Psalm Ixxxix. 15. 
u When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of 
God shouted for joy" Job xxxviii. 7. Since the sounds of 
trumpets signify such things, and as, in the Israelitish church, 
all things were represented to the life according to corre 
spondences and their consequent significations, therefore it 
came to pass, when Jehovah came down upon Mount Sinai, 
that there were voices, and lightnings, and a heavy cloud, and a 
vehement voice of a trumpet, and a voice of a trumpet going and 
strengthening itself greatly, and the people in the camp trem 
bled greatly, Exod. xix. 16 25. And for the same reason it 
came to pass, that when the three hundred with Gideon blew 
with their trumpets against Midian, then the sword of a man 
was against his companion, and they fled, Judges vii. 16 22 : 
in like manner, that twelve thousand of the sons of Israel with 
vessels of holiness and trumpets in their hands overcame Midian, 
Numb. xxxi. 1 8 ; as also, that the wall of Jericho fell down, 
after the seven priests with seven trumpets compassed the city 
seven times, Joshua vi. 1 20. Wherefore it is said in Jere 
miah, Sound the trumpet against Babylon round about, her 
walls are destroyed, 1. 15; and in Zephaniah, " A day of clouds 
and thick darkness, a day of the trumpet and alarm against 
the fenced cities," i. 15, 16. 

398. The first angel sounded, signifies exploration and mani 
festation of the quality of the state of the church with those 
who are interiorly in that faith. By sounding is signified to 
explore and make manifest, n. 397. The reason why by the 
sounding of this first angel, is meant the exploration and mani 
festation of the state of the church with those who are interiorly 
in that faith, is, because its operation was felt upon the earth", 
as appears from what follows ; and the operation of the sound 
ing of the second angel was felt upon the sea, the earth and the 
sea, throughout the Apocalypse, when named together, meaning 
the church universal ; by the earth, the church as consisting of 
those who are in its internals, and by the sea, the church as 
consisting of those who are in its externals : for the church is 
internal and external ; internal with the clergy, and external 
with the laity ; or internal with those who have studied its 
doctrinals interiorly, and have confirmed them from the Word, 
and external with those who have not. Both are understood 
by the earth and the sea in the following passages in the Apo 
calypse : " That the wind should not blow upon the earth, nor 
on the sea" vii. 1. " Hurt not the earth, neither the sea" vii. 
3. "The angel descending out of heaven set his right foot 
upon the sea, and his left upon the earth" x. 2, 8 ; also in verse 
6. " I saw a beast rise out of the sea, and another beast 
coming up out of the earth," xiii. 1, 11. " Worship him who 
made heaven and earth, and the sea" xiv. 7. The first 
288 



V. 6, 7.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 3% 

angel poured out his vial upon the earth, and the second angel 
his upon the sea," xvi. 2, 3. The earth and sea signify the 
church internal and external, thus the church universal, because, 
in the spiritual world, they who are in the internals of the 
church appear upon dry land, and they who are in its externals, 
as on the sea ; but the sea is only an appearance from the gene 
ral truths in which they are principled. That earth signifies 
the church, may be seen, n. 285 : so also does the world ; see 
ii. 551. 

399. And there followed hail and fire mingled with Hood, 
signifies falsity from infernal love destroying good and truth, 
and falsifying the Word. By hail is signified falsity destroying 
good and truth ; by fire is signified infernal love ; and by blooa 
is signified the falsification of truth. That hail signifies falsity 
destroying good and truth, will be seen below ; that fire means 
love in both senses, celestial and infernal, may be seen, n. 468 ; 
that blood means the divine truth of the Lord, which is also 
the Word, and, in the opposite sense, the Word falsified, n. 379. 
On joining these together into one sense, it is plain, that by 
there followed hail and fire mingled with blood, is signified 
falsity from infernal love destroying good and truth, and falsi 
fying the Word. This is signified, because such things appear 
in the spiritual world when the sphere of the Lord s divine love 
and divine wisdom descends from heaven into the societies be 
low, where falsities derived from infernal love exist, and the 
Word is falsified thereby. Hail and fire together have a like 
signification in the following places : " At the brightness that 
was before him his thick clouds passed, hail-stones and coals of 
fire : and the Highest gave his voice, hail-stones and coals of 
fire; yea, he sent out his arrows and scattered them," Psalm 
xviii. 12 14. " And I will plead against him with pestilence 
and with blood, and I will rain upon him great hail-stones, fire, 
and brimstone," Ezek. xxxviii. 22. " And Jehovah shall cause 
his glorious voice to be heard, and with \\\z flame of a devour 
ing Jfov?, and hail-stones" Isaiah xxx. 30. He gave them hail 
for rain, w&& flaming fire in their land, and brake the trees of 
their coasts, Psalm cv. 32, 33. The hail smote their vine, and 
their sycamore trees with grievous hail) and their cattle with 
burning coals; he sent in the burning of his anger a sending 
forth of evil angels, Psalm Ixxviii. 47 49. These words are 
applied to Egypt. In Moses we read concerning them, that 
" he stretched forth his rod, and Jehovah gave voices and hail ; 
and there was hail and fire together walking in the midst of 
grievous hail : and the hail smote every herb of the field, and 
brake every tree of the field," Exod. ix. 2235. All the 
miracles that were wrought in Egypt signified the evils and 
talses derived from infernal love, which prevailed with the 
Egyptians; each miracle signifying some particular evil and 
289 T 



400 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. vili. 

falsity : for with them there was a representative church, as in 
like manner with many kingdoms of Asia, but it became idola 
trous and magical ; by the Red Sea is signified hell, in which 
at last they perished. Something similar is signified by the 
hail-stones by which more of the enemy perished than by the 
sword, Josh. x. 11. The same, also, is meant by hail in the 
following places : " Woe to the crown of pride, behold, the 
Lord hath a mighty and strong one, like an inundation of hail : 
and the hail shall sweep away the refuge of lies, 5 Isaiah xxviii. 

I, 2, IT. " When it shall hail, coming down on the forest," 
Isaiah xxxii. 19. "And the temple of God was opened in 
heaven, and there were lightnings, and voices, and thunder- 
ings, and an earthquake, ancl great hail" Apoc. xi. 19. " And 
there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, about the weight 
of a talent, Apoc. xvi. 21. "Hast thou seen the treasures of 
hail, which I have reserved against the day of battle and war?" 
Job xxxviii. 22, 23. " Say unto them which daub with un- 
tempered mortar, that it shall fall ; there shall be an overflow 
ing shower, and ye, O great hail-stones, shall fall," Ezek. xiii. 

II. To daub with untempered mortar means to confirm falsity, 
to make it appear like truth ; they therefore who do so are 
called hail-stones. 

400. And they were cast upon the earth, and the third part 
of the trees was burnt up, signifies that with those who are in 
the internals of the church and in faith alone, every affection 
and perception of truth, which constitute a man of the church, 
had perished. By the earth, upon which were cast hail and fire 
mingled with blood, is signified the church with those who are 
in its internals and in faith alone. That these are the clergy, 
may be seen above, n. 398. By the third part is signified all 
as to truth, and by the fourth part, all as to good, n. 322. That 
by three is signified all, full, and totally, will be seen below, 
n. 505 ; thence, by a third, which is a third part, the same is 
signified. By being burnt up is signified to perish, in the pres 
ent case, by falsity derived from infernal love, which is meant 
by hail and fire mingled with blood, see above, n. 399. By a 
tree is signified man ; and as man is man by virtue of affection, 
which is of the will, and by virtue of perception, which is of 
the understanding, therefore these also are signified by a tree. 
There is also a correspondence between man and a tree ; where 
fore in heaven there appear paradises of trees, which correspond 
to the affections and consequent perceptions of the angels ; 
and, likewise, in some places in hell there are forests of trees, 
which bear evil fruits, correspondent with the concupiscences 
and consequent thoughts of those who are there. That trees in 
general signify men as to their affections and consequent per 
ceptions, may appear from the following places : " And all the 
trees of the field shall know, that I Jehovah have brought down 
290 



V*. 7 J THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 401 

the high tree, have exalted tlie low tree, have dried up the 
green tree, and have made the dry tree to flourish," Ezek. xvii. 
24. u Blessed is the man that trnsteth in Jehovah, for ho 
shall be as a tree planted by the waters neither shall cease 
from yielding fruit, Jerem. xvii. 7, 8. " Blessed is the man 
whose delight is in the law of Jehovah ; and he shall be like a 




civ. 16. "And now also the axe is laid at the root of the trees, 
therefore every tree which bringeth not forth good fruit, is hewn 
down," Matt. iii. 10 ; vii. 16, 21. " Either make the tree good 
and its fruit good; or else make the tree corrupt and its iruit 
corrupt : for the tree is known by his fruit," Matt. xii. 33 ; 
Luke vi. 43, 44. " Behold, I will kindle a fire in thee, and it 
shall devour every green tree and every dry tree" Ezek. xx. 47. 
Since a tree signifies man, therefore it was ordained, that the 
fruit of a tree serving for food in the land of Canaan should be 
circumcised, Levit. xix. 23 25; as also, when any city is be 
sieged, they shall not put forth an axe against any tree with 
good fruit, foeut. xx. 20, 21 ; and that at the feast of tabernacles 
they should take fruit of the tree of honour -, and rejoice before 
Jehovah, Levit. xxiii. 40, 41 ; besides other passages, which are 
not here adduced by reason of their abundance. 

401. And all green grass was burnt up, signifies, thus all that 
is alive in faith. By being burnt is signified to perish, as above, 
n. 400 : by green grass, in the Word, is signified that good 
and truth of the church or of faith, which first springs up in 
the natural man ; the same also is signified by the herb of the 
field ; and because faith has its life from good and truth, there 



fore by all green grass being burnt up, is signified that every 
thing alive in faith has perislied ; and every thing alive in faith 
perishes when there is no affection of good and perception of 
truth, of which above. This signification of grass is also owing 
to correspondence; wherefore they who separate faith from 
charity, not only in doctrine but also in life, in the spiritual 
world live in a desert, where there is not even grass. As a 
fruit-tree signifies man as to the affections of good and percep 
tions of truth, so green grass signifies man as to that principle 
of the church which is first conceived and also born in him, and 
grass which is not green signifies the same destroyed. In gene 
ral all things which grow in gardens, woods, fields, and plains, 
signify man as to something of the church, or what is the same, 
something of the church in him ; the reason is, because they 
correspond. That grass has this signification, may appear from 
these passages : " The voice said, Cry. And he said, What 
shall I cry ? All flesh is grass, the grass withereth, and the 
ilower fadeth, because the spirit of Jehovah bloweth upon it : 
291 



402 404: THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Cliap. viii. 

surely the people is grass. The grass withered] and the flower 
fadeth, but the Word of our God shall stand for ever," Isaiah 
xl. 5 8. " The inhabitants were as the grass of the field, and 
as the green herb, as the grass on the house-tops, a field blasted 
before the ccrn is grown up, Isaiah xxxvii. 27 ; 2 Kings xix. 
26. "I will pour out my blessing upon thine offspring, and 
they shall spring up as among the grass, 1 Isaiah xliv. 3, 4 f , 
and in other places ; as in Isaiah li. 12 ; Psalm xxxvii, 2 ; 
Psalm ciii. 15 ; Psalm cxxix. 6 ; Deut. xxxii. 2. That by what 
is green or flourishing, is signified what is alive or has life in it, 
is evident in Jerem. xvii. 8; 1. 11 ; Ezek. xvii. 24; xxi. 3; 
Hosea xiv. 9 ; Psalm xxxvii. 35 ; Psalm lii. 10; Psalm xcii. 11. 
The same as what is here described in the Apocalypse came to 
pass in Egypt, for by hail and fire mingled, every tree and 
every hero of the field was burnt up, Exod. ix. 29 35; Psalm 
Ixxxviii. 47 49 ; Psalm cv. 32, 33. 

402. And the second angel sounded, signifies the exploration 
and manifestation of what the state of the church is with those 
who are exteriorly in that faith. That to sound with a trumpet 
signifies to explore and make manifest the state of the church, 
and thence of the life of those whose religion is faith alone, 
may be seen above, n. 397. It is said of those who are exte 
riorly in that faith, because they are here treated of who are in 
the sea, and previously they were treated of who were on tho 
earth ; and by these latter are meant such as are in the inter 
nals of the church, who are the clergy, and by the former are 
meant such as are in the externals of the church, who are the 
laity, as may be seen above, n. 398, who in the spiritual world 
appear as it were in the sea, n. 238, 290. 

403. And as it were a great mountain burning with fire was 
cast into the sea, signifies the appearance of infernal love with 
those who are in the externals of the church, and in faith alone. 
By the sea is signified the church with those who are in exter 
nals, and in faith alone ; and they who are in externals are 
called, in common language, the laity, because they who are in 
internals are called the clergy, n. 397, 402. A mountain signi 
fies love, n. 336, and a mountain burning with fire signifies 
infernal love, n. 494, 599; this is the appearance of this love 
with those who are here treated of, and is so seen by the angels ; 
the reason is, because faith alone is faith separated from charity, 
n. 388 : and where there is not charity, that is, love towards our 
neighbour, which is spiritual love, there is infernal love ; an in 
termediate love does not exist except among the lukewarm, 
mentioned in Apoc. iii. 15, 16. 

404. And the third part of the sea became blood, signifies 
that all general truths with them were falsified. By the third 
part is signified all, n. 400 ; by blood is signified the falsification 
of the truth of the Word, n. 379 ; by the sea is signified the 

292 



V p . 7 9.] THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. 405 

church with those who are in its externals, and in faith alone, 
n. 397, 402. General truths are falsified with such because 
they are principled in them alone, for they are not acquainted 
with the particulars of that faith, as the clergy are ; it is from 
the general truths in which they are principled, that they ap 
pear as in a sea, in the spiritual world ; the reason is, because 
waters signify truths, n. 50, the sea being their general recep 
tacle, n. 238. 

405. And the third part of the creatures which were in th& 
sea that had life, died, signifies that they who have lived and 
do live this faith cannot be reformed and receive life. By the 
third part is signified all of them, as above ; by creatures are 
meant those who are capable of being reformed, n. 290 ; the 
reason is, because to create signifies to reform, n. 254. By 
having lives, is signified to be capable of receiving life by refor 
mation ; by their death, is signified that they who live that 
faith alone cannot receive life ; the reason why they cannot, is, 
because all are reformed by faith united to charity, thus by the 
faith of charity, and no one by faith alone, for charity is the 
life of faith. Since the affections and consequent perceptions 
and thoughts of spirits and angels, in the spiritual world, 
appear at a distance in the forms of animals or creatures upon 
the earth, which are called beasts, of creatures in the air which 
are called birds, and of creatures in the sea which are called 
fishes, therefore in the Word mention is so often made of 
beasts, birds, and fishes, by which nothing else is understood ; 
as in these passages : " The Lord hath a controversy with the 
inhabitants of the earth, because there is no truth, nor mercy, 
nor knowledge of God in the land, and every one that dwelleth 
therein shall languish with the leasts of the field, and with the 
fowls of the heaven yea, the fishes of the sea, also, shall be 
taken away," Hosea iv. 1, 3. " I will consume man and least 
the fowls of the heaven and the fishes of the sea, and the 
stumbling blocks with the wicked," Zeph. i. 3. " There shall 
be a great shaking in the land of Israel, so that the fishes of 
the sea, and the fowls of the heaven, and the least of the field, 
shall shake at my presence," Ezek. xxxviii. 18 20. u Thou 
madest him to have dominion over the works of thy hands ; 
thou hast put all things under his feet, the leasts of the field, 
the fowl of the air, and the fish of the sea, and whatsoever 
passeth through the paths of the seas," Psalm viii. 6 8 ; 
speaking of the Lord. " But ask, now, the leasts^ and they 
shall teach thee ; and the fowls of the air, and they shall tell 
thee ; and the fishes of tJie sea shall declare unto thee. Who 
knoweth not in all these that the hand of Jehovah hath wrought 
this f Job xii. 7 9 ; besides many other places. But by 
fishes or creatures of the sea, are here meant the affections and 
consequent thoughts of those men who are principled in genera) 
293 



405 THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. [Chap. vlli. 

truths, and are therefore more attracted by what is natural than 
by what is spiritual ; these are understood by fishes in the pas 
sages above cited, and also in the following : " Behold, at my 
rebuke I dry up the sea, I make the rivers a wilderness : their 
fish sinketh, because there is no water, and dieth for thirst," 
Isaiah 1. 2. " The king of Egypt is a great dragon that lieth 
in the midst of his rivers, which hath said, My river is mine 
own, and I have it for myself, and I will cause the fish of thy 
rivers to stick to thy scales, and I will leave thee in the 
wilderness, thee and all the fish of thy rivers" Ezek. xxix. 
3 5. This is said to the king of Egypt, because by Egypt is 
signified what is natural separated from what is spiritual, and 
therefore by the fishes of his rivers are meant those who are in 
doctrinals, and thereby in faith separated, which faith is only 
science ; on account of this separation, one of the miracles that 
were performed there was as follows : That their waters were 
turned into blood, and that thereby the fish died, Exod. vii. 
17 25 ; Psalm cv. 29. "Wherefore dost thou make man as 
\\\Q fishes of the sea, every man draweth and gathereth into the 
net, Habak. i. 1416 ; fishes here denote those who are in 
general truths, and in faith separated from charity ; but fishes 
denote those who are in general truths and in faith conjoined 
with charity, in Ezekiel : He said unto me, " Behold, these 
waters issued from under the threshold of the house eastward ; 
and it shall come to pass, that every thing that liveth, which 
rnoveth, whithersoever the river shall come, shall live : and there 
shall le a very great multitude of fish ; and it shall come to 
pass, that the fishers shall stand upon it to spread forth nets ; 
their fish shall be according to their kinds, exceeding many like 
the fish of the great sea" xlvi. 1, 9, 10. In Matthew : Jesus 
said. " The kingdom of heaven is like unto a net that was cast 
into the sea, and they gathered fishes, the good into vessels, but 
cast the bad away," xiii. 47 49. And in Jeremiah : "I will 
bring again the children of Israel into their land, and, behold, 
I will send for many fishers, and they shall fish them," xvi. 15, 
16. He that knows therefore, that such persons and things are 
signified by fishes, may see why the Lord chose fishers for his 
disciples, and said, " Follow me, and I will make JQM fishers of 
men/ Matt. iv. 18, 19 ; Mark i. 16, 17. That the disciples, 
by the blessing of the Lord, caught a great multitude of fishes, 
and the Lord said unto Peter, " Fear not, from henceforth thou 
.shalt catch men" Luke v. 2 10. Why the Lord, when they 
would have required tribute of him, commanded Peter to go to 
the sea, and draw up & fish, and give the piece of money found 
in it for him and himself, Matt. xvii. 24 27. Why the 
Lord, after his resurrection, gave his disciples a fish and bread 
to eat, John xxi. 2 13 ; and commanded them, " Go ye into 
all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature" Mark 



T. 9.] THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. 406 

xvi. 15 ; for the nations whom they converted were only prin 
cipled in general truths, or in natural truth more than in spir 
itual. 

40t). And the third part of the ships were destroyed, signi 
fies that all the knowledges of good and truth from the Word, 
serving for use of life, were destroyed with them. The third 
part signifies all, as above, n. 400, 404, 405 ; ships signify the 
knowledges of what is good and true from the Word serving 
for use of life. Ships have this signification, because they 
traverse the sea, and bring such necessaries as are of use to 
the natural man exclusively, and the knowledges of good and 
truth are the necessaries which are of use to the spiritual man, 
from these the doctrine of the church is derived, and, accord- 
*-ng to this doctrine, life. Ships signify these knowledges, be 
cause they are what contain things, and in the Word, in many 
places, the thing containing is taken for the thing contained, as 
the cup for the wine ; the platter for meat ; the tabernacle and 
the temple for the holy things in them ; the ark for the law ; 
the altar for worship, and so on. Ships signify the knowledges 
of what is good and true, in the following passages : " Zebulon 
shall dwell at the haven of the sea, and he shall be for an haven 
of ships" Gen. xlix. 13. By Zebulon is meant the conjunc 
tion of good and truth. O Tyre, the " builders have perfected 
thy beauty, they have made all thy ship-boards of fir-trees of 
Senir : they have taken the cedars from Lebanon to make masts 
for thee ; of the oaks of Bashan have they made thine oars / 
thy pole have they made of ivory, a daughter of steps from the 
isles of Chittim ; the inhabitants of Zidon and Arvad were thy 
mariners, thy wise men were thy pilots, all the ships of the 
sea and their mariners were in thee to occupy thy merchan 
dise ; the ships of Tarshish did sing of thee in thy market : 
and thou wast replenished and made very glorious in the midst 
of the seas," Ezek. xxvii. 4 9, 25 ; speaking of Tyre, because 
by Tyre, in the Word, is signified the church as to the know 
ledges of truth and good, as may appear from the particulars 
mentioned respecting it in this and the eighteenth chapter, when 
understood in a spiritual sense ; and as the knowledges of the 
truth and good of the church are signified by Tyre, therefore a 
ship is described as to its particulars, and by each is signified 
some quality of those knowledges conducive to intelligence ; 
tor what can the Word have in common with the ships of Tyre 
and its commerce ? The devastation of that church is after 
wards thus described : " The suburbs shall shake at the sound 
of the cry of thy pilots. And all that handle the oar, the mari 
ners and pilots of the sea, shall come down from their ships, and 
shall cry bitterly," Ezek. xxvii. 28 30 ; as also in Isaiah xxiii. 
14, 15. In like manner the devastation of Babylon as to all 
the knowledges of truth, is described in what follows in the 
295 



ij7 4.09 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. Vlli. 

Apocalypse : " For in one hour so great riches is come to 
nought, and every ship-master, and all the company in ships, 
and mariners, cried, saying, Alas, alas, that great city (Baby 
lon), wherein were made rich all that had ships in the sea," 
xviii. 17, 19; see the explanation below. By ships are also 
signified the knowledges of good and truth in the following 
passages : " Now in y days are swifter than a post, they flee 
away, they see no good. They are passed away as the swift 
ships" Job ix. 25, 26. " They who go down to the sea in 
ships, that do business in great waters. These see the works <.i 
Jehovah, and his wonders in the deep," Psalm cvii. 23, 24. 
u Surely the isles shall wait for rne, and the ships of Tarshish 
first, to bring thy sons from far," Isaiah Ix. 9. "For lo, the 
kings were assembled, they passed by together. Fear took 
hold upon them there. Thou breakest the ships of Tarshish 
with the east wind," Psalm xlviii. 4, 7, 8. Howl, j e ships of 
Tarshish, Isaiah xxiii. 1, 14; besides other places; as Numb. 
xxiv. 24 ; Judges v. 17 ; Psalm civ. 26 ; Isaiah xxxiii. 21. 

407. And the third angel sounded, signifies the exploration 
and manifestation of the church with those whose religion is 
faitli alone, what they are as to the affection and reception of 
truths from the Word. That this is signified, will appear from 
what follows, when understood in a spiritual sense. 

4u8. And there fell from heaven a great star, burning as 
it were a lamp, signifies the appearance of self-derived intelli 
gence from a pride springing from infernal love. The reason 
why by the falling from heaven of a great star, is signified the 
appearance of self-derived intelligence from a pride springing 
from infernal love, is, because it was seen to burn as a lamp ; 
and because the name of it was Wormwood, as follows ; and 
by a star, and also by a lamp, is signified intellignce, here 
self-derived intelligence, because it seemed to burn, and all 
self-derived intelligence burns from pride; and the pride of it 
proceeds from internal love, which is signified by a mountain 
burning with fire, n. 403. By wormwood is signified infernal 
falsity, from which that intelligence exists, and of which it is 
composed. That a star signifies intelligence, may be seen, n. 
151, 954 ; so likewise does a lamp or candle, n. 796. 

409. And it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and upon 
the fountains of waters, signifies that thence all the truths of 
the Word were totally falsified. By rivers are signified truths 
in abundance, because by waters are signified truths, n. 50; 
and by fountains of waters is signified the Word, n. 384. 
The truths of the Word were altogether falsified, because it is 
eaid in what follows, that the third part of the waters became 
wormwood; and by wormwood is signified infernal falsity, n. 
410. That rivers signify truths in abundance, may appear from 
the following passages : Behold, I will do a new thing ; I give 
296 



T. 9, 10.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 409 

waters in die wilderness, and rivers in the desert, to give drink 
to my people, my chosen," Isaiah xliii. 19, 20. " For I will 
pour water upon him that is thirsty, and rivers upon the dry 
ground ; I will pour my spirit upon thy seed, and my blessing 
upon thine offspring," Isaiah xliv. 3. "Then shall the tongue 
of the dumb sing, for in the wilderness shall waters break out, 
and rivers in the desert," Isaiah xxxv. 6. " I will open rivers 
in high places, and fountains in tl.e midst of the valleys : I will 
make the wilderness a pool of waters, and the dry land springs 
of water," Isaiah xli. 18. Jehovah hath laid the foundations 
of the world " upon the seas, and established it upon the rivers" 
Psalm xxiv. 2. " I will set his hand also in the sea, and his 
right hand in the rivers" Psalm Ixxxix. 25. " Was Jehovah 
displeased against the rivers f was thine anger against the 
rivers ? was thy wrath against the sea, that thou dost ride upon 
thine horses ?" -Habak. iii. 8. The river whose " streams 
shall make glad the city of God," Psalm xlvi. 3 5. "And he 
showed me a pure river of water of life proceeding out of the 
throne of God and the Lamb," Apoc. xxii. 1. " He clave the 
rocks in the wilderness, and gave them drink as out of the 
great depths. He clave the rock, and rivers gushed out," Psalm 
Ixxviii. 15, 16, 20; Psalm cv. 41. "And the waters shall fail 
from the sea, and fhe river shall be wasted and dried up," Isaiah 
xix. 5 7 ; xlii. 15 ; 1. 2 ; Nahum i. 4 ; Psalm cvii. 33 ; Job xiv. 
10, 11. Jesus said, If any one come unto me, as the Scripture 
hath said, " out of his belly shall flow rivers of living waters," 
John vii. 37, 38 ; besides other places ; as in Isaiah xxxiii. 21 ; 
Jerem. xvii. 7, 8 ; Ezek. xxxi. 3, 4; xclii. 1 12 ; Joel iii. 18 ; 
Zech. ix. 10 ; Psalm. Ixxx. 11 ; Psalm xciii. 3 5; Psalm xcviii. 
7, 8 ; Psalm ex. 7 ; Numb, xxiv, 6, 7 ; Deut. viii. 7. But that 
rivers, in an opposite sense, signify falses in abundance, may 
appear from these passages : He shall send ambassadors in the 
sea to the " nation trodden down, whose land the rivers have 
spoiled," Isaiah xviii. 2. " If Jehovah had not been for us, 
then the waters had overwhelmed us, and the river had gone 
over our soul," Psalm cxxiv. 2, 4, 5. " When thou passest 
through the waters I will be with thee, and through the rivers, 
they shall not overflow thee," Isaiah xliii. 2. " The sorrows 
of death compassed me, and the rivers of ungodly men made me 
afraid," Psalm xviii. 4. " And the serpent cast out of his 
mouth water as a river after the woman, that he might cause 
her to be carried away of the river" Apoc. xii. 15, 16. " Be 
hold, Jehovah bringeth up upon them the waters of the river 
strong and many, and it shall overflow and go over, and shall 
reach even to the neck/ Isaiah viii. 7, 8. " And the rivers 
came, and the winds blew and beat upon that house, and it fell 
not, for it was founded upon a rock," Matt. vii. 25, 27 ; Luke 
vi. 48, 49 ; here also rivers denote falses in abundance, because 
297 



4:10, 411 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Oliap. Vlii. 

by a rock is signified the Lord as to divine truth. By rivers or 
floods are also signified temptations, because temptations are 
inundations of falses. 

410. And the name of the star is called Wormwood ; and the 
third part of the waters became wormwood, signifies the infernal 
falsity from which their self-derived intelligence is denved, and 
by which all the truths of the Word are falsified. By a star is 
signified self-derived intelligence springing from a pride in in 
fernal love, n. 408; by name is signified its quality, n. 81, 122, 
165 ; by wormwood is signified infernal falsity concerning which 
something will be said presently ; by waters are signified truths, 
n. 50 ; here, the truths of the Word, because the subject relates 
to faith ; by the third part is signified all, as above : from these 
particulars taken together the sense results as delivered above. 
Wormwood signifies infernal falsity, from its intense bitterness, 
whereby it renders meat and drink abominable 1 ; such falsity is 
signified therefore by wormwood, in the following passages : 
" Behold, I will feed this people with wormwood, and I will 
give them water of gall to drink," Jerem. ix. 14, 15. "Thus 
saith Jehovah concerning the prophets ; Behold,! will feed them 
with wormwood, and I will make them drink the water of gall ; 
for from the prophets of Jerusalem is profaneness gone forth 
into all the earth," Jerem. xxiii. 15. "Ye who turn judgment 
into gall, and the fruit of righteousness into wormwood," Amos 
v. 7 ; vi. 12. " Lest there should be among you a root that 
beareth gall and wormwood" Deut. xxix. 18. Since the Jew 
ish church have falsified all the truths of the Word, like the 
church here treated of, and since the Lord by all the circum 
stances of his passion represented the same, by permitting the 
Jews to treat him as they did the Word, he himself being the 
Word, therefore they gave him vinegar mingled with gall, which 
is like wormwood, but, tasting it, he would not dri-nk, Matt, 
xxvii. 34 ; Mark xv. 23 ; Psalm Ixix. 21. As this was the 
character of the Jewish church, it is therefore thus described : 
" He hath filled me with bitterness, and hath made me drunken 
with wormwood" Lament, iii. 15, 18, 19. 

411. And many men died of the waters, because they were 
made bitter, signifies the extinction of spiritual life with many 
from the falsified truths of the Word. Many men died, signifies 
extinction of spiritual life ; for man from the spiritual life within 
him is called alive, but from natural life separated from spiritual 
life, he is called dead ; of the waters because they were made 
bitter, signifies by the falsified truths of the Word : that waters 
mean the truths 01 the Word, may be seen above, n. 410. The 
reason why bitter signifies what is falsified, is, because the bittei 
of wormwood is understood, and by wormwood is signified in 
fernal falsity, n. 410. The spiritual life in a Christian is from nc 
other source than from the truths of the Word, for in them thew 

298 



V. 10 12.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 412, 413 

is life ; but when the truths of the "Word are falsified, and man 
understands and views them according to the false notions of his 
religion, then spiritual life in him is extinguished; the reason is, 
because the Word communicates with heaven, therefore when it 
is read by man, the truths therein ascend to heaven, and the 
falses to which truths are adjoined or conjoined, tend towards 
hell, whence there is a rending asunder, whereby the life of the 
Word is extinguished. But this is the case only with those who 
confirm falses by the Word, but not with those who do not con 
firm them. I have seen such rendings asunder, and have heard 
the noise like that of wood split by fire on a hearth. Bitter sig 
nifies what is falsified also in the following places : " Woe unto 
them that call evil good, and good evil, that put Utter for sweet, 
and sweet for Utter," Isaiah v. 20, 22. " They shall not drink 
wine with a song ; strong drink shall be Utter to them that drink 
it," Isaiah xxiv. 9. The like is signified by the little book that 
was eaten, which was sweet in the mouth, and by which the belly 
was made fritter, Apoc. x. 9, 10 ; and by this : " And when they 
came to Marah, they could not drink of the waters, for they were 
fritter ; and Jehovah showed him a wood, which when he had 
cast into the waters, they were made sweet," Exod. xv. 23 25. 
Wood, in the Word, signifies good. The same is also signified 
by the wild gourds* which were put into the pottage, by reason 
of which the sons of the prophets cried out, There is death in the 
pot, which Elisha healed by putting in meal, 2 Kings iv. 38 
41. Meal signifies truth from good. 

412. And the fourth angel sounded, signifies the exploration 
and manifestation of the state of the church with those whose 
religion is faith alone, as being in the evils of falsity, and in the 
falsities of evil. That this is the signification of these words, is 
evident from what follows, when understood in a spiritual sense. 
To sound signifies here, as before, n. 398, 402, 40T, to explore 
and make manifest. 

413. A.nd the third part of the sun was smitten, and the 
third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars, so that 
the third part of them was darkened, signifies that by reason of 
evils from falsities and of falsities from evils, they did not know 
what love is, or what faith is, or any truth. By the third part 
is signified all, n. 400 ; by the sun is signified love, n. 53 ; by the 
moon is signified intelligence and faith, n. 332 ; by stars are sig 
nified the knowledges of truth and good from the Word, n. 51; 
by being darkened is signified not to be seen and known by reason 
of evils from falses and of falses from evils. Evils from falses exist 
with those who assume the falses of religion, and confirm them 
till they appear as truths, and when they live according to them, 
they do evils from falses, or the evils of falsity ; but falses froir? 

* Colocynthis & kind of wild gourd, the apple of which is called Coloquintida. 

299 



il3 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. viil. 

evils exist with tliose who do not consider evils as sins, arid still 
more with tliose who by reasonings from the natural man, and 
also from the Word, confirm in themselves, that evils are not 
sins, such confi -mations constitute the falses from evils, and are 
called the falses of evil. That such is the signification of dark 
ness follows, because light signifies truth, and the extinction of 
light makes darkness. By way of confirmation, some passages 
shall first be adduced, where similar things are mentioned as are 
here said in the Apocalypse, of the sun, the moon, and the stars, 
and of the darkness consequent upon their extinction : " The sun 
shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood" before 
the great and terrible day of Jehovah cometh, Joel ii. 31. "For 
the stars of heaven and the constellations thereof shall not give 
their light, the sun shall he darkened in his going forth, and the 
moon shall not cause her light to shine" Isaiah xiii. 10. " And 
when I shall put thee out I will cover the heaven, I will cover 
the sun with a cloud, and the moon shall not give her light, all 
the bright lights of heaven will I make dark over thee, and set 
darkness upon thy land," Ezek. xxxii. 7, 8. The day of Jehovah 
is near ; " the sun and the moon shall be black^and the stars shall 
withdraw their shining" Joel ii. 10. " Immediately after the 
tribulation of those days, shall the sun be darkened, and the moon 
shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven]"* 
Matt. xxiv. 29 ; Mark xiii. 24:, 25. Who cannot see, on ele 
vating his mind, that in these places, the sun, moon, and stars of 
the world are not understood? That by darkness falses of various 
kinds are signified, is evident from the following passages : Ci Woe 
unto you that desire the day of Jehovah! it is darkness and not 
light ; shall not the day of Jehovah be darkness and not light? 
even very dark, and no brightness in it ?" Amos v. 18, 20. 
" The day of Jehovah is a day of darkness and gloominess, a 
day of clouds and thick darkness," Zeph. i. 15. "And in that 
day if one look unto the land, behold darkness, and the light is 
darkened in the heavens thereof," Isaiah v. 30; viii. 22. "For 
behold, darkness covereth the earth, and gross darkness the 
people," Isaiah Ix. 2. "Give glory unto Jehovah your God, 
before he cause darkness, and while ye look for light, he make 
it gross darkness," Jerem. xiii. 16. " We wait for light, but 
behold obscurity for brightness, but we walk in darkness 
we stumble at noon-day as in the night; we are in desolate places 
as dead men," Isaiah lix. 9, 10. "Woe unto them that put 
darkness for light, and light for darkness," Isaiah v. 20. "The 
people that walked in darkness have seen a great light," Isaiah 
ix. 2 ; Matt iv. 16. " The day-spring from on high hath visited 
us, to give light to those who sit in darkness and in the shadow 
of death," Luke i. 79. " And if thou draw out thy soul to the 
hungry, then shall thy li^ht rise in obscurity , and thy darkness 
be as the noon-day," Isaiah Iviii. 10. "And in that day the eyes 
300 



V. 12.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 41-1 



of the blind shall see out of obscurity and out of darkness" 
xxix. 18 ; xlii. 16 ; xlix. 9. Jesus said, "I am the light of the 
world ; he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall 
have the light of life," John viii. 12. " Walk while ye have the 
light, lest darkness come upon you : I am come a light into the 
world, that whosoever believeth on me, should not abide in dark- 
ness" John xii. 35, 46. " When I sit in darkness, Jehovah 
shall be a light to me," Micah vii. 8. " And this is the con 
demnation, that light is come into the world, and men loved 
darkness rather thin light," John iii. 19 ; i. 4, 5. " If, there 
fore, the light which is in thee be darkness, how great is the 
darkness," Matt. vi. 23 ; Luke xi. 34 36. " But this is your 
hour, and the power of darkness," Luke xxii. 53. By darkness 
in these places is signified falsity proceeding either from igno 
rance of the truth, or from a false principle of religion, or from a 
life of evil. Concerning those who are in the falses of religion, 
and thence in evils of life, the Lord says, that they shall be cast 
into outer darkness, Matt. viii. 12 ; xxii. 13 ; xxv. 30. 

414. And the day shone not for a third part of it, and the 
night likewise, signifies that there is no longer any spiritual 
truth nor natural truth, serviceable for doctrine and life, from 
the Word with them. By the day not shining, is meant that 
there was no light from the sun ; and by the light, in like man 
ner, is meant that there was no light from the moon and stars. 
By light, in general, is signified divine truth, which is truth from 
the Word ; by the light of the sun, divine truth spiritual ; and, 
by the light of the moon and stars, divine truth natural, both 
from the Word. The divine truth, in the spiritual sense of the 
Word, is like the light of the sun by day ; and the divine truth, 
in the natural sense of the Word, is like the light of the moon 
and stars by night ; the spiritual sense of the Word also flows 
into its natural sense as the sun does with its light into the moon, 
which gives forth the light of the sun in a mediate manner. In 
the same way does the spiritual sense of the Word illuminate 
men, even those who know nothing at all concerning it, whilst 
they read the Word in its natural sense ; but it illuminates the 
spiritual man, as the sun s light does the eye ; and the natu 
ral man, as the light of the moon and stars illuminate his eye. 
Every one receives illumination according to the spiritual affec 
tion of truth and good, and at the same time according to genuine 
truths, by which he has opened his rational faculty. The same 
is understood by day and night, in the following passages : " And 
God said, Let there be light in the firmament of the heaven, to 
divide the day from the night: And God made two great lights, 
the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the 
night ; he made the stars also : And God set them in the firma 
ment of the heaven, to give light upon the earth, and to rule over 
the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the dark 
30] 



415, 416 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Cliap. vtiL 

ness," Gen. i. 14 19. Jehovah made great lumii .aries, " the 
sun to rule by day, the moon and stars to rule by night Psalm 
cxxxvi. 7 9. " The day (O Jehovah) is thine, the night also 
is thine ; thou hast prepared the light and the sun," Psalm Ixxiv. 
16. " Jehovah giveth the sun for a light by day, and the ordi 
nances of the moon and of the stars for a light by night" Jerem. 
xxxi. 35. " If ye can break my covenant of the day and my 
covenant of the night, and that there shall not be day and night 
in their season ; then may also my covenant be broken with 
David my servant : If my covenant be not with day and night, 
and if I have not appointed the ordinances of heaven and earth, 
then will I cast away the seed of Jacob and David my servant," 
Jerem. xxxiii. 20, 21, 25, 26. These passages are adduced for 
the sake of showing that a darkening of both kinds of light is 
meant. 

415. And Ileheld, and I heard an angel flying in the midst 
of heaven, signifies instruction and prediction from the Lord. 
By an angel, in a supreme sense, is meant the Lord, and thence 
also something from the Lord, n. 344 ; and by flying in the 
midst of heaven and saying, is signified to perceive and under 
stand, and w r hen applied to the Lord, to foresee and provide, n. 
245 ; but here, to instruct and foretell. 

416. Saying with a loud voice, Woe, woe, woe, to the inhahiters 
of the earth, by reason of the other voices of the trumpet of the 
three angels which are yet to sound, signifies deep lamentation 
over the damned state of those in the church, who in doctrine 
and life have confirmed themselves in faith separated from char 
ity. By woe is signified lamentation over the evil in any one, 
and thence over his unhappy state; here, over the damned state 
of those who are treated of in the next chapter, and afterwards ; 
and by woe, woe, woe, is signified extreme lamentation ; for tri 
plication constitutes the superlative, because three signifies all 
and full, n. 505. By the inhabiters upon earth, are meant they 
who are in the church where the Word is, and the Lord known 
thereby : that earth signifies the church may be seen above, n. 
285. By the voices of the trumpet of the three angels which 
are yet to sound, is signified the exploration and manifestation 
of the state of the church and of life with those, who by doc 
trine and life have confirmed in themselves faith separated from 
charity, over whose state lamentation is made. Woe signifies 
lamentation over the present or future calamity, unhappiness, 
or damnation of others, in these passages : " Woe unto you, 
scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites!" Matt, xxiii. 13 IT, 23, 25, 
27, 29. " Woe unto that man by whom the Son of Man is 
betrayed," Luke xxii. 22. Wo( unto him by whom scandals 
come, Luke xvii. 1. Woe unto them that join house to house. 
Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning that they may 

follow strong drink. " Woe unto them that draw iniquity with 
302 



\ . 12, 13.J THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 417 

cords of vanity. Woe unto them that call evil good. Woe 
unto them that are wise in their own eyes. Woe unto them 
that are mighty to drink wine," Isaiah v. 8, 11, 18, 2022; 
and in many other places. 

417. To the above I will add this Memorable Relation. I saw 
in the spiritual world two flocks, one of GOATS, and the other of 
SHEEP ; I wondered who they w r ere, for I knew tluit animals, 
seen in the spiritual world, are not animals, but correspond 
ences of the affections and consequent thoughts of those who 
are there. "Wherefore I approached towards them, and as 1 
drew near, the likenesses of animals disappeared, and instead of 
them were seen men. And it was shown, that they who formed 
the flock of goats, were those who had confirmed themselves 
in the doctrine of justification by faith alone ; and they who 
formed the flock of sheep, were those who believed that char 
ity and faith are a one, as good and truth are a one. And 
then I entered into discourse with those who had been seen as 
goats, and said, "Why are you thus assembled? * They con 
sisted chiefly of clergy, who gloried in their fame for erudition, 
because they knew the arcana of justification by faith alone. 
They replied that they were assembled to sit in council, because 
they had teard that what is said by Paul, Horn. iii. 28, that 
map is justified by faith without the works of the law, is not 
right. y understood, because Paul, by the works of the law, 
meant the works of the Mosaic law, which were intended for 
the Jews ; which we also clearly see from his words to Peter, 
whom he rebuked for judaizing, when yet he knew that no one 
is "justified by the works of the law" Gal. ii. 14 16; as, 
also, from his making a distinction between the law of faith and 
the law of works ; and between Jews and Gentiles, or circum 
cision and uncircumcision, meaning by circumcision, Judaism, 
as everywhere else ; and likewise from his summing up with 
these words : " Do we then make void the law through faith ? 
God forbid ; yea, we establish the law /" he says all these things 
in one series, Rom. iii. 27 31 ; and further, he observes in the 
preceding chapter: "For not the hearers of the law are just 
before God, but the doers of the law shall be justified," Rom. ii. 
13 ; also, that God " will render to every man according to his 
deeds" Rom. ii. 6 ; and that, " For we must all appear before 
the judgment-seat of Christ ; that every one may receive the 
things done in his body, whether they be good or bad," 2 Cor. 
v. 10 ; besides many other things to the same purpose, from 
which it is evident that Paul rejects faith without good works, 
equally with James, ii. 17 26. That the works of the Mosaic 
law, which were for the Jews, were meant by Paul, we are addi 
tionally confirmed :n by this consideration, that all the statutes 
for the Jews in Moses are called the law, thus the works of th 
303 



117 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Cliap. Vlii. 

law, which we perceive from these passages : " This is the law 
of the meat-offering," Levit. vi. 9, and following. "This is 
the law of the burnt-offering," Levit. vii. 1. " This is the law 
of the peace-offering," Levit. vii. 7, 11, and following. "This 
is the law of the burnt-offering, of the meat-offering, of the sin- 
offering, and of the trespass-offering, of the consecrations," 
Levit. vii. 37. "This is the law of the beasts and of the fowl," 
Levit. xi. 46, and following. "This is the law for her that 
hath borne a male or a female," Levit. xii. 7. " This is tho 
law of the plague of leprosy," Levit. xiii. 59 ; xiv. 2, 32, 54, 57. 
"This is the law of him that hath an issue," Levit. xv. 32. 
"This is the law of jealousies" Numb. v. 29, 30. This is the 
law of the Nazarite, Numb. vi. 13, 21. This is the law of 
purification, Numb. xix. 14. This is the law concerning the 
red heifer, Numb. xix. 2. The law for the king, Deut. xvii. 
15 19. Yea, the whole Book of Moses is called "the Book 
of the Law" Deut. xxxi. 9, 11, 12, 26 ; also in the Evangelists, 
Luke ii. 22; xxiv. 44; John i. 45; vii. 22, 23; viii. 5; and 
other places. To this they added, also, what they had seen in 
Paul, that the law of the Decalogue \vas to be practised in the 
very life, and that it is fulfilled by charity, which is love towards 
the neighbour, Rom. xiii. 8 10 ; thus not by faith alone. 
They affirmed that this was the reason of their being convened 
together. But that I might not disturb them, I retired ; upon 
which they again appeared, at a distance, like goats, and some 
times as lying down, and at others as standing ; but they turned 
themselves away from the flock of sheep : they appeared as if 
they were lying down, when deliberating, but as standing up, 
when they came to a conclusion. But, keeping my eyes fixed 
upon their horns, I was surprised to see that the horns upon 
their foreheads sometimes appeared to extend forward and up 
ward, then to be bent backward, and at last to be thrown back 
entirely ; upon which they all suddenly turned round to the 
flock of sheep, but still appeared as goats ; wherefore I drew 
near to them again, and inquired, " What now ?" They replied, 
that they had come to this conclusion, that faith alone produces 
the goods of charity, which are called good works, as a tree 
produces fruit. But then thunder w r as heard, and lightning 
seen from above ; and presently there appeared an angel, stand 
ing between the two flocks, who cried to the flock of sheep, " Do 
not give ear to them ; they have not receded from their former 
faith, which is, that God the Father hath compassion for the 
sake of the Son ; which faith is not faith in the Lord ; neither 
is faith a tree, but man is a tree ; but do the work of repentance, 
and look to the Lord, and you will have faith ; faith before that, 
is not a faith in which there is any life." Then the goats, 
whose horns were directed backward, approached the sheep ; 
but the angel standing between them, divided the sheep intc 
304 



Chap. viii.J THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 418 

two flocks, and said to those on the left, " Join yourselves to 
the goats ; but I must tell you, that a wolf will come, which 
will snatch them away, and you along with them." 

418. But after the two flocks of sheep had separated, and they 
on the left hand had heard the threatening words of the angel, 
they looked at one another, and said, " Let us confer with our 
former associates ;" and then the left-hand flock spake to the 
right, saying, " Why have you receded from your pastors ? are 
not faith and charity a one, as a tree and its fruit are one ? for 
the tree by its branch is continued unto the fruit ; take away 
any thing from the branch which flows by continuity into the 
fruit, and will not the fruit perish ? ask our priests if it is not 
so." And upon their putting the question, the priests looked 
round to the rest, who made signs with their eyes to intimate 
that they had spoken correctly, and then they replied that it 
was ; faith is preserved by the fruit ; but they would not say 
faith is continued into the fruit. One of the priests, who was 
among the sheep on the right-hand, then got up, and said, 
" They have told you that it is so, but they have told their com 
panions that it is not so ; for they think otherwise." Where 
fore they inquired, " How do they think, then, do they not 
think as they teach ?" He said, " No ; they think that every 
good of charity, which is called a good work, done by man for 
the sake of salvation or eternal lite, is not good but evil, by 
reason that man desires to save himself by his own works, by 
claiming to himself the righteousness and merit of the only 
Saviour ; and that it is so with every good work, in which man 
feels his own will ; therefore among tliemselves they call good 
works from man, not blessed, but cursed ; and say that they 
merit hell rather than heaven." But the flock on the left-hand 
said, "You speak falsehoods against them ; do they not mani 
festly preach to us charity and its works, which they call works 
of faith manifested before us ?" He replied, " You do nor 
understand their discourses ; no one but a clergyman, who may 
be present, does attend to and understand them ; they think 
only of moral charity, and its civil and political goods, which 
they call the goods of faith, which yet are not at all so ; for a 
man may be an atheist, and perform these works in the same 
manner, and under the same form ; wherefore they are unani 
mous in saying that no one is saved by works at all, but by 
faith alone ; but this shall be illustrated by comparisons. An 
apple-tree bears apples ; but if a man does what is good for the 
sake of salvation, as the tree produces apples by continuity, 
then those apples are rotten within, and full of worms. They 
say, also, that a vine produces grapes ; but that if a man were 
to bring forth spiritual goods as a vine does grapes, he would 
bring forth wild grapes." But then they asked, "What is the 
nature of their goods of charity or works, which are the fruits 
305 u 



4:18 THE APOCALYPSE BEVEALED. [Chap. vlii. 

of faith ?" He replied, " They are invisible, being inwardly in 
man from the Holy Spirit, concerning which man knows" no 
thing." But they said, " If man knows nothing concerning 
them, there must surely be some conjunction, or how could 
they be called works of faith ? perhaps those insensible goods 
are then insinuated into the voluntary works of man by some 
mediating influx, as by some affection, aspiration, inspiration, 
incitement and excitement of the will ; or by some tacit per 
ception in thought and consequent exhortation, contrition, and 
thus by conscience, and thence by impulse and obedience to 
the Decalogue and the Word, as an infant, or as a wise man, 
or by something else of a similar nature." But he replied, 
" No ! and if they say it is effected by such means because by 
faith, still they word their discourses in such a manner as that 
the result after all is, that they do not proceed from faith 
some, however, do maintain such things, though as the signs of 
faith, but not as the ties thereof with charity. Some have 
nevertheless thought of a conjunction by the Word. Is there 
not thus conjunction," said they, " when man voluntarily acts 
according to the Word ?" But he replied, " This is not what 
they think ; they ascribe it to the hearing the Word, thus not 
to the understanding of the Word, lest any thing should mani 
festly enter by the understanding into the thouglit and will of 
man ; since they assert that every thing voluntary in man is 
meritorious, and that, in spiritual things, man cannot begin, 
will, think, understand, believe, operate and co-operate any 
thing, any more than a stock : but yet it is different with the 
influx of the Holy Spirit by faith into the speech of the preacher, 
because these are acts of the mouth, and not acts of the body ; 
likewise because man acts by faith with God, but by charity 
with men." But when one of them heard that it was done 
merely by hearing the Word, and not by understanding the 
Word, he said, witn indignation, " Is this effect produced then 
by the understanding of the Word, by the Holy Spirit alone, 
whilst man, throughout the church service, turns himself away, 
or sits as deaf as a post, or sleeps, or as merely feeling an exha 
lation from the Bible ? What can be more ludicrous ?" After 
this, a certain man of the flock on the right-hand, who excelled 
the rest in judgment, requested to speak, and said, " I heard a 
certain person say, I have planted a vineyard, now will I drink 
wine even to intoxication. But another asked, < Do you mean 
to drink the wine out of your own cup with your own right 
hand? And he said, No! but out of an invisible cup from an 
invisible hand. And the other replied, Of a certainty then 
VQU will not be intoxicated. Presently the same man said, But 
near me, I beseech you ; I say unto you, drink wine from the 
Word understood ; do yon not know that the Lord is the Word f 
is not the Word from the Lord ? is he not therefore in it ; if 
306 



Chap. IX.] THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. 418 

then you do good from the Word, do you not do it from the 
Lord, from his mouth and will? and if you at the same 
time look to the Lord, he will also lead you, and will cause 
you to do it, and this he will do through you, and you as 
from yourselves. Who can say, when doing any thing by the 
authority of a king, of his word and will, I do this from myself, 
from my own mouth or command, and from my own will?" 
After this he turned to the clergy, and said, " Ye ministers of 
God, seduce not the flock." On hearing these things, the 
greater part of the flock on the left-hand receded, and joined 
themselves to the flock on the right ; some of the clergy also 
then said, " We have heard what we did not know before ; we 
are pastors ; we will not leave the sheep." And they receded 
along with them, and said, " That man spoke a true word : 
who can say, when he does any thing from the Word, thus from 
the Lord, from his will and command, I do this from myself? 
Who that does any thing from the will and command of a kin^, 
says, I do this from myself? ~Now we see the Divine Provi 
dence, w r hy a conjunction of faith and works has not been dis 
covered, which the body of ecclesiastics might acknowledge ; 
it could not be discovered, because no such conjunction can 
exist ; for theirs is not a faith in the Lord, who is the Word, 
and therefore neither is it a faith from the Word." But the 
other priests went away, flourishing their caps, and crying out, 
Faith alone ! faith alone for ever, notwithstanding !" 



CHAPTER IX. 

1. AND the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star fall from 
heaven unto the earth : and to him was given the key of the 
bottomless pit. 

2. And he opened the bottomless pit; and there arose a 
smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace : and 
the sun and the air were darkened by reason of the smoke of 
the pit. 

3. And there came out of the smoke locusts upon the 
earth : and unto them was given power, as the scorpions of the 
earth have power. 

4. And it was commanded them that they should not hurt 
the grass of the earth, neither any green thing, neither any 
tree ; but only those men, who had not the seal of God in 
their foreheads. 

5. And to them it was given that they should not kill 
tli em, but that they should be tormented five months : and 

307 



THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap, ix 

their torment was as the torment of a scorpion when he striketh 
a man. 

6. And in those days shall men seek death, and shall not 
find it ; and shall desire to die, and death shall flee from them. 

7. And the shapes of the locusts were like unto horses pre 
pared unto battle : and on their heads were as it were crowna 
like gold, and their faces were as the faces of men. 

8. And they had hair as the hair of women, and their teeth 
were as the teeth of lions. 

9. And they had breast-plates, as it w r ere breast-plates of 
iron ; and the sound of their wings was as the sound of chariots 
of many horses running to battle. 

10. And they had tails like unto scorpions ; and there were 
stings in their tails : and their power was to hurt men five 
months. 

11. And they had a king over them, the angel of the bottom 
less pit; whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in 
the Greek tongue he hath his name Apollyon. 

12. One woe is past; behold, there come two woes more 
hereafter. 

13. And the sixth angel sounded : and I heard a voice from 
the four horns of the golden altar which is before God, 

14. Saying to the sixth angel who had the trumpet, Loose 
the four angels that are bound at the great river Euphrates. 

15. And the four angels were loosed ; who were prepared 
for an hour, and a day, and a month, and a year, to slay the 
third part of men. 

16. And the number of the armies of horsemen were two 
myriads of myriads : and I heard the number of them. 

17. And thus I saw the horses in the vision, and them that 
sat on them, having breast-plates of fire, and of jacinth, and 
of brimstone : and the heads of the horses were as the heads 
of lions : and out of their mouths issued fire, and smoke, and 
brimstone. 

18. By these three was the third part of men killed, by the 
fire, and by the smoke, and by the brimstone, which issued out 
of their mouths. 

19. For their power is in their mouth : for their tails were 
like unto serpents, and had heads, and with them they hurt. 

20. And the rest of the men who were not killed by these 
plagues, yet repented not of the works of their hands, that 
they should not worship demons, and idols of gold, and silver, 
and brass, and stone, and wood ; which neither can see, nor 
hear, nor walk : 

21. Neither repented they of their murders, nor of then 
sorceries, nor of their fornication, nor of their thefts. 



308 



Cliap. ix.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 



THE SPIRITUAL SENSE. 

THE CONTENTS OF THE WHOLE CHAPTER. Of the exploration 
and manifestation of the states of life of those in the reformed 
church, who are called learned and wise from the confirmation 
of faith separated from charity, and of justification and salva 
tion by it alone ; these are treated of from verse 1 13. Of 
the exploration and manifestation of those therein, who are no. 
eo learned and wise, and are in faith alone, and who live as they 
like ; from verse 13 20. Lastly, of those therein, who know 
nothing but that faith is the all by which man is saved, and not 
any thing besides, verses 20, 21. 

THE CONTENTS OF EACH YERSE. Y. 1, " And the fifth 
angel sounded," signifies the exploration and manifestation of 
the states of life of those in the reformed church, who are 
called learned and w r ise from their confirmation of faith sepa 
rated from charity, and of justification and salvation by it 
alone : " And I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth," 
signifies divine truth spiritual flowing from heaven into the 
church as existing with such persons, and effecting exploration 
and manifestation: "And to him was given the key of the bot 
tomless pit," signifies the opening of their hell: v. 2, "And 
he opened the bottomless pit, and there arose a smoke out of 
the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace," signifies the falses 
of the concupiscences of the natural man springing forth from 
their evil loves: "And the sun and the air were darkened by 
reason of the smoke of the pit," signifies that thereby the 
light of truth was turned into thick darkness: v. 3, "And 
there came out of the smoke locusts upon the earth," signifies 
that from them were derived falses to the extreme or lowest de 
grees, such as prevail with those who have become sensual, and 
see and judge of all things by the senses and their fallacies: 
"And unto them was given power, as the scorpions of the earth 
have power," signifies the power of persuading that their falses 
are truths : v. 4, " And it was commanded them that they 
should not hurt the grass of the earth, neither any green thing, 
neither any tree ; but only those men who had not the seal of 
God in their foreheads," signifies the divine providence of tho 
Lord, that they should not be able to take away any truth and 
good of faith, nor any affection and perception of them, from 
any others than such as are not in charity and thence not in 
faith : v. 5, " And to them it was given that they should not 
kill them, but that they should be tormented five months," sig 
nifies that neither from these should they be able to take away 
the faculty of understanding and willing truth and good, but 
that they should only be able to bring on stupor for a short 
time: "And their torment was as the torment of a scorpion 
309 



THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. l"Chap. ix. 

signifies that tins is fron their per 
suasive power: v. 6, "And in those days shall men seek death, 
and shall not find it ; and shall desire to die, and death shall 
flee from them," signifies that it is their desire that, in mat 
ters of faith, the understanding should be shut up and the will 
closed, by which means spiritual light and life are extinguished, 
and that yet this cannot be done : v. 7, " And the shapes of the 
locusts," signifies the form and appearance of those who have 
confirmed in themselves faith separated from charity : " Were 
like unto horses prepared unto battle," signifies that because 
they can reason, they appear to themselves to combat from the 
understanding of truth from the Word: "And on their heads 
were as it were crowns like gold," signifies that they appeared 
to themselves as conquerors : " And their faces were as the 
faces of men," signifies that they appeared to themselves to be 
wise : ^ 8, " And they had hair as the hair of women," signi 
fies that they appeared to themselves to be in the affection of 
truth : " And their teeth were as the teeth of lions," signifies 
that sensual things, which are the ultimates of the life of the 
natural man, appeared with them to have power over all things : 
v. 9, "And they had breast-plates, as it were breast-plates of 
iron," signifies that argumentations from fallacies, by which 
they fight and prevail, appeared to them so powerful that they 
could not be refuted : " And the sound of their wings was as 
the sound of chariots of many horses running to battle," sig 
nifies their reasonings as if they were from truths of doctrine 
from the Word fully understood, for which they must ardently 
fight : v. 10, " And they had tails like unto scorpions," signi 
fies the truths of the Word falsified, by means of which they 
induce stupor : " And there were stings in their tails, and their 
power was to hurt men five months," signifies subtile falsifica 
tions of the Word, by which for a short time they darken and 
fascinate the understanding, and thus deceive and captivate : 
v. 11, " And they had a king over them, the angel of the 
bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, 
but in the Greek tongue he hath his name Apollyon," signifies 
that they are in the satanic hell who are in falses from concupis 
cences, and by a total falsification of the Word have destroyed 
the church : v. 12, " One woe is past ; behold, there come two 
woes more hereafter," signifies further lamentations over the 
state of the church. 

t ; Y. 13. "And the sixth angel sounded," signifies the explo 
ration and manifestation of their state of life in the reformed 
church who are not so wise, and yet place the all of religion in 
faith, and think of it alone, and live as they like : " And I 
heard a voice from the four horns of the golden altar which is 
before God, saying to the sixth angel who had the trumpet," 
signifies a command from the Lord out of the spiritual heaven 
310 



Chap. IX.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 

to those who were to explore and make manifest: v. 14^ 
" Loose the four angels that are bound at the great river 
Euphrates," signifies that external restraints should be re 
moved from them, that the interiors of their minds might 
appear: v. 15, "And the four angels were loosed," signifies 
that when external restraints were removed, the interiors of 
their minds appeared : " Who were prepared for an hour, and 
a day, and a month, and a year, to slay the third part of men," 
signifies that they were perpetually in the effort to take away 
spiritual light and life from men of the church : v. 16, " And 
the number of the armies of horsemen were two myriads of 
myriads," signifies reasonings concerning faith alone, with 
A hich the interiors of their minds were filled, from the great 
abundance of the mere falses of evil : " And I heard the num 
ber of them," signifies that the quality of them was perceived : 
v. 17, " And thus I saw the horses in the vision, and them that 
sat on them," signifies that it was then discovered that the 
reasonings of the interiors of their minds concerning faith alone 
were imaginary and visionary, and that they themselves were 
infatuated with them : " Having breast-plates of fire, and of 
jacinth, arid of brimstone," signifies their imaginary and vision 
ary argumentations from infernal love and self-derived intelli 
gence, and from the concupiscences thence proceeding : " And 
the heads of the horses were as the heads of lions," signifies 
phantasies concerning faith alone as if it were in power : "And 
out of their mouths issued fire, and smoke, and brimstone," 
signifies that in their thoughts and discourses, viewed interiorly, 
there is nothing, and from them there proceeds nothing, but 
the love of self and of the world, and the pride of self-derived 
intelligence, and the concupiscences of evil and falsity spring 
ing from these two sources : v. 18, " By these three was the 
third part of men killed, by the fire, and by the smoke, and by 
the brimstone, which issued out of their mouths," signifies 
that from these it is that the men of the church perish : v. 19, 
" For their power was in their mouth," signifies that they only 
prevail by their discourse in confirmation of faith ; " For their 
tails were like unto serpents, and had heads, and with them 
they do hurt," signifies the reason, because they are in a sen 
sual and inverted state, speaking truths with their lips, but 
falsifying them by the principle which constitutes the head of 
their religion, and thus they deceive : v. 20, " And the rest of 
the men who were not killed by these plagues," signifies those 
in the reformed church who are not so spiritually dead from 
visionary reasonings, and from self-love, and from the pride of 
self-derived intelligence, and from the concupiscences thence 
proceeding, as those before mentioned, and yet make faith 
alone the head of their religion : " Yet repented not of the 
works of their hands," signifies that neither did they shun tha 
311 



i!9 421 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. IX. 

things that are proper to themselves, which are evils of every 
kind, as sins : " That they should not worship demons," signi 
fies that thus they are in the evils of their concupiscences, and 
make one with their like in hell: "Anl idols of gold, and 
silver, and brass, and stone, and of wood," signifies that thus 
they are in worship grounded in mere falses : u Which neither 
can see, nor hear, nor walk," signifies, in which there is nothing 
of spiritual and truly rational life: v. 21, "Neither repented 
fchey of their murders, nor of their sorceries, nor of their fornica 
tion, nor of their thefts," signifies that the heresy of faith alone 
induces on their hearts stupidity, tergiversation, and hardness, 
so that they do not think any thing of the precepts of the deca 
logue, nor indeed of any sin that it ought to be shunned because 
it is in favour of the devil and against God. 



THE EXPLANATION. 

419. And the fifth angel sounded, signifies the exploration 
and manifestation of the states of life of those in the reformed 
church, who are called learned and wise from their confirmation 
of faith separated from charity, and of justification and salvation 
by it alone. That these are treated of in what now follows as 
far as verse 13, is evident from the particulars, understood in a 
spiritual sense. That by sounding is signified to explore and 
make manifest the state of the church, and thence the state of 
life with those whose religion consists in faith alone, may be 
seen above, n. 397. 

420. And I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earthy 
signifies divine truth spiritual flowing from heaven into the 
church as existing with such persons, and effecting exploration 
and manifestation. By a star is here signified divine truth 
spiritual, because it fell from the spiritual heaven, concerning 
which, above, n. 387, 388 ; and by the earth is here signified the 
church with those who are in its internals, as above, n. 398. 
By divine truth spiritual is meant intelligence derived from 
spiritual love, which is love towards the neighbour ; and as that 
intelligence at this day is called faith, and that love, charity, it 
is faith derived from charity, or rather it is the truth of faith 
derived from the good of charity, which is here signified by a 
star. The same is signified by a star in the singular number, 
Apoc. ii. 28 ; xxii. 16 ; for by stars, in the plural number, are 
signified the knowledges of good and truth, n. 51, and by these 
intelligence is acquired. That it is divine truth exploring and 
manifesting, is evident from what follows. 

421. And to him was given the key jf the bottomless pit^ sig- 
312 



T. 1.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 421 

nifies the opening of their hell. By a key is signified the power 
of opening, and also the act of opening, n. 62, 174, 840. And 
by the bottomless pit is signified the hell where they are who 
have confirmed themselves in justification and salvation by faith 
alone, who are all of the reformed church : but in the present 
case, they who in their own eyes, and thence in the eyes of 
many others, appear as learned and erudite, when yet in the 
sight of the angels in heaven they appear destitute of under 
standing as to those things which pertain to heaven and the 
church ; because they who confirm that faith even to its inte 
riors, close the superior degrees of their understanding, till at 
length they are unable to see any spiritual truth in light ; the 
reason is, because the confirmation of falsity is the negation of 
truth ; therefore when they hear any spiritual truth, which is a 
truth of the Word serviceable to those who are of the church 
for doctrine and life, they keep their minds fixed in the falses 
which they have confirmed, and then they either veil over the 
truth they have heard with falses, or reject them as a mere 
sound, or yawn at it and avert themselves ; and this in the 
degree in which they are in the pride of their own erudition ; 
for pride glues falses together, so that at last they cohere like- 
the concretions formed from the foam of the sea ; therefore the 
Word is hid from them as a book sealed with seven seals. 
What their quality is, and what their hell, shall also be described, 
because it has been permitted me to see it, and to discourse 
with those who are therein, and also to see the locusts that 
came out of it. " That pit, which is like the aperture of a fur 
nace, appears in the southern quarter, and the abyss beneath is 
of large extent towards the east ; there is light in it, but if light 
from heaven be admitted into it, it becomes darkness, wherefore 
the pit is closed above. Huts, arched as it were with brick, 
appear therein, divided into various little cells, in each of which 
there is a table, with paper and books lying upon it. Every 
one sits at his own table, who in the w r orld had confirmed justi 
fication and salvation by faith alone, making charity an act 
merely natural-moral, and its works only works of civil life, 
whereby men may attain reward in the world ; but if they are 
done for the sake of salvation, they condemn them, and this 
severely, because human reason and will are in them. All who 
are in this abyss have been learned and erudite in the world ; 
and among them there are some metaphysicians and scholastics, 
who are esteemed there above the rest. When it was granted 
me to enter into discourse with them, I recognised some of 
them : but this is their lot on their first admission ; they sit in 
the foremost cells ; but as they confirm faith by excluding 
works of charity, they leave their first habitations, and enter 
into cells nearer to the east, and so on successively till towards 
the end, where those are who confirm these tenets from the 
313 



422, 423 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. ix. 

Word ; and as they then cannot but falsify the Word, their huts 
disappear, and they see themselves in a desert, whereupon 
what is described above, n. 153, happens to them. There is 
also an abyss beneath the one just mentioned, where they are 
who in like manner have confirmed justification and salvation 
by faith alone, but who by themselves in their spirit have de 
nied God, and in their hearts have laughed at tlie holy things 
of the church ; here they do nothing but quarrel, tear their gar 
ments, climb upon the tables, and kick and abuse one another ; 
and because no one is there permitted to do mischief to the 
body of another, they menace with their faces and fists. Filthi- 
ness and impurity here prevail ; but these are not treated of in 
this place." 

422. And he opened the bottomless pit, and there arose a 
smoke out of the pit as the smoke of a great furnace, signifies 
the falses of the concupiscences of the natural man springing 
forth from their evil loves. By the bottomless pit, is signified 
the hell above described, n. 4:21 ; by the smoke from thence, 
are signified the falses from concupiscences ; and because the 
smoke as of a great furnace is mentioned, the falses of concu 
piscences springing forth from evil loves are understood, for 
nre signifies love, n. 468 ; and the fire of hell, evil love, n. 490. 
A great furnace has a like signification, because it smokes from 
fire. Infernal spirits are not in any material fire, but in spiritual 
fire, which is their love ; therefore they do not feel any other 
fire ; on which subject see the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 
134, 566 575. All love, in the spiritual world, when it is ex 
cited, appears at a distance as fire, within the hells, as red-hot 
fire, and without, as the smoke of a fire, or as the smoke of a 
furnace. The falses of the concupiscences springing forth from 
evil loves, are also described as smoke from a fire and from a 
furnace, in other parts of the Word, as in these passages : Abra 
ham " looked towards Sodom and Gomorrah, and beheld, and 
lo, the smoke of the country went up as the smoke of a furnace," 
Gen. xix. 28. " The sun went down, and it was dark, and be 
hold, a smoking furnace, and a burning lamp, that passed be 
tween those pieces," Gen. xv. 17. " And now, they sin, more 
and more, therefore they shall be as the si wke out of the chim 
ney," Hosea xiii. 2, 3. " But the wicked shall perish, into 
tmoke shall they consume away," Psalm xxxvii. 20. " And I 
will show wonders in the heavens, and in the earth, blood, and 
fire, and pillars of smoke," Joel ii. 30. " And shall cast them 
into & furnace of fire, there shall be wailing and gnashing of 
teeth," Matt. xiii. 41, 42, 49, 51 ; and in other places. 

423. And the sun and the air were darkened, by reason of the 
smoke of the pit, signifies that thereby the light of truth was 
turned into thick darkness. By the sun and the air is here sig 
nified the light of truth, for by the sun is signified love, and }>y 

314 



V. 2, 3J THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 421 

the light proceeding from it, divine truth ; wherefore when it is 
said that when the sun is darkened, and at the same time the 
air, it signifies that divine truth had become thick darkness : 
that this was from the falses of concupiscences, is signified by 
its being effected by the smoke of the pit. 

424. A.nd there came out of the smoke locusts upon the earth, 
signifies that from them were derived falses to the extreme or 
lowest degrees, such as prevail with those who have become 
sensual, and see and judge of all things from their senses and 
from the fallacies thereof. They are called falses in the extreme 
or lowest degrees, which occupy the extreme or lowest prin 
ciples of man s life, and are termed sensual, concerning which 
we shall speak presently ; these are signified by locusts, in the 
Word : but it is to be observed, that they did not appear like 
the locusts of the field, which leap about and lay waste meadows 
and corn fields, but like pigmies or little men, which is evident 
also from their description, in that they had crowns on their 
heads, and faces like men, hair like women, teeth like lions, 
breast-plates of iron, and a king over them, the angel of the 
bottomless pit. That little men were also called locusts by the 
ancients, may be concluded from this passage : The spies who 
were sent to search the land of Canaan, said, " And there we 
saw the giants, the sons of Anak, and we were in their eyes as 
locusts" jSTumb. xiii. 33. "It is Jehovah that sitteth upon the 
circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof are as locusts" 
Isaiah xl. 22. But as falses in extremes or lowest principles, 
such as prevail among them, are signified by locusts in the 
Word, therefore they are called locusts, as also crowned and 
commanders, in Nahum : " There shall the fire devour thee, it 
shall eat thee up like the canker-worm ; make thyself many as 
the canker-worm, make thyself many as the locusts / thy 
crowned are as the locusts, and thy captains as the locust of 
locusts" iii. 15 17. It is in consequence of falses in extreme 
or lowest principles consuming the truths and goods of the 
church, as they spring up in man, that they are signified by 
locusts, which consume the grass and herb of the field, as may 
be evident from these passages : " Thou shalt carry much seed 
out into the field, for the locust shall consume it," JDeut. xxviii. 
38. " That which the palmer- worm hath left hath the locust 
eaten, and that which the locust hath left hath the canker-worm 
eaten, and that which the canker-worm hath left hath the cater 
pillar eaten," Joel i. 4, 5. " And I will restore to you the years 
that the locust hath eaten, the canker-worm, the caterpillar , and 
the palmer-worm have eaten," Joel ii. 24, 25. The same is 
signified by the locusts in Egypt, concerning which it is thus 
written in Moses : " And Moses stretched forth his rod over the 
land of Egypt, and the east wind brought the locusts. And the 
locusts wQi\t up over all the land of Egypt ; before them there 
315 



24 THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. [Chap, ix. 

were no such locusts, and they did eat every herb of the land :" 
and afterwards, " Moses stretched forth his rod, and the locusts 
were cast into the Red Sea," Exod. x. 13, and subsequent verses; 
and in David : lie gave their produce to the caterpillar, and 
their labour to the locust, Psalm cv. 34, 35. By the miracles 
in Egypt is described the vastation of the church ; and by this 
miracle, vastation by falses in extreme or lowest principles ; 
and the extreme or lowest principles of man s life, when the 
interiors on which they depend are closed, are infernal ; for this 
reason it is that it is said the locusts were cast into the Red Sea, 
by which is signified hell. 

As few at this day know what is meant by the sensual prin 
ciple, and what the quality of the sensual man is ; and as locusts 
signify such, the following extracts are therefore adduced con 
cerning it from the Arcana Ccelestia. "That the sensual prin 
ciple is the ultimate of the life of man s mind, adhering and 
cohering to his five bodily senses, n. 5077, 5767, 9121, 9216, 
9331, 9730. That he is called a sensual man who judges of all 
things by his bodily senses, and who believes nothing but what 
he can see with his eyes, and touch with his hands ; saying that 
these are something, and rejecting the rest, n. 5094, 7693. 
That the interiors of his mind, which see from the light of hea 
ven, are closed, so that he sees nothing of truth there, which is 
of heaven and the church, n. 6564, 6844, 6845. That such a 
man thinks in extreme or lowest principles, and not interiorly 
from any spiritual light, n. 5089, 5094, 5564, 7693. In short, 
that they are in a dense natural light, n. 6201, 6310, 6464, 6844, 
6845, 6612, 6614, 6622, 6524. That thence interiorly they are 
against the things which are of heaven and the church, but that 
exteriorly they can speak in favour of them, and ardently, accord 
ing to the dominion they exercise by means of them, n. 6201, 
6316, 6844, 6845, 6948, 6949. That the learned and erudite, 
who have confirmed themselves deeply in falses, and still more 
they who have confirmed themselves against the truths of the 
Word, are sensual above all others, n. 6316. That sensual men 
reason acutely and subtilly, because their thought is so near 
their speech that it is almost in it, and as it were in their lips, 
and because they place all intelligence in speech from memory 
only ; also that some of them can dextrously confirm falses, and 
that after confirmation they believe them to be truths, n. 195, 
196, 5700, 10236. But that they reason and confirm things 
from the fallacies of the senses, by which the vulgar are capti 
vated and persuaded, n. 5084, 6948, 6949, 7693. That sensual 
men are more cunning and malicious than others, n. 7693, 
10236. That the avaricious, adulterous, and the voluptuous 
and deceitful, are especially sensual, although in the eyes of the 
world they do not appear so, n. 6310. that the interiors of 
their minds are filthy and unclean, n. 6201. That by theso 
316 



V. 3.] THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. 424 

they communicate with the hells, n. 6311. That they who are 
in the hells are sensual, and the more so in proportion to the 
depths to which they have fallen, n. 4623, 6311. That the 
sphere of infernal spirits conjoins itself with the sensual princi 
ple of man from behind, n. 6312. That they who have reasoned 
from sensual things only, and thence against the genuine truths 
of the church, were called by the ancients, serpents of the tree 
of knowledge, n. 195, 196, 197, 6398, 6399, 10313. Moreover 
the sensual principle or faculty of man, and the sensual man, 
are described, n. 10236 : and the extension of thing: sensual in 
man, n. 9731. That sensual things ought to be in the last place, 
and not in the first, and that in a wise and intelligen* man they 
are in the last place, and subject to the interiors ; but +hat in a 
foolish man, they are in the first place, and govern ; these are 
they who are properly called sensual, n. 5077, 5125, 5128, 7645. 
If sensual things are in the last place, a way is opened by them 
to the understanding, and truths are corrected by a mode of ex 
traction, n. 5580. That those sensual things are in close con 
tact with the world, and admit the things which flow from the 
world, and, as it were, sift them, n. 9726. That man by means 
of those sensual things, communicates with the world, and, by 
means of rational things, with heaven, n. 4009. That sensual 
things supply such as are subservient to the interiors of the 
mind, n. 5077, 5081. That there are sensual things which 
minister to the intellectual part ; and such as minister to the 
voluntary part, n. 5077. That unless the thought be elevated 
above sensual things, man enjoys but little wisdom, n. 5089. 
That a wise man thinks about sensual things, n. 5089, 5094. 
That man, when his thought is elevated above sensual things, 
comes into a clearer light, and, at length, into heavenly light, 
n. 6183, 6313, 6315, 9407, 9730, 9922. That elevation above 
sensual things, and abstraction from them, was known to the 
ancients, n. 6313. That man, by his spirit, might perceive the 
things which are done in the spiritual world, if he could be with 
drawn from sensual things, and be elevated into the light of 
heaven by the Lord, n. 4622. The reason is, because the body 
does not think, but the spirit of man in the body ; and in pro 
portion as it thinks in the body, in the same proportion it thinks 
obscurely and in darkness ; and in proportion as it does not 
think in the body, in the same proportion it thinks clearly and 
in the light ; but in spiritual things, n. 4622, 6614, 6622. That 
the sensual scientific principle is the ultimate of the understand 
ing, and the sensual delight, the ultimate of the will, n. 9996. 
What the difference is between the sensual things common to 
beasts, and the sensual things not common to them, n. 10236. 
That there are sensual men not wicked, by reason that their inte 
riors are not closed correspondently, concerning whose state in 
another life, see n. 6311." 
317 



25, 426 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. ix. 

425. A.nd unto them was given power, as the scorpions of the 
earth have power, signifies the power of persuading that their 
falses are truths. By a scorpion is signified deadly persuasion ; 
and, by a scorpion of the earth, persuasion in things relating to 
the church ; the earth signifying the church, n. 285 ; for a 
scorpion, when he stings a man, induces a stupor upon the 
limbs, which, if it be not cured, is followed by death ; their 
persuasion produces a corresponding effect upon the under 
standing. Such is also the signification of scorpion in these 
passages : " And thou, son of man, be not afraid of them, nei 
ther be afraid of their words, though briers and thorns be with 
thee, and thou dost dwell among scorpions, nor be dismayed 
at their looks, though they be a rebellious house," Ezek. ii. 6. 
Jesus said unto the seventy whom he sent forth, "Behold, I give 
unto you power to tread on serpents and scorpions, and on all 
the power of the enemy ; and nothing shall by any means hurt 
you," Luke x. 10. 

426. And it was commanded them that they should not hurt 
the grass of the earth, neither any green thing, neither any tree ; 
but only those men who had not the seal of God in their fore 
heads, signifies the divine providence of the Lord, that they 
should not be able to take away any truth and good of faith, 
nor any affection and perception of them, from any others than 
such as are not in charity and thence not in faith. By its being 
commanded them, is signified the Lord s divine providence, be 
cause it w T as commanded from heaven ; by not hurting the grass 
of the earth nor any green thing, is signified not to be able to 
take away any truth and good of faith ; for by grass is signified 
the truth of faith, which is what first springs up in man, n. 401 ; 
and, by green thing, is signified the living principle of faith, 
which is derived from good, n. 401 ; by not hurting any tree, 
is signified not to be able to take away the affection and per 
ception of truth and good ; for by a tree is signified man as to 
these qualities, n. 400 ; by those men who had not the seal of 
God in their foreheads, are signified they who are not in charity, 
and thence in faith ; for the forehead signifies love and charity, 
n. 347 ; and to have the seal, signifies to know and distinguish 
them from others, n. 345. The reason why they who have con 
firmed faith alone, to the very arcana of justification and salva 
tion by it, cannot take away any truth and good of faith, nor 
the affection and perception of them, from any but those who 
are not in the faith of charity, is, because they are scarcely com 
prehended by any one but the priest who teaches and preaches 
them. The layman hears them, but they enter in at one ear 
and go out at the other ; which the priest himself, who utters 
those arcana, may know of a certainty from this circumstance, 
that he himself spent the whole force of his genius in acquiring 
a knowledge of them in his youth, and afterwards in retaining 

318 



V. 4, 5.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 4:27, 428 

them in adult age, likewise from his considering himself as a 
man of extraordinary learning : what then must be the case 
with a layman, who simply thinks of faith from charity, when 
he hears these mysteries ? From what has been said, it may be 
seen that faith alone, as being competent to justification, is the 
faith of the clergy, and not of the laity, save such of them as 
live unconcernedly, who imbibe no more from their arcana than 
that faith alone saves ; that they cannot do good from them 
selves, nor fulfil the law ; and that Christ suffered for them ; 
besides some other universals of a similar nature. 

427. And to them it was given that they should not kill them, 
but that they should be tormented five months, signifies that 
from the divine providence of the Lord, they are not able to 
take away from those, who are not in the faith of charity, the 
faculty of understanding and willing what is true and good, but 
that they should only be able to induce stupor for a short time. 
By its being given them, is signified that it is so ordered from 
the divine providence of the Lord, as above ; not to have power 
to kill them, signifies not to be able to take away from those 
who are not in the faith of charity, the faculty of understanding 
and willing what is true and good, for when this faculty is taken 
away, man is spiritually killed ; by tormenting them five months, 
is signified to induce stupor for a short time ; five signifies a 
little, or a short time, and to torment, signifies to induce stupor, 
because this is what is signified by a scorpion, n. 425 ; and by 
the torment, as it were, of a scorpion, is signified as follows, n. 
428. That the faculty of understanding truth and of willing it, 
or rationality and liberty, cannot be taken away from man, is 
amply shown in the Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Pro 
vidence, n. 73, 74, 8286, 9298, 138149, 322. That five 
months signify a little, and a short time, is owing to the signi 
fication of five, as denoting a little ; for times, whether they be 
hours, days, weeks, or months, or years, do not signify time, 
but state ; and numbers determine its quality, n. 4, 10, 348, 947. 
That five signifies something, and also a little, may appear from 
these places : A thousand shall flee at the rebuke afjtve, Isaiah 
xxx. 17. " And five of you shall chase a hundred," Levit. xxvi. 
8. Jesus said, " The kingdom of heaven is like unto ten vir 
gins, of which five w r ere wise and Jive were foolish," Matt. xxv. 
1, 2. By ten virgins are signified all in the church; by five 
are signified a certain part or some of them. The like is signi 
fied by ten and five in the parable where there were given unto 
the servants talents that they should trade, and one with his 
talent gained ten talents, and another, five, Luke xix. 13 20. 
Ten talents signify much, and five talents, a little ; not to men 
tion other passages ; as in Isaiah xvii. 6 ; xix. 18, 19 ; Matt. 
xiv. 1522. 

428. And their torment was as the torment of a scorpion 
319 



429, 430 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. IX. 

when he striketli a man, signifies that this is from their power 
of persuasion. This follows from what was said, n. 427 ; for by 
torment is signified. the stupor, which their persuasion induces 
upon the understanding, as the scorpion does upon the body 
when he stings it ; a scorpion signifies that faculty of persua 
sion, n. 425. In the spiritual word there exists a power of 
persuasion which takes away the understanding of truth, and 
induces stupor, and thus distress, upon the mind ; but this power 
of persuasion is unknown in the natural world. 

429. And in those dags shall men seek death, and shall noi 
find it / and shall desire to die, and death shall flee from them, 
signifies that it is the desire of those who are in the doctrine of 
faith separated, that in matters of faith the understanding should 
be shut up and the will closed, and thus that they should not 
have any spiritual light and life ; but that it is nevertheless 
provided by the Lord that the understanding should not be shut 
up, nor the will closed, lest spiritual light and life in man should 
be extinguished. In those days, signifies the last state of the 
church, when the doctrine of faith alone is universally received ; 
men shall seek death, signifies that they will desire that, in mat 
ters of faith, the understanding should be shut up ; and shall 
not find it, signifies that it is provided of the Lord, that this 
should not be done : and shall desire to die, signifies that they 
will also wish to have the will closed in them ; and death shall 
flee from them, signifies that it is provided that neither should 
take place ; for thus spiritual light and life would be extin 
guished, and man would spiritually die ; to seek, is predicated 
of the understanding; and to desire, of the will; and death, of 
both. That this is the signification of these words, is evident ; 
otherwise, what meaning could there be in men s seeking death 
in those days and not finding it, and desiring to die and death 
fleeing from them ? for by death, no other death is meant but 
spiritual death, which is induced when the understanding is 
removed from the things that are to be believed ; for in this 
case man knows not whether he thinks and does what is true, 
or what is false, thus whether he thinks and acts with the angels 
of heaven, or with the devils of hell. 

430. And the shapes of the locusts, signifies the form and 
appearances of those who have confirmed in themselves faith 
separated from charity. By shapes, is signified their appear 
ances in a representative image ; by locusts, are signified falses 
in extreme or lowest principles, n. 424 ; and as falses make one 
with those who are in falses, they also are signified by locusts. 
That they who have confirmed themselves in faith alone, or that 
the falses in which they are principled, are meant by locusts, 
appeared evident to me from this circumstance, that the pres 
byters who were in that faith, embraced the locusts that were 
seen, and kissed them, and were desirous of introducing them 

320 



V. 5 8.] THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. 431 4:34 

into their houses ; for the images, which are forms representative 
of the affections and thoughts of angels and spirits in the spir 
itual world, appear as if they were alive, in like manner as the 
animals, birds, and fishes, mentioned above . 

431. Were like unto horses prepared unto battle, signifies 
that because they can reason, they appear to themselves to com 
bat from the understanding of truth from the Word. By a 
horse, is signified the understanding of the Word, n. 298 ; by 
war, is signified spiritual war, which consists in reasonings 
and argumentations, n. 500, 586 ; by like, or similitudes, are 
signified appearances, as above, n. 430. 

432. And on their heads were, as it were crowns like gold, 
signifies that they appeared to themselves as conquerors. By 
crowns on their heads like gold, are signified tokens of victory, 
because formerly kings wore crowns of gold in battle, n. 300 ; 
for it is said that they were seen like horses, that is, on horses 
prepared for war, n. 431, for they had the faces of men, as 
follows ; and they are in the persuasion that they are invincible. 

433. And their faces were as the faces of men, signifies that 
they appeared to themselves to be wise. By man, in the Word, 
is signified to be wise and intelligent, n. 243 ; and by his face, 
wisdom and intelligence; hence it is, that by their faces being 
as the faces of men, is signified that they appeared to them 
selves to be wise. They are also called wise, learned, and erudite, 
although they are among the foolish virgins, w r ho had no oil in 
their lamps, Matt. xxv. 1, 2. Oil signifies love and charity ; 
and among the foolish means among those who hear the Lord, 
that is, read the Word, and do not do it, Matt. vii. 26. 

434. And they had hair as the hair of women, signifies th^at 
they appeared to themselves to be in the affection of truth. f>y 
man, in the Word, is signified the understanding of truth; and 
by woman, the affection of truth, because man by birth is under 
standing, and woman, affection ; on which subject, see The 
Treatise concerning Conjugial Love. By hair, in the Word, is 
(signified the ultimate of man s life, which is the sensual principle, 
see n.424; this is what gives them the appearance of being in 
the affection of truth, when yet they are in the affection of falsity ; 
for this they believe to be truth. That a woman signifies the 
affection of truth, may appear from many passages in the Word ; 
hence it is, that the church is called a wife, a woman, a daughter, 
and a virgin, the church being a church by virtue of the love 
or affection of truth ; for from this comes the understanding of 
truth. The church is called a woman in these passages : " There 
were two women of one mother, and they committed whoredoms 
in Egypt, Ahola which is Samaria, and Aholiba which is 
Jerusalem," Ezek. xxiii. 2 4. " Jehovah hath called thee as a 
woman forsaken and grieved in spirit, and a wife of youth" 
Isaiah liv. 6, 7. " Jehovah hath created a new thing in the 

321 



435 THE APOCALYPSE KEYEALED. [Chap. IX. 

earth, a woman shall compass a man," Jerem. xxxi. 21, 22. 
By the woman clothed with the snn, whom the dragon per 
secuted, Apoc. xii., is signified the New Church, which is the 
New Jerusalem. By women are signified the affections of 
truth, by virtue of which the church is a church, in many pas- 
sageSj as in the following: "The women of my people have ye 
cast out of their pleasant houses," Micah ii. 9. The families 
of houses shall mourn apart, and the women apart, Zech. xii. 12, 
13. " Rise up, ye women that are at ease, give ear unto my 
speech," Isaiah xxxii. 9. " Wherefore commit ye this great 
evil to cut off from you man and woman f" Jerem. xliv. 7. " I 
will break in pieces man and woman" Jerem. li. 22. By man 
and woman, here and elsewhere, is signified, in a spiritual sense, 
the understanding of truth, and the affection of truth. 

435. And their teeth -were as the teeth of lions, signifies that 
sensual things, which are the ultimates of the life of the natural 
man, appeared with them to have power over all things. Teeth 
signify the ultimates of the life of the natural man, which are 
called sensual things ; concerning which, see above, n. 424. 
Sensual things are of two kinds, one kind having relation to the 
will, and the other to the understanding; the sensual things of 
the will are signified by the hair of women, of which above, n. 
434 ; and the sensual things of the understanding are signified 
by teeth ; the latter, or what is the same, sensual men who are 
in falses from confirmation, seem to themselves to be in power 
over all things, so as to be altogether invincible; wherefore the 
teeth of the locusts, by w r hich such sensual things are signified, 
were as the teeth of lions, for by a lion is signified power, n. 241. 
That teeth signify the ultimates of man s life, which are called 
sensual things, and which, when separated from the interiors of 
the mind, are in mere falses, and do violence to truths even to 
destroying them, may appear from the following passages : " My 
soul is among lions, whose teeth are spears and arrows," Psalm 
Ivii. 4. " Break their teeth, O God, in their mouth, break out 
the great teeth of the young lions," Psalm Iviii. 6. " For a 
nation is come up upon my land, strong, whose teeth are the 
teeth of a lion, and he hath the cheek-teeth of a great lion," Joel 
i. 6. " Jehovah hath broken the teeth of the ungodly," Psalm 
iii. 7. There came up out of the sea a beast dreadful and ter 
rible, and exceedingly strong, w r hich had great iron teeth, it 
devoured and brake in pieces, Dan. vii. 7. " Blessed be Jeho 
vah, w T ho hath not given us a prey to their teeth," Psalm cxxiv. 
6. Since sensual men do not see any truth in its own light, 
but ratiocinate and dispute about every thing, by questioning its 
identity ; and since these disputes in the hells are heard without 
as the gnashing of teeth, being in themselves the collisions ot 
falsity and truth, it is evident what is signified by the gnashing 
of teeth, Matt. viii. 12; xiii. 42, 50; xxii. 13; xxiv. 51; xxv. 
322 



V. 8, 9 J THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 436, 437 

30 ; Luke xiii. 28; and partly what by gnashing with the teeth^ 
I sal in iii. 7; Psalm xxxv. 15, 16; Psalm xxxvii. 12; Psalm 
cxii. 10; Micah iii. 5 ; Lament, ii. 16. 

43o. And they had breast-plates, as it were breast-plates of 
ii on, signifies argumentations from fallacies, by which they 
fight and prevail, which appeared to them so powerful that they 
could not be refuted. By breast-plates are signified defences, 
because they protect the breast; here, defences of falsities, 
which are effected by argumentations grounded in fallacies, by 
which a false principle is defended ; for from a false principle 
nothing but falses can flow : if truths are advanced, they are 
only viewed outwardly or superficially, thus also sensually, and 
are consequently falsified, and, with such persons, become fal 
lacies. The reason why breast-plates have this signification, 
is, because wars, in the Word, signify spiritual wars, and 
thence the implements of war signify the various things relat 
ing to such wars ; as in Jeremiah : " Harness the horses ; and 
get up, ye horsemen, and stand forth with your helmets ; fur- 
l>Ish the spears, and put on the brigandines" xlvi. 4. In Isaiah: 
" For he put on righteousness as a breast-plate, and an helmet 
of salvation upon his head," lix. 17. In David: "Under his 
wings shalt thou trust, his truth shall be thy shield and 
"buckler" Psalm xci. 4 ; besides other places ; as in Ezekiel 
xxiii. 24; xxxviii. 4; xxxix. 9; 1 Nahum ii. 4; Psalm v. 12; 
Psalm xxxv. 2, 3. Their breast-plates being as it were of iron, 
signifies that their argumentations seemed to them so strong 
that they could not be refuted ; for iron, from its hardness, sig 
nifies what is strong. 

437. And the sound of their wings was as the sound of cha 
riots of many horses running to battle* signifies their reasonings 
as if they were from truths of doctrine from the Word fully 
understood, for which they must ardently fight The sound of 
wings signifies reasonings, because to fly signifies to perceive 
and instruct, n. 245, 4i5 ; chariots signify doctrinals, as will 
be seen presently ; horses signify the understanding of the 
Word, n. 298 ; and many horses, what is plenary : that running 
to battle signifies ardour for contest, is evident. That a chariot 
signifies doctrine, is plain from these passages : " The chariots 
of God are twenty thousand thousands of angels, the Lord is 
among them," Psalm Ixviii. 17. u Jehovah maketh the clouds 
his cJiariot who walketh upon the wings of the wind," Psalm 
civ. 2, 3. " Thou didst ride (O Jehovah) upon thine horses, 
and thy chariots are salvation," Habak. iii. 8. " For behold, 
Jehovah will come with fire, and with his chariots like a whirl 
wind," Isaiah Ixvi. 15. " Thus shall ye be filled at my table 
with horses and chariots / and I will set my glory among the 
heathen," Ezek. xxxix. 20. " And I will cut of? the chariot 
from Ephraim. and the horse from Jerusalem ." Zech. ix. 10 
323 



t38 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. ("Chap, ix 

c< And I will overthrow the throne of kingdoms, and I will 
overthrow the chariots, and those that ride in them," Haggai 
ii. 22. " Go, set a watchman, let him declare what he seeth ; 
and he saw a chariot, with a conple of horsemen, and a chariot 
of camels, and a chariot of men, and he said, Babylon is fallen, 
is fallen," Isaiah xxi. 6 8. And Elijah and Elisha represented 
the Lord as to the Word, and thence signified doctrine from 
the "Word, as did all the prophets, n. 8, therefore they were 
called the chariots of Israel and the horsemen thereof / and for 
the same reason Elijah was seen taken into heaven in a chariot 
of fire, and there were seen by Elisha s young man chariots and 
horses of fire round about him, 2 Kings ii. 11, 12 ; vi. 17; xiii. 
14 ; besides other places where chariots occur ; as in Isaiah 
xxxi. 1 ; xxxvii. 24 ; Ixvi. 20 ; Jerem. xvii. 25 ; xxii. 4 ; xlvi. 
2, 3, 8, 9 ; 1. 37, 38 ; Ii. 20, 21 ; Ezek. xxvi. 7, 8, 10, 11 ; Dan. 
xi. 40 ; Nahuin iii. 1 3; Joel ii. 1, 2, 5. 

438. And they had tails like unto scorpions, signifies the 
truths of the Word falsified, by means of which they induce 
stupor. By the tail is signified the ultimate of the head, be 
cause the brain is continued through the back-bone to the tail, 
therefore the head and tail make one, as the first and last; 
when, therefore, by the head, faith alone justifying and saving 
is signified, by the tail is signified the sum of all the confirma 
tion s thereof, which are from the Word, thus which are the 
truths of the Word falsified. Every one, who from his own in 
telligence assumes a principle of religion, and establishes it as 
the head, also assumes confirmations from the Word, and makes 
them the tail, thus induces a stupor upon others, and so hurts 
them ; therefore it is said, that " they had tails like unto scor 
pions ;" and presently after, " that there were stings in their 
tails, and that their power was to hurt men ;" for by a scorpion 
is signified the power of persuasion inducing stupor upon the 
understanding, n. 425. That the tail is a continuation of the 
brain through the back-bone to its termination, any anatomist 
will tell you ; or merely observe a dog or any other animal with 
a tail, and encourage and coax him, and you will see that the 
ridge of his back will become smooth, and his tail move cor- 
respondently ; but that, on the contrary, he will set his back 
up if you provoke him. The primary tenet of the understand 
ing, which is assumed as a principle is signified by the head, 
and the ultimate thereof by the tail, in these passages also : 
" Therefore Jehovah will cut off from Israel head and tail, the 
ancient and the honourable, he is the head, and the prophet 
that teacheth lies, he is the tail," Isaiah ix. 14, 15. Egypt 
shall not have any work to make head and tail, Isaiah xix. 15. 
By the seven heads of the dragon, and by his tail, with which 
he drew a third part of the stars of heaven, and cast them to 
the earth, Apoc. xii. 4 ; as also by the tails like serpents, hav 
324 



V. 9 11.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 4 39 

ing heads with which they do hurt, verse 19 of this chapter, 
nothing else is signilied. Inasmuch as by the tail is signified 
the ultimate, and the ultimate being the complex or aggregate 
of all. therefore Jehovah said to Moses, Take the serpent by 
the tail; and he took it, and it became a rod, Exod. iv. 3, 4; 
and therefore it was commanded, that they should take off the 
tail entire near the back-bone, and sacrifice it together with the 
fat that was upon the entrails, kidneys, intestines, and liver, 
Levit, iii. 911; viii. 25; ix. 19; Exod. xxix. 22. That the 
ultimate is the continent and complex, or that which contains 
and comprehends all prior things, may be seen in The Doctrine 
of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture, n. 38, 
65 ; and in The Wisdom of A.ngels concerning the Divine Love 
and the Divine Wisdom, n. 209216, n. 217222. 

439. And there were stings in their tails : and their power 
was to hurt men Jive months, signifies subtle falsifications of 
the Word, by which, for a short time, they darken and fasci 
nate the understanding, and thus deceive and captivate. By 
stings rn. their tails are signified subtle falsifications of the 
Word ; by stings, subtilty ; and by tails, the truths of the 
Word falsified, n. 438. By their power to hurt, is signified 
that by means of these they can induce stupor, that is, they 
can darken and fascinate the understanding, and thus deceive 
and captivate; for their tails were like scorpions, and by scor 
pions such things are signified, n. 425. By five months, is sig 
nified for a short time, as above, n. 427 : this takes place when 
they quote and apply any thing from the Word ; for the Word 
is written according to correspondences, and correspondences 
are in part appearances of truth, containing within them genu 
ine truths. If these truths are not known in the church, many 
things may be taken from the Word, which at first appear in 
accordance with heresy ; but when genuine truths are known in 
the church, then the appearances of truth are rendered mani 
fest, and genuine truths come to view. But before this is done, 
a heretic, by various things drawn from the Word, may obscure 
and fascinate the understanding, and thus deceive and capti 
vate. That this is done by those who assert that man s sins are 
remitted, or, in other words, that he is justified by an act of 
faith, concerning which no one knows any thing, and this in a 
moment, and if not before, even at the hour of death, might 
be illustrated by examples, were this the place to do so. By 
stings are signified falses of a hurtful nature derived from evil, 
also in Amos : "Lo, the days shall come upon you, when they 
shall take you away with stings" iv. 2. And in Moses : That 
they should drive out the inhabitants of the land, lest they 
should be thorns in their eyes, and stings in their sides, Xumb 
xxxiii. 55. Thorns, briers, brambles, and thistles, also signify 
falses of evil, on account of their prickles. 
325 



i40 442 THE APOCALYPSE KEVEALED. [Chap. IX. 

440. And they had a king over them, the angel of the bottom* 
less pit ; whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in 
the Greek tongue he hath his name Apollyon, signifies that they 
are in the satanic hell who are in falses derived from concupis 
cences, and, by a total falsification of the Word, have destroyed 
the church. By their king, the angel of the bottomless pit, is 
not signified any angel who is a king there, but the false prin 
ciple reigning therein ; for by a king, in a genuine sense, is 
signified one who is in truths from the affection of good, and, 
abstractedly, that truth itself, n. 20 ; and thence, in the oppo 
site sense, by a king is signified one who is in falses from con 
cupiscence of evil, and, abstractedly, that false itself. By the 
bottomless pit is signified the satanic hell, where they are, n. 
387, 428 ; by name is signified the quality of the state, n. 81, 
122, 165 ; Abaddon, in the Hebrew tongue, signifies a destroy 
ing and a destroyer ; so does Apollyon, in the Greek tongue ; 
and this is the false principle in extreme or lowest principles, 
which, by the total falsification of the Word, has destroyed the 
church. By Abaddon, in the Hebrew text, is signified destruc 
tion or perdition, in these places : " Shall thy faithfulness be 
declared in destruction?" Psalm Ixxxviii. 11. "Hell is naked 
before him, and destruction hath no covering," Job xxvi. 6. 
" For it is a fire that consumeth to destruction" Job xxxi. 12. 
" Destruction and Death say," Job xxviii. 22. In other places, 
hell and the devil are called Destruction or Perdition, anct, 
jfiestroyer, Isaiah liv. 16; Ezek. v. 16; ix. 1; Exod. xii. 13; 
though another term is used, 

441. One woe is past / behold, there come two woes more here 
after, signifies further lamentations over the devastation of 
the church. That woe signifies lamentation over calamity, un- 
happiness, and damnation, see n. 416 ; here, then, by two 
woes to come, are signified further lamentations over the state 
of the church. 

442. And the sixth angel sounded, signifies the exploration 
and manifestation of their state of life in the reformed church 
who are not so wise, and yet place the all of religion in faith, 
and think of it alone and of nothing beyond it, and the custom 
ary worship, and so live as they like. That these are treated 
of to the end of this chapter, will appear from the explanation 
of what follows. That to sound signifies to explore and lay 
open the state of the church, and thence of the life of those 
whose religion consists in faith alone, may be seen above, n. 397. 

" These who are now treated of, are altogether distinct from 
those referred to thus far in this chapter, the falses of whose 
faith were seen in the form of locusts: this is the ground of 
distinction ; the latter, or those already described, are studious 
in exploring the arcana of justification by faith, and also in 
giving the signs of it, arid its testimonies, which, with them, 
326 



r. 11 11.] THE APCCALYISE EEVEALED. 443, 444 

are the goods of moral and civil life ; insisting that the precepts 
of the Word are indeed in themselves divine, but that with man 
they become natural, because they proceed from his will, and 
have no conjunction with his spiritualities of faith ; and because 
they confirm these things by rational considerations, which 
savour of erudition, they dwell in the southern quarter of the 
bottomless pit, according to the description above, n. 421. But 
they who are treated of in what follows to the end of the chap 
ter, do not study those arcana, but only make bare faith the 
all of religion, and nothing besides it and the customary wor 
ship, and so live at their ease. I have been permitted to see 
and converse with these also; they live in the northern quarter, 
in huts that are scattered about, and constructed of reeds and 
rushes plastered over with lime, without any floor but the 

f round. The more ingenious, who, by means of natural light, 
now how to establish that faith by reasonings, and can prove 
that it has nothing at all to do with life, dwell in front, the 
more simple behind them, and the more stupid toward the 
western part of that tract : the multitude of them is so great 
that it is incredible. They are instructed by angelic spirits, but 
they who do not receive the truths of faith, and live according 
to them, are let down into the hell which is under them, and 
confined there." 

443. And I heard a voice from the four horns of the golden 
altar which is before God, saying to the sixth angel which had 
the trumpet, signifies a command from the Lord out of the 
spiritual heaven to those who were to explore and make mani 
fest. By a voice is signified a divine command; by the golden 
altar, or altar of incense, is signified the spiritual heaven, 
u. 277, 392 ; by the four horns of that altar is signified its 
power, n. 270 ; here, the power of loosing the four angels 
bound at the river Euphrates, as follows : by the sixth angel 
who had the trumpet, is signified to those to whom the office 
of exploring and laying open these things was committed, n. 
442. 

444. Loose the four angels that are bound at the great river 
Euphrates, signifies that external restraints should be removed 
from them, that the interiors of their minds might appear. 
That this is the signification of these words, no one can know, 
and scarcely can suspect, unless he knows what is meant by the 
great river Euphrates, and what by the four angels bound there. 
By Euphrates, in the Word, are signified the interiors of man s 
mind, which are called things rational, which, with those who 
are in truths derived fr< m good, are full of wisdom, but in those 
who are in falses derh ed from evil, are full of insanity. The 
reason why these are signified in the Word by the river Euphra 
tes, is, because that river divided the land of Canaan from 
Assyria ; and by the land of Canaan was signified the church ; 

327 



444 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. IX. 

and by Assyria, its rational principle ; and thence by the river 
which bounded it, are signified the interiors of the mind which 
are called things rational, in both senses : for there are three 
things which constitute a man of the church, the spiritual prin 
ciple, the rational or intellectual, and the natural, which is also 
the scientific. The spiritual principle of the church was signi 
fied by the land of Canaan and its rivers ; the rational or intel 
lectual principle of the church, by Ashur or Assyria and its 
river Euphrates ; and the natural, which is also the scientific 
principle of the church, by Egypt and its river Nile : but con 
cerning these more may be seen below, n. 503. By the four 
angels bound at the river Euphrates, are signified those inte 
riors with the men of the church which are said to be bound, 
because they are not openly avowed ; for they are infernal 
spirits, who are meant by these four angels, since it is said of 
them, in what follows, n. 446, that they were prepared to kill 
the third part of men, and the interiors of men make one with 
spirits, either infernal or celestial, because they cohabit: by 
loosing them is signified to remove external restraints, that the 
interiors of their minds may appear. Such is the signification 
of these words. By Euphrates are signified the interiors of 
man s mind bordering upon or bounding the spiritual things of 
his church, as may appear from those places in the Word where 
Ashur or Assyria is mentioned ; but Euphrates occurs in an 
opposite sense, in which it signifies the interiors full of falses 
and thence of insanities, in these passages : " Behold the Lord 
bringeth up upon them the waters of the river, strong and many, 
even the Icing of Assyria. And he shall pass through Judah ; 
he shall overflow, and go over," Isaiah viii. 7, 8. " And now 
what hast thou to do in the way of Egypt, to drink the waters 
of Sihor? or what hast thou to do with the way of Assyria, 
that thou shouldest drink the waters of the river?" Jerem. ii. 
18. " And Jehovah shall utterly destroy the tongue of the 
Egyptian sea ; and shake his hand over the river Euphrates" 
Isaiah xi. 15. " And the sixth angel poured out his vial upon 
the great river Euphrates, and the water thereof was dried up," 
Apoc. xvi. 12. The prophet was commanded to put a girdle 
upon his loins, and to hide it afterwards in a hole of a rock 
beside the Euphrates, and after a short time when he took it, 
behold rl was rotten, nor was it useful for any thing, Jerem. 
xiii. 1 7, 11. And he was also commanded, when he had 
done reading the Book, to cast it into the midst of the Euphra 
tes^ and to say, Thus shall Babylon sink, and not rise again, 
Jerem. li. 63, 64 ; by these things were represented the inte 
riors of the state of the church with the children of Israel. 
That the river of Egypt, the Nile, and the river of Assyria, the 
Euphrates, were the boundaries of the land of Canaan, appears 
from this passage : " Jehovah made a covenant with Abram, 
328 



V 14 16 J THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 445447 

buying, Unto thy seed will I give this land, from the m*er of 
Egypt unto the great river Euphrates," Gen. xv. 18. That tho 
Euphrates was a boundary, may be seen, Exod. xxiii. 31 ; Deut. 
i. 7, 8 ; xi. 24 ; Joshua i. 4 ; Micah vii. 12. 

445. And the four angels were loosed, signifies that when 
external restraints were removed, the interiors of their minds 
appeared. This follows from what was said above. 

446. Who were prepared for an hour, and a day, and a 
month, and a year, to slay the third part of men, signifies that 
they were perpetually in the effort to take away spiritual light 
and life from men of the church. Being prepared signifies to 
be in the endeavour ; by an hour, a day, a month, arid a year, 
is signified continually and perpetually, in like manner as by 
at all times ; to slay signifies to take away spiritual light and 
life from men of the church, n. 325 ; and the third part signi 
fies all, n. 400. 

447. And the number of the armies of horsemen were two 
myriads of myriads, signifies reasonings concerning faith alone, 
with which the interiors of their minds were filled, from the 
great abundance of mere falses of evil. By armies are signi 
fied goods and truths ; and, in the opposite sense, evils and 
falses ; here, the falses of evil, of which below. By horsemen 
are signified reasonings concerning faith alone ; because by a 
horse is signified the understanding of the Word, n. 298 ; and 
also the understanding of the Word destroyed, n. 305, 312, 
321 ; therefore by horsemen are signified reasonings from the 
understanding of the Word destroyed : in the present instance, 
concerning faith alone ; because they who are principled therein 
are treated of. By two myriads of myriads are not meant the 
precise number, but a great abundance; two are mentioned, 
because two are predicated of good, and, in the opposite sense, 
of evil, n. 322 ; and myriads are predicated of truths, and, in 
the opposite sense, of falses, n. 336. Hence it may be seen, 
that by the number of the armies of horsemen, two myriads of 
myriads, are signified reasonings concerning faith alone, with 
which the interiors of their minds were filled, from the great 
abundance of mere falses of evil. That by armies, in the 
Word, are signified the goods and truths of heaven and the 
church, and, in the opposite sense, evils and falses, may appear 
from those places where the sun, moon, and stars, are called 
armies or hosts ; and by the sun is signified the good of love ; 
by the moon, the truth of faith ; and by the stars, knowledges 
of what is good and true ; and the contrary, in the opposite 
sense, n. 51, 53, 332, 413 ; both the former and the latter are 
called armies or hosts, in these passages : " Praise Jehovah all 
ye his hosts, praise ye him sun and moon, praise him all ye stars 
of light," Psalm cxlviii. 2, 3. " My hands have stretched oul 
the heavens, and all their host have I commanded," Isaiah xlv 

329 



448, 4:49 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. ix. 

12. " By the word of Jehovah were the heavens made., and 
all the host of them by the breath of his mouth," Psalm xxxiii 
6. The heavens and the earth were finished, and all the hosi 
of them, Gen. ii. 1. The horn of the goat grew even "to the 
host of heaven, and it cast down some of the host and of the 
stars to the ground, yea, he magnified himself even to the 
prince of the host: and an host was given him against the 
daily sacrifice by reason of transgression, and it cast down the 
truth to the ground : then I heard one saint speaking, How 
long is the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot?" 
Dan. viii. 10 14. " Jehovah shall utter his voice before his 
army" Joel ii. 11. On the house tops they offered incense to 
all the host of heaven, Jerem. xix. 13. Lest thou worship and 
serve the sun, the moon, the stars, and all the host of heaven, 
Deut. iv. 19 ; xvii. 3 ; Jerem. viii. 2 ; in like manner in Isaiah 
xiii. 4 ; xxxiv. 4 ; xl. 26 ; Jerem. xxxiii. 22 ; Zech. ix. 15 ; 
Apoc. xix. 14. Because the host of heaven signifies the goods 
and truths of heaven and the church, therefore the Lord is 
called Jehovah Zebaoth, that is, Jehovah of hosts : and, for the 
same reason, the ministry of the Levites was called military 
service, Numb. iv. 3, 23, 30, 39 ; and it is written in David : 
" Bless Jehovah, all ye his hosts, ye ministers of his that do his 
pleasure," Psalm ciii. 21. Evils and falses in the church are 
signified in Isaiah by the army of the Gentiles, xxxiv . 2 ; and 
by the army of the king of the north, with which he came 
against the king of the south, Dan. xi. 13, 15, 20. The king of 
the north is the false of evil in the church, and the king of the 
south is the truth of good there. It is said by the Lord, " When 
ye shall see Jerusalem compassed with armies, then know that 
the desolation thereof is nigh," Luke xxi. 20. By Jerusalem 
is here signified the church, and by armies the evils and falses 
which would lay it waste ; speaking of the consummation of 
the age, which is the last time of the church. Evils and falses 
are signified by an army, in Joel : " And I will restore to you 
the years that the locust hath eaten, the cankerworm, the 
caterpillar, and the palmer-worm, my great army, which I 
sent among you," ii. 25. That by the locust and the other 
things is signified the false in extreme or lowest principles, see 
above, n. 424. 

448. And I heard the number of them, signifies that the 
quality of them was perceived, which was as follows. To heai 
signifies to perceive ; number signifies the quality and state of 
a thing, n. 10, 348, 364 : it denotes the quality of their state, 
as given below, because it is described in what now follows, 
wherefore it is said, And thus I saw. 

449. And thus I saw the horses in the vision, and them thai 
sat on them, signifies that then it was discovered that the rea- 
Boilings of the interiors of their minds concerning faith alone, 

330 



V. 16, 17.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 44S 

were imaginary and v sionary, and that they themselves were 
infatuated with them. To see signifies to discover their quality; 
by horses are signified the reasonings of the interiors of their 
minds concerning faith alone ; in the present case, imaginary 
and visionary reasonings, because it is said, that he saw them in 
vision. By those that sit on horses are signified such as are 
intelligent from the Word understood, but here, such as are in 
fatuated by imaginary and visionary notions, which are contrary 
to the Word. Because the interiors of their minds appeared 
under such forms as signify imaginary and visionary reasonings 
concerning faith alone, a few of them, which I have heard from 
their own mouths, shall be made public ; thus, for instance : 
" Was not faith alone, after the grievous fall of man, made the 
only medium of salvation ? How can we appear before God 
without that medium ? Is it not the only medium ? Are we 
not born in sins, and is not our nature entirely corrupted by 
the transgression of Adam ? Can there be any other means of 
being healed but by faith alone ? What can our works contri 
bute towards this ? Who can do any good work from himself, 
who can purify, forgive, justify, and save himself? Does there 
not lurk, in every work that man does from himself, merit and 
Belf- righteousness ? And if, haply, we should do any thing that 
was good, could we do all, and fulfil the law ? Besides, if any 
one sins against one commandment, he sins against all, because 
they cohere. Why did the Lord come into the world, and 
suffer so grievously on the cross, but to take away from us 
damnation and the curse of the law, to reconcile God the Fa 
ther, and become merit and righteousness alone, which might 
be imputed to man through faith ? otherwise, what good end 
could be answered by his coming ? Since, then, Christ suffered 
for us, and fulfilled the law for us, and took away its right of 
condemnation, can evil, in this case, any longer condemn, and 
can good save us ? therefore we who have faith, are at full 
liberty to think, will, speak, and do whatever we please, pro 
vided we do no injury to our reputation, honour, and interest, 
nor incur the penalties of the civil law, which would be a dis 
grace and hurt to us." Some, who wander further north, said, 
" That good works, which are done for the sake of salvation, 
are hurtful, pernicious, and cursed ;" among these, also, there 
were some Presbyters. These things are what I heard, but they 
mumbled and muttered many more, which I did not hear. They 
Bpoke, also, indecently with all licentiousness, and were lasci 
vious, both in words and actions, without fear for any wicked 
deed, except out of pretence, for the sake of appearing honest. 
Such are the interiors of the mind, and thence the exteriors of 
the body of those, who place the all of religion in faith alone. 
But all those things, which were uttered by them, fall to the 
ground, if the Lord himself the Saviour is immediately aj> 
331 



4:50 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. IX. 

proaehed, and believed in, and good is done, each for the sake 
of salvation, and by man as from himself, with a belief, how 
ever, that it is from the Lord : unless these things are done as 
by man, neither faith nor charity can be given at all ; nor, con 
sequently, can religion nor salvation. 

450. Having breast-plates of fire, and of jacinth, and of briny- 
stone, signifies their imaginary and visionary argumentations 
from infernal love and sett-derived intelligence, and the concu 
piscences thenee proceeding. By breast-plates are signified 
argumentations, by which they fight for faith alone, n. 436 ; by 
fire is signified celestial love, and in the opposite sense, infernal 
love, n. 452, 465, 495 ; by jacinth is signified intelligence from 
sipiritual love, aud, in the opposite sense, intelligence from in 
fernal love, which is self-derived intelligence, of which below ; 
and by brimstone is signified concupiscences derived from that 
love through self-intelligence, n. 452 : hence it follows, that by 
breast-plates of fire, of jacinth, and of brimstone, such things 
are signified. The reason why their argumentations in favour 
of faith alone are thus described, is, because all they who believe 
themselves justified, that is, absolved from sin, by faith alone, 
never think of repentance ; and an impenitent man is in mere 
sins, and all sins are derived from, and thence partake of the 
nature of infernal love, of self-intelligence, and the concupis 
cences springing from them ; and they who are principled in 
these things, not only act from them, but also speak, yea, think 
and will, and consequently reason and argue from them ; these 
constitute, indeed, the very man, because they are his very life ; 
but then a man devil, and an infernal life. They who live a 
moral life, only for the sake of themselves and the world, do not 
know this; the reason is, because their interiors are infernal, 
whilst their exteriors are similar to the exteriors of those who 
live a Christian life: let them know, however, that every one, 
when he dies, comes into his interiors, because he becomes a spirit, 
this being the internal man ; and then the interiors accommodate 
the exteriors to themselves, and they become alike : wherefore 
the morality of their life in the world then becomes as the scales 
of fishes which are wiped away. The case is quite different with 
those who hold the precepts of moral life to be divine, and then 
those also of a civil nature, by reason of their having relation to 
love towards the neighbour. A jacinth signifies intelligence 
derived from spiritual love, because its colour partakes of the 
redness of fire and the whiteness of light ; and by fire is signi 
fied love ; and by light, intelligence : this intelligence is signi 
fied by blue in the coverings and vails of the tabernacle, Exod. 
xxvi. 31, 36 ; xxvii. 16 ; in Aaron s ephod, Exod. xxviii. 6, 
15 ; by tl e cloth of blue or hyacinth which was placed over the 
ark, the table, the candlestick, and the altar, when they jour 
neyed, Numb. iv. 6, 7, 9, 11, 12 ; by the fringe of blue thread 
332 



V. 17.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 4.l 

on the borders of their garments, Numb. xv. 38, 39 ; and by 
the hyacinthine or blue colour, in Ezekiel xxvii. 7, 24. But 
intelligence derived from the affection of infernal love, is signi 
fied by blue in Ezekiei : Aholah, or Samaria, played the harlot^ 
and doted on her lovers, the neighbouring Assyrians, clothed in 
blue, horsemen riding upon horses, xxiii. 4 -6 : hereby the 
church is described, which, by reasonings from self-derived in 
telligence, had falsified the truths of the Word. And in Jere 
miah : "But they are altogether brutish and foolish : the stock 
is a doctrine of vanities. Silver spread into plates is brought 
from Tarshish, the work of the workmen and of the hands of 
the founder, ~blue and purple is their clothing, they are all the 
work of the wise," x. 8, 9. The work of the workmen and of 
the hands of the founder, and all the work of the wise, signify, 
in this passage, that they were the offspring of self-derived in 
telligence. 

451. And the heads of the horses were as the heads of lions, 
signifies phantasies concerning faith alone, as if it were in power. 
By heads are signified the imaginary and visionary notions 
about faith alone, with those who are here treated of collectively, 
which are called phantasies ; by horses are signified the reason 
ings of the interiors of their minds, which are such, n. 449 ; by 
lions are signified power, n. 241 ; but then it is power from fal 
lacies, inasmuch as they are sensual, and the sensual reason from 
fallacies, by which they persuade and captivate, n. 424. That 
their arguments in favour of faith alone are imaginary and 
visionary, any one may see, who elevates his mind a little. 
What are faith in act and faith in state, as conceived by them, 
but visionary things ? Who is there among them that knows 
any thing concerning faith in act; and what avails faith in state, 
when no good enters from man into faith in act? What is 
remission of sins and consequent momentaneous salvation, but 
a result of visionary thought? That it is the fiery flying serpent 
in the church, see The Wisdom of Angels concerning tKe Divine 
Providence, n. 340. What is the conceit of immunity, merit, 
righteousness, and sanctification by imputation, but a visionary 
thin or? see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the 
Lord, n. 18. What is the Divine Operation in internals, without 
man s co-operation in externals as from himself? For to sepa 
rate the internal from the external so that there can be no con 
junction of them, is merely visionary, see below, n. 606. Such 
a visionary thing is faith separated from charity ; for charity in 
works is the very foundation and continent of faith ; it is its 
ground and soil, also its essence and life ; in a word, faith from 
charity constitutes a man ; but faith, without charity, is a spec 
tre, and a creature of the imagination, like a bubble of water 
floating in the air. But perhaps some may say, If you remove 
the understanding from faith, you will not see visionary things ; 
333 



152, 453 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. iX. 

but be it known, that he who can remove the understanding 
from faith, may obtrude a thousand visionary tilings upon every 
religious tenet, as has been done for ages past by the Roman 
Catholics. 

452. And out of their mouths issued fire, and smoke, and 
brimstone, signifies that in their thoughts and discourses, viewed 
interiorly, there is nothing, and from them there proceeds 
nothing but the love of self and of the world, which is the pro- 
prium or selfhood of the will ; the pride of self-derived intelli 
gence, which is the proprium of the understanding, and the con 
cupiscences of evil and falsity, which is the common proprium 
springing from the two former. Out of their months, means 
out of their thoughts and discourses ; by fire is signified the love 
of self and of the world, which love is the proprium of man s 
will, n. 450, 465, 495 ; by smoke is signified the pride of self- 
derived intelligence, which is the proprium of his understanding, 
proceeding from the love of self and of the world, as smoke does 
from fire, n. 422 ; and by brimstone, is signified the concupis 
cence of evil and falsity, which is the common proprium flow 
ing from the two former. These things, however, do not appear 
from their discourses before men in the world, but manifestly 
before the angels in heaven ; therefore it is said, that when 
viewed interiorly, they are such. Fire signifies infernal love, 
and brimstone, the concupiscences flowing from that love through 
the pride of self-derived intelligence, in the following passages: 
I will cause it to rain^ and brimstone upon him, Ezek. xxxviii. 
22. "Jehovah shall rain upon the wicked fire and brimstone" 
Psalm xi. 6. " For it is the day of Jehovah s vengeance and 
die streams thereof shall be turned into pitch, and the dust 
thereof into brimstone, the smoke thereof shall go up for ever," 
Isaiah xxxiv. 8 10. " But the same day that Lot went out 
of Sodom, it rained fire and brimstone from heaven ; even thus 
shall it be in the day when the Son of Man is revealed," Luke 
xvii. 29, 30; Gen. xix. 24. "If any man worship the beast 
and his image, he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone" 
Apoc. xiv. 9, 10. " And the beast, and with him the false 
prophet and the devil, were cast alive into a lake of fire burning 
with brimstone," Apoc. xix. 20 ; xx. 10 ; xxi. 8. " The breath 
of Jehovah like a stream of brimstone doth kindle it," Isaiah 
xxx. 33. " And that the whole land thereof is brimstone, and 
salt and burning, that it is not sown, neither shall it bring forth 
any grass like the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah," Deut. 
xxix. 21, 23. Brimstone shall be scattered over the habitation 
of the wicked, Job xviii. 15. 

453. By these three was the third part of men killed, by the 
fire, and by the smoke, and by the brimstone, which issued out of 
their mouths, signifies that from these it is, that the men of the 
church perish. A third part of men being killed, signifies that 

334 



V. 17 19.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 454, 455 

the men of the church perish by the three things just now men 
tioned, n. 452; for by being killed, is signified to be killed spir 
itually, which is to perish as to the soul ; and by a third part 
is signified all who are principled in those falses, which have 
been frequently enumerated above ; what is signified by fire, 
Bm }ke, and brimstone, and what by issuing out of their mouths, 
may be seen above, n. 452. To these falses may be ascribed 
the circumstance, that throughout Christendom if is not known 
that the fire here spoken of denotes the love of self and of the 
world, and that this love is the devil ; also that the smoke issu 
ing from this fire denotes the pride of self-derived intelligence, 
and that this pride is Satan ; as also that brimstone kindled by 
this fire, by means of that pride, denotes the concupiscences ot 
evil and falsity ; and that these concupiscences are the crew of 
the devil and Satan, of which hell consists; and when ignorance 
prevails respecting these things it cannot be known what is a 
sin, for sin derives all its delight and pleasantness from them. 

454. For their power is in their mouth, signifies that thev 
only prevail by their discourse in confirmation of faith. By 
power in their mouth is signified power in discourse confirming 
aoctrine; for neatness and elegance of language, pretended zeal, 
ingenious confirmation of what is false, especially from the 
appearances of truth in the Word, authority, closure of the 
understanding, and the like, effect every thing, whilst truth and 
the Word effect nothing; for truth shines before none, and the 
Word teaches none, but those who are principled in charity and 
thence in faith. 

455. For their tails were like unto serpents and had heads, 
and with them they hurt, signifies the reason, because they are 
in a sensual and inverted state, speaking truths with their lips, 
but falsifying them by the principle which constitutes the head 
or chief doctrine of their religion, and thus they deceive. The 
same is here signified as above, by the locusts, n. 438, 439 ; but 
it is there said, that they had tails like scorpions, whereas here, 
like serpents, for they who are described by the locusts, speak 
and persuade from the Word, the sciences, and from erudition ; 
but these only from arguments, which are appearances of truth 
and fallacies ; and they who use such arguments ingeniously, 
and as it were wisely, do indeed deceive, but not in so great a 
degree. By serpents, in the Word, are signified sensual things, 
which are the ultimates of man s life, as above, n. 424; the rea 
son is, because all animals signify the affections of man, where 
fore also the affections of angels and spirits, in the spiritual 
world, appear at a distance as animals, and affections, merely 
sensual, as serpents ; and this because serpents creep on the 
ground and lick the dust, and sensual things are the lowest of 
the understanding and will, being in close contact with the 
world, and nourished by its objects and delights, which only 

335 



456 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. IX 

affect the material senses of the body. Noxious serpents, which 
are of many kinds, signify the sensual things that are dependent 
on the evil affections which constitute the interiors of the mind 
with those who are insane through the falses of evil ; and harmless 
serpents signify the sensual tilings that are dependent on the good 
affections, which constitute the interiors of the mind with those 
who are wise by virtue of the truths of good. Sensual things 
dependent on evil affections, are signified by serpents in these 
places: " They shall lick the dust like a serpent" Micah vii. 17. 
" And dust shall be the serpents meat," Isaiah Ixv. 25. Unto 
the serpent it was said, "Upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust 
Bhalt thou eat all the days of thy life, 1 Gen. iii. 14. The sen 
sual principle is so described, because, communicating as it does 
with hell, where all are sensual, it, in things spiritual, changes 
celestial wisdom into infernal insanity. u Rejoice not thou, whole 
Palestina, for out of the serpent s root shall come forth a cock 
atrice, and his fruit shall be a fiery flying serpent," Isaiah xiv. 
29. " They hatch cockatrice^ eggs, he that eateth of their egg& 
dieth, and that which is crushed breaketh out into a viper, 
Isaiah lix. 5. Because the sons of Israel desired to return 
into Egypt, they were bit by serpents, Numb. xxi. 1 10. To 
return into Egypt, signifies from spiritual to become sensual ; 
therefore it is said, The hirelings of Egypt turned themselves 
away, " the voice thereof shall go like the voice of a serpent" 
Jerem. xlvi. 22. Because Dan was the last of the tribes, and 
thence signified the ultimate of the church, which is the sensual 
principle subject to the interiors, therefore it is said of him, 
"Dan shall be a serpent by the way that biteth the horses 7 
heels, so that his rider shall fall backward," Gen. xlix. 17. 
By the horses heels are. signified the ultimates of the under 
standing, which are sensual ; by biting is signified to adhere to 
them ; by horseman, or rider, is signified the defect of know 
ledge from them whereby truths are perverted, for which reason 
it is said, His rider shall fall backward. As sensual men are 
crafty and cunning, like foxes, therefore the Lord says, Be ye 
wise as serpents, Matt. x. 16 ; for the sensual man speaks and 
reasons from appearances and fallacies, and if lie has a talent for 
disputation can ingeniously confirm every falsity, and also the 
heresy of faith alone ; though in discerning truth it is scarcely 
possible for any one to be so dull and slow of comprehension. 

456. And the rest of the men who were not killed by these 
plagues, signifies those in the reformed church who are not so 
spiritually dead from visionary reasonings and from self-love, 
and from the pride of self-derived intelligence, and from the 
concupiscences thence proceeding, as the former, and yet make 
faith alone the head of their religion. By the rest of the men 
are meant they who are not as the former, but yet make faith 
alone the head of their religion : who were not killed, signifies 
336 



V. 19, 20.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALFD. 456 

who arc not so spiritually dead ; by these plagues are meant 
self-love, the pride of self-derived intelligence, and the concupis 
cences of evil and falsity flowing from them ; these three being 
signified by fire, smoke, and brimstone, concerning which above, 
n. 432, 453. That such is the signification of plagues, will be 
seen below. But something must first be said respecting this 
class of persons, whom also it has been granted me to see and 
to converse with. " They dwell in the northern quarter towards 
the west, where some of them have cottages with roofs, and 
some without roofs ; their beds are of bulrushes, their garments 
of goat s hair. In the light flowing-in from heaven their faces 
appear stupid and also livid. The reason is, because they know 
nothing more about religion than that there is a God, that there 
are three persons, that Christ suffered for them on the cross, 
and that it is faith alone by which they are saved ; and likewise 
by worship in temples, and by prayers at stated times : as to 
any thing else relating to religion and its doctrine, they pay no 
attention whatever ; for the worldly and corporeal things, with 
which their minds are filled and overcharged, close up their 
ears against their admission. There are many of the Presbyters 
among them, whom I asked, What do you think, when you 
read in the Word of works, of love and charity, of fruits, of the 
precepts of life, of repentance, in short, of things that are to be 
done ? They replied, That they did indeed read them, and 
thus saw them ; but still they did not see them, because they 
kept their minds fixed upon faith alone, and therefore thought 
that all these were faith, and did not perceive that they were 
effects of faith. That such ignorance and stupidity prevails 
with those who have embraced faith alone, M nd made it the all 
of their religion, is scarcely credible ; nevertheless it has been 
permitted me to have abundant experience of the fact." That 
by plagues are meant spiritual plagues, by means of which man 
dies as to his spirit or soul, is evident from these passages : 
" Thy bruise is desperate, thy plague is grievous, for I will re 
store health unto thee, I will heal thee of thy plagues" Jerem. 
xxx. 12, 14, 17. " Every one that goeth by Babylon, shall hiss 
at all her plagues" Jerem. 1. 13. " In one day shall plagues 
come upon Babylon, death and mourning, 37 Apoc. xviii. 8. " I 
saw seven angels having the seven last plagues, for in them is 
filled up the wrath of God," Apoc. xv. 1. " Ah ! sinful nation, 
a people laden with iniquity, from the sole of the foot even 
unto the head, there is no soundness in it, but wounds, and 
bruises, and recent plagues : they have not been closed, nor 
bound up, nor mollified with ointment," Isaiah i. 4, 6. " In 
the day that Jehovah bindeth up the breach of his people, and 
healeth the stroke of their Blague" Isaiah xxx. 26; besides 
other places ; as in Deut. xxviii. 59 ; Jerem. xlix. 17 ; Zech. xiv. 
12, 15 ; Luke vii. 21 ; Apoc. xi. 6 ; xvi. 21. 

337 w 



4:57 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. IX. 

457. Yet repented not of the works of their hands, signifies 
that neither did they shun the things that are proper to them 
selves, which are evils of every kind, as sins. By the works of a 
man s hands, are signified the things proper to man, which are 
evils and consequent falses, because by hand are signified those 
things, in the aggregate, which proceed from man; for the 
powers of the mind, and thence of its body, are determined to 
the hands and there terminate; wherefore by hands, in the 
Word, is signified power: consequently, by the works of a 
man s hands, the things proper to him are signified, which are 
evils and falses of all kinds ; the things proper to his will are 
evils, and the things proper to his understanding are falses flow 
ing from them. It is said of those who are here treated of, that 
they repented not; the reason is, because they who make faith 
alone the all of religion, say in themselves, What need is there 
of repentance, when by faith alone sins are remitted, and w r e 
are saved? Of what avail are our own works in this matter? I 
know that I was born in sin, and that I am a sinner ; if I con 
fess this, and pray that my faults may not be imputed to me, is 
not the work of repentance then performed, and what need is 
there for any thing more ? Thus he has no thought at all about 
sins, and comes at length not to know that there is any such 
thing as sin ; wherefore he is continually borne along within 
them and into them, by the delight and pleasantness which 
flow from them, in like manner as a ship is carried by a fair 
wind and tide toward the rocks, whilst the pilot and mariners 
are asleep. By the works of men s hands, in the Word, in its 
natural sense, are meant graven images, molten images, and 
idols; but, in the spiritual sense, they signify evils and falses 
of every kind, which are the things proper to man ; as in these 
passages : Provoke me not to anger by the works of your hands; 
if ye provoke me to anger by the works of your hands, to your 
own hurt, " I will recompense them according to their deeds, 
and according to the works of their own hands" Jerem. xxv. 

6, 7, 14. "For the children of Israel have provoked me to 
anger with the work of their hands" Jerem. xxxii. 30; xliv. 8. 
" And I will utter my judgments against them touching all 
their wickedness, because they have worshipped the works of 
their own hands" Jerem. i. 16. In that day their eyes shall 
look up to the Holy One of Israel, and not to altars the work 
of their hands, and which their fingers have made, Isaiah xvii. 

7, 8; xxxi. 7 ; xxxvii. 19 ; Jerem. x. 9. That the work of man s 
hands is his selfhood, and thence evil and falsity, may appear 
manifestly from this consideration, that on this account it was 
forbidden to build the altar and temple vith hewn stones, or to 
lift up an iron tool upon them, for this would signify the work 
of men s hands: "And if thou wilt make me an altar of stone, 
thou shalt not build it :>f hewn stone, for if thou lift up thy tool 

338 



v. 20.] 



THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 



458 



upon it, tliou liast polluted it," Exod. xx. 25. Joshua built an 
altar of stones, over which he did not lift up any iron, Joshua 
viii. 30, 31. The temple of Jerusalem was built of " stone 
made ready, so that there was neither hammer nor axe, nor any 
tool of iron heard, while it was building," 1 Kings vi. 7. All 
things which are done by the Lord, are also called the works of 
his hands, which are proper to him, and in themselves arc 

foods and truths, as in these passages : The works of Jehovatis 
ands are truth and judgment, Psalm cxi. 7. "Thy mercy, O 
Jehovah, endureth for ever, forsake not the works of thine own 
hands" Psalm cxxxviii. 8. "Thus saith Jehovah, the Holy 
One of Israel and his Maker, Ask me of things to come, con 
cerning my sons, and concerning the work of my hands com 
mand ye me," Isaiah xlv. 11. " Thy people shall be all right 
eous, the branch of my planting, the work of my hands" 
Isaiah Ix. 21. "But now, O Jehovah, thou art our Father; we 
are clay, and thou our potter, and we all are the work of thy 
hands" Isaiah Ixiv. 8. 

458. That they should not worship demons, signifies that 
thus they are in the evils of their concupiscences, and make one 
with their like in hell. By demons are signified the concupis 
cences of evil springing from the love of the world ; the reason 
is, because in hell they are called demons who are in those con 
cupiscences ; and men also, who are in the same, become de 
mons after death ; there is also a conjunction between them and 
such men; for every man is conjoined with spirits as to his 
affections, even to their making a one ; from which circum 
stance it is evident, that to worship demons, is to sacrifice to 
those concupiscences from the love of them. Therefore he who 
invokes faith alone, as the head of his religion, or as his idol, 
remains in evil, by reason of his not searching out any evil in 
himself which he considers a sin, and consequently is not de 
sirous of removing it by repentance ; and as every evil is com 
posed of concupiscences, being nothing but a fascicle or bundle 
of them, it follows, that he who does not search out any evil in 
himself, and shun it as a sin against God, which can only be 
done by repentance, becomes a demon after death. Nothing 
but such concupiscences are signified by demons in the follow- 
" They sacrificed unto devils, not to God," Dent. 
The children of Israel no longer sacrficed to the 



ing passages 
xxxii. 17. 



devils, after which they went a whoring, Levit. xvii. 7 ; Psalm 
cvi. 37. " The wild beast of the desert and of the islands (Ziim 
and Ijim) shall meet, and the demon of the woods shall cry to 
his fellow," Isaiah xxxiv. 14. " But the wild beasts of the des 
ert (Ziim) shall lie there, and their houses shall be full of dole 
ful creatures (Ochim), and the daughters of the owl shall dwell 
there, and the demons of the woods shall dance there," Isaiah 
xiii. 21. By Ziim, Ijim, Ochim, and the daughters of the owl, 
339 



4-59 THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. [Chap. IX 

are signified various concupiscences ; wood demons are such 
concupiscences as appertain to priapuses and satyrs. Babylon 
is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every un 
clean spirit, Apoc. xviii. 2. The demons which the Lord ca c 
out, were such concupiscences, when they lived in the world, 
concerning which, see Matthew viii. 16, 28 ; ix. 32, 33 ; x. 8 ; 
xii. 22; xv. 22 ; Mark i. 3234 ; Luke iv. 3338, 41 ; viii. 2, 
26, 40 ; ix. 1, 374450 ; xiii. 32. 

459. And idols of gold, and silver, and brass, and stone, and 
wood, signifies that thus they are in worship grounded in mere 
falses. By idols, in the Word, are signified the falses of wor 
ship, and therefore to worship them signifies worship from 
falses; and by adoring idols of gold, silver, brass, stone, and 
wood, is signified worship from falses of all kinds, and, taken 
collectively, worship from mere falses ; moreover, the materials 
of which idols were made, their forms, and their garments, 
among the ancients, represented the falses of religion, from 
which their worship was performed ; idols of gold signified falses 
concerning div r ine things ; idols of silver, falses concerning spir 
itual things; idols of brass, falses concerning charity; idols of 
stone, falses concerning faith ; and idols of wood, falses concern 
ing good works. All these falses exist in those who do not do 
the work of repentance, that is, shun evils as sins against God. 
Graven images and molten images, which were idols, have this 
signification, in the spiritual sense, in the following passages : 
" Every man is brutish in his knowledge : every founder is con 
founded by the graven image : for his molten image is falsehood, 
and there is no breath in them. They are vanity, and the work 
of errors : in the time of their visitation shall they perish," 
Jerem. x. 14, 15 ; Ii. 17, 18. Graven images are the work of 
the hands of the workman, they speak not, they are altogether 
brutish and foolish, the wood is a discipline of vanities, the 
whole a work of cunning men, Jerem. x. 3 5, 8 10. " What 
profiteth the graven image, that the maker and a teacher of lies 
hath graven it, that the maker of his work trusteth therein ; and 
there is no breath at all in the midst of it," Habak. ii. 18 20. 
" In that day a man shall cast his idols of silverand his idols of 
gold, which they made each one for himself to worship, to the 
moles and to the bats," Isaiah ii. 18, 20. " And have made 
them molten images of their silver, and idols according to their 
own understanding, the work of the craftsmen," Hosea xiii. 2. 
" Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be 
clean from all your filthiness, and from all your idols," Ezek, 
xxxvi. 25. Clean water is truth ; idols are the falses of wor 
ship. " Ye shall defile also the covering of your graven images 
of silver, and the ornament of thy molten images of gold, thou 
shalt cast them away as a menstruous cloth, thou shalt say unto 
it, Get thee hence," Isaiah xxx. 22. Nor is any thing else but 
340 



V. 20, 21.] THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED. 460, 461 

the falses of religion and thence of worship signified by the 
gods of gold, of silver , of brass, of iron, of wood, and of stone, 
which Belshazzar king of Babylon praised (worshipped) when 
he drank wine with his princes, his wives, and his concubines, 
out of the vessels of gold and of silver from the temple in Jeru 
salem, Dan. v. 1 5, and following. verses; besides many other 
places ; as in Isaiah x. 10, 11 ; xxi. 9 ; xxxi. 7 ; xl. 19, 20; xli. 
29 ; xlii. 17 ; xlviii. 5 ; Jerem. viii. 19 ; 1. 38, 39 ; Ezek. vi. 4, 5 ; 
xiv. 3 6 ; Micah i. 7